Skip to main content

Full text of "Report of the Commissioner of Patents for the year 1855"

See other formats


W Jj-n**. £4****\tS^- 0«-a^*C\. 

i tit- n*' 


*% -%s 

*> * 

< ■> 




j-'. ./ 

'£• - 


The property of Richard Peters, of Atlanta, Georgia, imported in 1849 from Turkey, in Asia, by J. B. Davis, M.D., 

of South Carolina. Live weight 155 pounds. Weight of yearly fleece 7 pounds. 

PI. V. 




The property of Richard Peters, of Atlanta, Georgia, imported in 1849 from Turkey, in Asia, by J. B. Davis, M.D., 

of South Carolina. Live weight 102 pounds. Weight of yearly fleece 4 It pounds. 


^r v v 

MmS^a ^ 








(Xtv-va oia-Hs, \lw*l 

34th Congress, ) HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES. $ Ex. Doc. 
1st Session. ) \ No. 1-2. 







LC Contiol Number 

00 301064 



May 13, 1856. — Resolved, That there he printed two hundred thousand copies, extra of 
the Agricultural portion of the Patent Office Report, for the use of the House, and ten 
thousand copies, extra, additional, for the use of the Patent Office. 

United States Patent Office, 

March 31, 1856. 

Sir: Agreeably to the design of Congress, as indicated by the ap- 
propriation of March 3, 1855, for the collection of agricultural statis- 
tics, and the procurement and distribution of cuttings and seeds, 1 
have the honor to transmit herewith the Agricultural portion of my 
Annual Report. 

The operations of the past year have been conducted in the same 
general manner as for the year previous. The same method of pro- 
curing and distributing seeds, roots, and cuttings has been continued; 
but arrangements have now been made by which the annual visit of 
an agent to Europe for the selection and purchase of those articles will 
hereafter be rendered unnecessary. 

Through the large and well-known establishments of Messrs. Vil- 
morin-Andrieux & Co., in Paris, William Skirving, in Liverpool, 
Charlwood & Cummins, in London, and Ernst Von Spreckelsen & 
Co., at Hamburg, we expect hereafter to obtain any seeds we may 
need, selected with as much eare and fidelity as though such an agent 
were despatched each year for the purpose. 

The means pursued for obtaining most of our agricultural statistics, 
though deemed the best that could then be devised, have been far short 
of what was desired, and much of the information obtained has been 


exceedingly loose and desultory. To render this information more 
complete and reliable, a project to secure the co-operation of the several 
State and Territorial governments has been in contemplation. Some 
of the States have for several years past obtained these statistics for 
their own purposes, with highly satisfactory results. In Lopes that 
others might be induced to imitate this example, and that the system 
might be developed so far as to embrace the whole Union, the follow- 
ing circulai was prepared and addressed to the governors and other 
prominent individuals of the several States and Territories : — 

"Washington, February 29, 1856. 

" Sir : An appropriation is annually made by Congress to defray the 
expense of obtaining statistics, and to aid in other methods, to some 
extent, in promoting and fostering the agricultural interests of this 
country. There is every reasonable probability that this course of 
policy will be continued hereafter. 

' ' The results hitherto obtained , however, have been very imperfect, in 
consequence of a want of system, and of the means and machinery 
requisite for the attainment of the purpose in view ; and, though the 
results have probably been such as to justify the expenditures hereto- 
fore made, they are insignificant in comparison with those which it is 
believed might be attained by the exertion of a suitable effort. 

" To put in operation independent machinery on the part of the 
Federal government, adequate to the attainment of the object in view, 
would involve, so many objectionable consequences, both financial and 
political, that no one would be willing to propose or support such a 
measure. But the idea has been suggested that, by the co-operation 
of the several State and Territorial governments, the object sought 
might be attained without any considerable increased expense, or the 
creation of additional offices. 

(t In some of the States, the practice has been already introduced, of 
annually obtaining statistics of the kinds suggested in the accompany- 
ing schedule ; by making it the legal duty of the assessors to obtain 
these statistics at the time they are making their annual assessments 
of personal or real property. Such statistics will not be precisely 
accurate, but they will be far more reliable than estimates made in 
any manner that seems as practicable, and cannot but be inter- 
esting and useful in an eminent degree. Every year will add to the 
accuracy of these statistics, and of the deductions drawn therefrom ; 
and every year would demonstrate their value, in a still greater degree, 
as the agricultural wealth and importance of this country become 


more real and more generally recognised. It cannot but be useful for 
the world to know, annually, the productions that are to be found in 
its chief granary. 

" But, in order to reap the greatest possible advantage, a concert of 
action is indispensable. Uniformity and system in obtaining the de- 
sired information are essential to success. The importance of being 
able to construct one set of tables for one State, and a different set for 
another State, is trifling in comparison with what would result from 
tables which should be uniform for all those States where the same 
articles were produced. The entire amount of each product should 
be shown, as far as possible, and, if to the agricultural statistics those 
in relation to its commerce and mineral products can be added, the 
value of the results will be vastly enhanced. 

"A material element of the system above shadowed forth is the 
establishment of a central agency, by which the information obtained 
in the different portions of this extended country may be collected, 
arranged, and published. The Agricultural branch of the Patent 
Office seems naturally to suggest itself for this purpose. Adequate 
means are there found for collecting and arranging the information 
obtained in the several States, and the Annual Agricultural Report 
furniskes a ready vehicle for disseminating this digested information 
over the whole country. 

" Such a plan is, therefore, now suggested for your consideration. If 
you deem it worthy of yo ir countenance, you are invited to take such 
steps as you may think proper to cause its general adoption. Espe- 
cially are you desired to use your influence to cause your own local 
legislature to act efficiently in the matter, as far as their territorial 
jurisdiction extends. 

"A schedule is herewith furnished, showing, in a general way, the 
nature of the information which is thought desirable. Other items 
may be added ; but, in order to insure uniformity to this extent, it is 
suggested that nothing herein contained should be omitted, so far as 
the articles enumerated are produced in your State or Territory. 

"It is not expected that any further than general aggregates will 
be returned to this Office ; and, in order that such returns may be 
published in the Report for the then current year, they should be com- 
municated, if possible, by the first of June, annually. 
" Yours, very respectfully." 



Amount and estimated value of some of the principal agricultural and 
mineral products, and the manufactures resulting therefrom, of the 
State of , in the year 1855. 


Quantity. Valuation 

Apples -- bushels.. 

Bailey do 

Beans and peas do 

Boots and shoes - pairs 

Buckwheat bushels. . 

Butter pounds. . 

Cattle and calves, on hand. number.. 

Cattie and calves, slaughtered do 

Cheese - -- pounds. . 

Clover-seed - do 

Coal - tons . . . 

Copper ore - do 

Corn bushels. 

Cotton bales or pounds.. 

Cotton goods yards. . 

Flax - pounds. 

Grapes do... 

Hay -- tons.. 

Hemp pounds. 

Hogs, on hand number 

Hogs, slaughtered do... 

Horses and mules do — 

Iron, pig, American pounds. 

Lead - - - - do . . . 

Oats - bushels. 

Paper - reams or pounds- 
Potatoes, common - bushels. 

Pot ..toes, sweet - do... 

Rice - - - tierces . 

Rosin, tar, and pitch barrels. 

Rye bushels. 

Salt pounds or bushels. 

Sheep and lambs, on hand.- ...- number. 

Sheep and lambs, slaughtered ... — do — 

Sugar pounds. 

Timothy and other grass seeds bushels. 

Tobacco - pounds. 

Wheat - - - .bushels. 

Whiskey - - gallons. 

Wine - do... 

Wool pounds. 

It was hoped that the object sought would be deemed sufficiently 
important, to each of the State and Territorial governments, to induce 
them all to take the requisite steps for procuring and furnishing the 
desired information, which could be digested and sent abroad through 
the Annual Report of this Office, and thus the design of Congress 
would be attained, in as full and complete a manner, and with as lit- 
tle cost and trouble, as could ever have been anticipated. 

From the answers received, it is regarded as probable that such 


will eventually be the case ; but, from the lateness of the time when 
the circular was issued, nothing definite could be expected until an- 
other year. 

The real plan proposed has not been fully understood by some of 
those to whom the circulars were addressed. Many of them have 
supposed that the information obtained was to be communicated to this 
Office in its crude state, just as it was procured by the township assess- 
ors throughout the country ; whereas, the design is, that all the sta- 
tistics of each State, as derived from the different local officers, should 
be fully digested and consolidated, so that nothing but general aggre- 
gates might be furnished to this Office. 

In this way, the Office would have no great burden thrown upon 
it. It would be serving merely as a channel through which the in- 
formation, derived from so many different sources, might find its way 
to the world in a convenient and intelligible shape. 

It has been suggested by some, that all the important items of in- 
formation contemplated in this circular might be found embraced in 
the regular census returns, made every five or ten years ; but this 
does not at all reach the point in view. The great object is to pro- 
cure reliable information, annually, in advance of the census re- 
turns, and which may be disseminated for the use of the whole 

If all the producers and dealers in pork could learn, with reason- 
able certainty, how much was slaughtered last year, and how many 
hogs were on hand, so as to be able to institute a comparison, in 
relation to similar facts, for previous years, the utility of such inform- 
ation would be evident. The same is true in regard to any other 
agricultural or mineral product. 

It is hoped that these considerations will present themselves favora- 
bly to the minds of State and Territorial legislators, and that ere 
long a judicious, economical and well-regulated system, of this nature, 
may grow into existence. 

About the time of preparing the foregoing circular, another was 
issued, and sent to consuls, missionaries, and other persons residing 
abroad, the object of which was to obtain information relative to the pro- 
duction and manufacture of cotton in foreign countries. It was believed 
that, as this information could be collected at small cost, its procure- 
ment would be legitimate, and would prove highly desirable and 

This measure related, not merely to the present, but also to the 
probable future. It was intended to show the amount of cotton pro- 


duced in other countries, and also their adaptation to its future pro- 
duction. A like course might also he advantageously pursued with 
regard to tobacco, and perhaps other staples of this country. 

Associated with this subject are the steps which have been taken 
to obtain statistics of certain meteorological facts, which seem vitally 
connected with agriculture. The degree of heat, cold, and moist- 
ure, in the various localities, and the usual periods of their occurrence, 
together with their effects upon different agricultural productions, 
are of incalculable importance, in searching into the laws by which 
the successful growth of such products are regulated, and will enable 
us, with some degree of certainty, to judge where any given article 
can be profitably cultivated, and whether other countries will 
ever be likely to compete successfully in its culture. 

We know, already, sufficient in relation to the meteorological facts 
involved in the question, to state that neither England, nor any portion 
of Northern Europe, can ever be successful competitors in the culture 
of Indian corn. It may, very probably, be within the reach of more 
extended scientific observation and research to determine whether 
cotton, and many other of our products, can hereafter be cultivated 
with success in any of the other quarters of the world. 

In conjunction with the Smithsonian Institution, an effort has 
already been commenced by this Office to obtain such of these meteoro- 
logical statistics as are most intimately connected with agriculture. A 
few hundred dollars were appropriated for that purpose the past year, 
and the expenditure is believed to have been judicious, and its con- 
tinuance by this Office is contemplated. 

As a supplement to these meteorological investigations, the im- 
portance of chemical analyses of soils and products naturally sug- 
gests itself. The full purpose of the former, as above set forth, 
cannot be carried out without a resort to the latter. Something in 
this direction has already been attempted. An accomplished chemist 
has been employed to analyse certain portions of the corn and cotton 
plants. This course of investigation could, doubtless, be continued 
with very great advantage to all our agricultural interests. 

The system of inquiry relative to the classes of insects injurious 
or beneficial to our various agricultural products, which was com- 
menced in 1854, has been continued through the past year, and 
is still in progress. A knowledge of all these insects — of their 
natures and habits — is the first step towards the discovery of the 
means necessary to check or prevent the ravages of such as are de- 


structive, and may very probably end in this result. It is con- 
fidently believed that the money which has been devoted to this object 
has been judiciously and usefully expended, and that these investiga- 
tions may be profitably continued for many years. 

Measures have also been commenced to test the value and relative 
usefulness of the different grasses that are to be found in the country, 
whether of native or of foreign origin ; to determine their nutritive 
properties, their proper modes of treatment, and the climate and 
soil best adapted to their profitable culture. As this is by far the 
most valuable product of the country, taken in the aggregate, a 
moderate expenditure for the purposes above intimated will pro. 
bably meet with approval. 

Some apology would seem to be due for the large amount of foreign 
statistics which are contained in this Report ; but this is regarded by 
many quite as essential as the statistics of our own country, in order 
that we may know who are our competitors, and where an opening 
may occur for the sale of our products. 

Having endeavored thus to carry out what he believed to be, in 
substance, the intention of Congress in making the appropriation for 
agricultural purposes, the undersigned now presents the results which 
have been attained during the past year. 

All of which is respectfully submitted. 


Hon. Nathaniel P. Banks, Jr., 

Speaker of the House of Representatives. 





Sir : The benefits which have resulted to the country, and those 
yet in the progress of development, from the introduction or distribu- 
tion of useful seeds, plants, and cuttings, obtained from distant parts of 
the globe, as well as from different regions of this country, have been 
such as to call forth the expressed gratification and general approval 
of the agricultural portion of the community in all sections of the 
Union. From the success which has thus attended the past efforts 
of this enterprise, we are led to hope that a rich recompense may 
attend our labors in future. And here permit me to repeat what 
was expressed on a former occasion : The time for believing that 
the exclusive possession of any benefit contributes solely to the pri- 
vilege or prosperity of any particular country or kingdom, has gone by, 
and that the principles of free and universal intercourse and exchange 
are now conceded to constitute the surest foundation for the happiness 
of nations. This is so obviously true in matters of this sort, that it 
cannot for a moment be attended with a doubt. Hence it may be in- 
ferred that there is an ample field for exertion on the part of our 
general government, as well as of States and individuals, to increase 
our agricultural and botanical riches, and more especially those pro- 
ducts which so conspicuously and permanently add to our useful and 
economical resources. 

Among the seeds, cuttings, and tubers that have been introduced, 
or otherwise obtained, within the last three years, the culture of which 
has been attended with marked advantage and success, I would in- 
stance the following : — 



The Turkish Flint Wheat, from near Mount Olympus, in Asia, a 
hardy fall variety, with a dark-colored chaff, a very heavy beard, and 
a long, flinty, light-colored berry, will prove highly profitable to the 
farmer and miller, from its superior weight and the excellence of the 
flour it will produce. It appears to be well adapted to the soil and 
climate of the Middle States, and has even improved in the quality of 
its grain, both in regard to its color and size. It withstood the severity 
of the past winter, without much injury from the cold ; and, from its 
very long and thick beard, it doubtless will be protected, in a measure, 
from the depredations of insects in the field, as well as from heating 
or moulding in the stack. The hardness of the grain, too, when dry, 
is a sufficient guarantee against ordinary moisture in transportation 
and the perforation of the weevil in the bin. 

From several reliable experiments made with this wheat, in Vir- 
ginia, with ordinarily good cultivation, the yield was 30 bushels to 
an acre. Estimating the present annual crops of wheat, grown in 
the Middle and Southern portions of the United States, to be 
100,000,000 bushels — averaging, say 20 bushels to the acre — the in- 
creased production in those sections, if the Turkish Flint wheat 
alone were cultivated, and the ratio of yield as above, would be 
50,000,000 bushels, which would often add to the yearly resources of 
a single farm $500, and of the country, at least $50,000,000. 

The Improved King Philip or Broivn Corn, the seed of which was 
obtained, three years ago, from an island in a lake in New Hampshire, 
was extensively disseminated in all the States north of New Jersey, 
and throughout the mountainous districts of Pennsylvania, Maryland, 
and Virginia. The result has been that it usually matured within 
the period of ninety days from the time of planting, (from the first 
to the middle of June,) and yielded, with good cultivation, in most 
eases, from 80 to 100 bushels of shelled corn to an acre. It is well 
adapted to high latitudes and elevated valleys and plains, where, 
from the shortness of summer, other varieties of corn are liable 
to be killed by late spring or early autumnal frosts. The quality of 
the grain is good, being heavy, well filled with oil, and suitable for 
fattening animals, or for transportation, by sea, without injury from 
moisture in vessels. This corn also possesses another valuable property, 
in being susceptible of close planting, and consequently is of a dwarfy 


growth, which renders the entire stalks and blades suitable for fodder, 
when cured. 

Estimating the present annual corn-crop of New England, New 
York, Michigan, Wisconsin, Minnesota, Utah, Washington, and 
Oregon, at 50,000,000 bushels, say 30 bushels per acre, if the variety 
of corn in question were solely cultivated in these States, the increased 
yield, allowing the product to be 50 bushels (one-half of the maxi- 
mum) to the acre, would be more than 33,000,000 bushels, the value 
of which would be at least $20,000,000. 


Among the forage products more recently introduced, and one 
•which would seem to deserve special notice, is the " Chinese sugar- 
cane," {Sorghum saccharatvm,) a new gramineous plant, of Chinese 
origin, but more recently from France, by the way of Natal, in South 
Africa. Since its introduction into this country, it has proved itself 
well adapted to our geographical range of Indian corn. It is of easy 
cultivation, being similar to that of maize or broom-corn ; and, if the 
seeds are planted in May, in the Middle States, or still earlier at the 
South, two crops of fodder can be grown in a season from the same 
roots, irrespective of drought — the first one in June or July, to be 
cut before the panicles appear, which would be green and succulent, like 
young Indian corn, and the other, a month or two later, when or before 
the seed is fully matured. The amount of fodder which it will pro- 
duce to the acre, with ordinary cultivation, may be safely estimated 
at seven tons, when green, or at least two tons per acre, when thor- 
oughly cured. The stalks, when nearly mature, are filled with a ricn 
saccharine juice, which may be converted into sugar, syrup, alcohol, 
or beer, or may be used for dyeing wool or silk a permanent red or 
pink ; and the entire plant is devoured with avidity, either in a green 
or a dry state, by horses, cattle, sheep, and swine. 

Considered in an utilitarian point of view, this plant, perhaps, 
has stronger claims on the American agriculturist than any other 
product that has been brought to this country since the introduction 
of cotton or wheat. Aside from other economical uses, its value, for 
feeding to animals, alone, in every section of the Union where it will 
thrive, cannot be surpassed by any other crop, as a greater amount of 
nutritious fodder cannot be obtained so cheap, on a given space, 
within so short a period of time. 

When Cato was asked what was the best system of farmvug, he 
thrice answered, "bene pascere" ; which is to be translated, " to graze 


well," or to procure food for cattle — having had in view the con- 
nexion between the feeding of stock and the production of manure. 
Admitting the above axiom to be true, what more economical, sure 
and feasible mode can be adopted to restore and maintain the fertility 
of the exhausted lands of this country than to extend the culture of 
this plant for the rearing and support of a larger number of cattle, or 
other animals, and enriching these lands with the manure ? Without 
wishing to present the question in an extravagant light, it may be 
stated that this crop is susceptible of being cultivated, within the ter- 
ritory of the United States, to an extent equal to that of Indian corn, 
say 25,000,000 acres per annum ; and, estimating the average yield 
of dry or cured fodder to the acre at two tons, the yearly amount 
produced would be 50,000,000 tons, which, to keep within bounds, 
would be worth at least $500,000,000, besides the profits derived from 
the animals in milk, flesh, labor, and wool. 

In addition to what is given above and in other parts of this vol- 
ume, respecting the growth and culture of this plant, it may be stated 
that it will resist the effects of considerable frost without injury, after 
the panicles appear, and that those who wish to save the seeds for 
planting should not cultivate it in the vicinity of Dourah corn, Choco- 
late corn, nor broom-corn, as it hybridises or mixes freely with those 
plants, which would render the seeds of the product unfit for that use. 

The German Millet, (Panicum germanicum,) another annual forage 
plant, has been introduced from France, which has proved very pro- 
ductive, is quick in growth, resists drought, and even flourishes well 
on dry soils. 


The Chinese Yam, (Dioscorea batatas,) originally from China, but 
more recently from France, has been introduced, which has succeeded 
well in various parts of the Union, and promises to serve as an excel- 
lent substitute both for the common and sweet potato. It possesses the 
remarkable property of remaining sound in the earth for several years, 
without either deteriorating in its edible qualities or sustaining injury 
from frost, which adds much to its value, in being always in readiness 
for the kitchen, and this, too, often at times when the potato is 
shrivelled or otherwise impaired. 

For the history and culture of this root, seethe Agricultural Report 
of the Patent Office for 1854, and page 223 of this volume. 

The Earth Almond, or Chufa, (Cyperusesculentus,) a small tuberous 
esculent, from the south of Spain, has naturalised itself to our climate 


and soil, and has proved very prolific in its yield, when cultivated in 
the light sandy soils of the Middle and Southern States, as well as 
those which are rich, and hids fair to become a valuable crop for cattle 
and swine. It belongs to the same genus as the notorious nut-grass, 
(Cyperus repens,) but does not possess the power of spreading itself 
like that pest of Southern fields. 


The Persian Walnut, or Madeira Nut, (Juglans regia,) originally 
a native of Persia, or the north of China, has been somewhat exten- 
sively distributed, and appears to be well adapted to the climate of 
the middle and southern latitudes of the United States. A tree of 
the "Titmouse" or "Thin-shelled" variety (Juglans regia tenera,) 
about twenty years planted, forty-five feet in height, and fifteen 
inches in diameter, standing on the premises of Colonel Peter Force, 
in the city of Washington, is perfectly hardy, and bears yearly an 
abundance of excellent nuts. This is considered the most valuable of 
all the walnuts, as the tree begins to bear in eight or ten years from 
planting the seed ; and the fruit is very delicate, keeps well, and is 
rich in oil. 

In Cashmere, where the walnut is the subject of careful cultivation, 
there are four varieties: The "Kanak," or wild, the nut of which 
is diminutive, with a thick shell and scanty kernel ; the " Wantu," 
having a large nut, with a thick and hard shell, and a deficient ker- 
nel ; the " Denu," also a large nut, with a thick and rather hard shell, 
and a kernel large, good, and easily extracted ; and the "Kaghazi," 
so called, from its shell being nearly as thin as paper. The latter, 
which may be readily broken by the hand, is the largest of all, 
having a kernel easily extracted, and producing an excellent oil. Its 
superiority is said to be attributable to its having been originally 
engrafted, but it is now raised from seeds, alone, and does not de- 
generate. The nuts, after being steeped in water, eight days, are 
planted in the beginning of March, and the shoot generally makes its 
appearance in about forty days. If reared by grafts, the process is 
performed when the plant is five years old. The head being cut off 
horizontally, at a convenient height, the stock is partially split, or 
opened, and the scion inserted in a similar manner to that adopted by 
our "cleft method," in grafting the apple or pear; but clay-mortar, 
worked up with rice-husks, is put round it, and kept from washing 
away by being enveloped in broad slips of birch-bark. 


In Cashmere, the walnut-tree begins to fruit, ordinarily, when seven 
years old ; but two or three years more elapse before it is in full 
bearing. The average annual number of nuts, brought to maturity on 
a single tree, often amounts to 25,000. It has been observed that, 
after a few seasons of full bearing, the trees fall off in producing 
fruit, and run, with great luxuriance, to leaf and branch. To this 
latter condition the Cashmereans apply the appellation of "must," 
and, to remedy the evil, cut off all the small branches, bringing the 
tree to the state of a pollard. The year following, shoots and leaves 
alone are produced, which are succeeded the next season by an abundant 
crop of nuts. The cut ends of the branches swell into knots, or knobs, 
which are somewhat unsightly in the tree, until they are concealed by 
the growth of the young branches and leaves. When ripe, the fruit of 
the Wantu walnut is retailed in the city at the rate of about two cents 
a hundred. The nuts of the Dunu are sold for about three cents a 
hundred ; and of the Kaghazi, at about four cents per hundred. It 
is a common practice for the country people to crack the walnuts at 
home, and carry, the kernels alone to market, where they are sold to 
oil-pressers, for extracting their oil. The kernels yield half their 
weight in oil ; and the other half, which consists of oil-cake, is much 
valued, as food for cows in winter, when it is usually exchanged for its 
weight of rough rice. 

About 1,150,000 pounds of walnut kernels are annually consigned 
to the oil-press in Cashmere, producing a large amount of oil and cake, 
besides a considerable quantity eaten by man, or consumed by other 
modes. Walnut oil, in that country, is preferred to linseed oil, for 
all the purposes to which the latter is applied. It is employed in 
cookery, and also for burning in lamps, without much clogging the 
wick or yielding much smoke. It is exported to Thibet, and brings a 
considerable profit. By ancient custom, the crop of nuts was equally 
divided between the government and the owner of the tree, but at 
present, the former takes three-fourths ; yet, even under this oppression, 
the cultivation of this product is extended, and Cashmere, in propor- 
tion to its surface, produces a much larger quantity of nuts than any 
portion of the globe. 

The Persian walnut attains the largest size in a deep, loamy soil, 
rather dry than moist ; but the fruit has the best flavor, and produces 
the most oil, when it is grown in a limy soil, or among calcareous 
rocks or stones. The site on which Colonel Force's tree stands was 
formerly occupied by a brick-kiln. In wet-bottomed land, whatever 
may be the character of the surface, it will not thrive. The nuts may 


be planted in a drill about six inches apart, and one-fourth of an inch 
below the surface, any time between the period of ripening and early- 
spring, provided there is no danger from rats, or other vermin of the 
field ; the nuts may also be gently pressed into the ground, even with 
the surface, and covered with straw or leaves ; and, to afford them 
further protection, light poles or boards may be placed over the whole, 
Until spring. The only attention required in their culture, the first 
year, is, to keep the young plants free from weeds, and, about mid- 
summer, to shorten their tap or main roots, six or eight inches below 
the nuts, by inserting a spade on each side of the drills, in a slanting 
direction, so as to cut off their points, in order to induce them to 
throw out more fibres, to facilitate their transportation. Early in the 
spring of the second year, they may be transplanted to a distance of 
five or six feet apart, where they may remain until they are removed 
to their permanent sites. M. Bosc, in the " Nouveau Cours d'Agri- 
culture," recommends that they should not be removed from the 
nursery before the stems have attained a height of five or six feet 
from the ground, and are five or six inches in diameter. He says, pits 
should be previously dug for the trees, eight feet in diameter, and 
three feet deep, and the soil exposed to the air some months before 
the time of transplanting. When the removal is performed late in 
autumn, all the branches may be left on till spring, when, before the 
eap begins to rise, the head of the tree may be entirely cut off, leav- 
ing only a main stem terminating in the stumps of the principal 
brandies, which will be followed by the pushing out of new shoots, of 
great vigor, the first year. 

In cases where this tree is to be grown for fruit, on dry soils or 
rocky situations, the nut ought to be planted where it is finally to re- 
main, on account of the tap-root, which will thus have its full influ- 
ence on the vigor and prosperity of its future growth, by descending to 
the sub-soil for the nourishment it could not otherwise obtain. On 
the contrary, when there is a moist or otherwise unfavorable sub-soil, 
if planted where it is finally to remain, a tile, slate, or flat stone, 
should be placed under the nut, at a depth of three or four inches, in 
order to give the tap-root a horizontal course. 

When planted as orchards, the trees may be set a rod apart, an 
acre of which would contain one hundred and sixty in the square 
form, or one hundred and eighty in quincuncem. Estimating the 
product of each tree at a bushel of nuts, and supposing that it 
will produce that quantity in twelve or fifteen years after plant- 
ing, and considering that the amount imported into this country 


is valued at least at $100,000 per annum, the inducements for its 
culture by the farmers and planters of the Middle and Southern States 
would appear to be sufficiently ample for their immediate attention. 

The Almond, (Amygdalus communis,) which is indigenous to Syria 
and Northern Africa, has become naturalised in the south of Europe, 
Madeira, the Azores, and the Canary Islands, and is cultivated for 
ornament or its fruit in the central and southern portions of the United 
States. When grafted upon the common plum, it often attains a 
height of twenty or thirty feet, with a trunk eight or ten inches in 
diameter ; and even in the neighborhood of Paris, where the winter 
climate is almost as severe as that of Philadelphia, it is met with of 
the elevation of forty feet, and in the south of France it grows still 

The almond is commonly one of the first among hardy trees to dis- 
play its blossoms, which generally put forth, in Barbary, in January ; 
at Smyrna, in February ; near London, in March ; in Germany and 
New York, in the latter part of April ; and at Christiana, in Norway, 
not till the beginning of June. The blossoms appear before the 
leaves ; and hence they produce the finest effect when planted among 
evergreens. It has been observed that, though vernal frosts often 
destroy the germs of the fruit, they do not injure the beauty of the 
flowers, but even increase their splendor. An avenue of almond-trees, 
quite hoary with frost, in the evening, will be of a brilliant rose-color 
the following morning, and will often retain its beauty for more than 
a month ; the flowers never falling off till the trees are covered with 
verdure. The fruit is not so attractive as that of the peach ; because, 
instead of preserving the same delicious pulp, its pericarp shrivels as 
it ripens, and becomes a horny kind of husk, opening of its own ac- 
cord, at the end of maturity. The kernel of some varieties of the 
almond, however, is not defended by so thick a shell as that of the 
peach and nectarine ; for it is often so tender that the nuts break when 
shaken together. The chief distinction between these fruits is, that 
the almond has a stone, covered with a coriaceous, dry, hairy cover- 
ing, while those of the peach and nectarine are developed in a rich, 
juicy pulp, surrounded by a smooth or downy skin. 

In a wild state, the almond is sometimes found with bitter kernels, 
and at other times sweet, in a similar manner to the Grammont oak, 
(Quercus hispanica,) which, in Spain, generally bears sweet, edible 
acorns, but sometimes produces only such as are bitter. The two 
varieties the most valuable for cultivation, are the " sweet-kernelled " 


almond (Amandier a petits fruits, or Amandes donees, of the French,) 
and the " soft-shelled " almond, (Amandier a coque tendre, or 
Amande a coque molle, of France.) The shell of the former is hard, 
but the kernel is sweet-flavoied. It is cultivated in the south of 
Europe, being generally propagated by grafting, standard high, on 
the bitter almond, or on strong-growing seedling almond stocks, in 
order to insure the sweetness of its fruit. The latter is characterised 
by the softness or fragility of its shell, as well as by the sweet flavor 
of its kernel, and is the variety recently introduced and distributed 
by this Office. 

The almond does not prosper, unless the soil be dry, sandy, or cal- 
careous, and of considerable depth ; but all the varieties will succeed 
well in a free soil, that is not too moist, when grafted or inoculated 
on stocks of the common plum. The situation should be sheltered, on 
account of the liability of the branches to be broken off by high winds. 
As it sends down a tap-root, exceeding two feet in length the first 
season, it has been found that such a tree, when taken up, has few 
fibres, and, consequently, but little chance of growing. From this 
circumstance, originated the practice of germinating the nuts in boxes 
of earth before sowing them, and pinching off the point of the rad- 
icles when about an inch in length, which causes it to throw out 
numerous horizontal roots. This mode of germinating the nuts also 
insures plants to the nurseryman the first season after sowing, whereas, 
when this is not done, the seeds often lie dormant in the ground two 
years. The almond requires but little pruning, except when fruit of 
a large size is desired, or the duration of the tree is wished to be pro- 

The advantages of this tree may be briefly summed up in the fol- 
lowing words : It prospers upon indifferent soil ; requires but little 
care in its cultivation ; is beautiful as an ornamental tree ; useful as 
a shade-tree ; and profitable in its production of a much-desired fruit, 
yielding, in its bearing years, about 20 pounds to the tree, which, at 
15 cents a pound, would amount to at least $500 to an acre. The 
amount of almonds annually imported into the United States is be- 
lieved to be valued at more than $250,000. 

The Cork-Oak, (Quercus suber,) an evergreen tree, indigenous to 
the south of Europe and Northern Africa, which furnishes the well- 
known article, cork, in sufficient quantities for commerce. It is 
adapted to the soil and climate of many parts of the Middle and 
Southern States, and, aside from its desirableness as a beautiful shade- 
tree, will prove a necessary auxiliary to the future wine -culture of 


this country, as well as for the supply of the increasing demand for 
cork for other purposes. 

In the regions where this tree is indigenous, it usually grows to a 
height of twenty or thirty feet. It was introduced into England about 
the year 1699, by acorns brought from France or Spain, and still exists 
there in various collections, having attained, in some instances, a 
diameter of two or three feet. A tree of this species also stands 
on the estate of Samerstown, near Cork, in Ireland, with a diameter 
of at least three feet at a yard above the ground. 

The cork-tree bears a considerable resemblance to our live-oak of 
the Southern States, but varies exceedingly in the magnitude, form, 
and margin of its leaves, as well as in the size of its acorns, which, 
M. Bosc alleges, may be eaten as human food in cases of necessity, 
especially when roasted. Swine are excessively fond of them, upon 
which they fatten well, acquiring a firm and savory bacon or lard. 
The outer bark, the great thickness and elasticity of which is owing 
to an extraordinary development of the cellular tissue, forms the 
cork ; and, after the tree is full grown, cracks and separates from the 
trunk and larger branches of its own accord. The inner bark remains 
attached to the tree, but, when- removed in its young state, is only 
fit for tanning. But the outer bark, that separates naturally from the 
trunk, is regarded as of little value, compared with that which is re- 
moved by art ; and the reason doubtless is, that, in the latter case, it 
has not arrived at that rigid, contracted and fractured state, which is 
the natural consequence of its dropping from the tree. When this 
oak has attained the age of fifteen years, according to Du Hamel, or 
twenty years, according to Bosc, the bark is removed for the first 
time ; but this first bark is found to be cracked, and full of woody 
portions and cells, and hence it is fit only for fuel, or perhaps for 
tanning. The second disbarking takes place in eight or ten years, 
when the cork is sold to fishermen for buoying up their nets, and to 
others for inferior uses. But, in eight or ten years more, the tree 
yields cork of good quality, and so continues to do until it is from two 
to three centuries old, the cork improving in quality throughout the 
whole period. 

In view of the ease with which the cork-oak can be propagated in 
the central and maritime parts of the Middle, Atlantic and Southern 
States, and, perhaps, on the prairies of Texas, Louisiana, Arkansas, 
Missouri, and Illinois, and the general desire for diversifying the land- 
scape of those States with beautiful, long-lived, umbrageous trees, 
the comparatively long time which is necessary for its growth before 


much, if any, profit can be realised, should not deter the prudent or 
sagacious husbandman from extending its culture. Considering it in 
a politic as well as in an economical sense, seasonable measures should 
be taken to form plantations of this tree, sufficient for the future supply 
of cork, particularly for the increasing demands for that material 
which are likely to arise from the culture of the vine. Again, were 
non-intercourse to occur between this country and the Old World, 
which, from some political commotion, doubtless one day or other will 
take place, the sources from which it is obtained would be cut off, and, 
in a short time after, our supply would be exhausted, and we would 
be without a substitute, unless provided against such an exigency by 
the means herein proposed. As a further argument in showing the 
importance of fostering this branch of rural economy, it may be stated, 
that the amount of cork which is yearly imported into the United 
States, is valued at more than $284,000. 

Among the cuttings of fruit-trees which have been introduced, may 
be mentioned the "Prune d'Agen" and the " Prune Sainte Catha- 
rine," from France. They have both been extensively distributed 
and grafted on the common plum-tree in all the States rorth of Penn- 
sylvania, itself included, and on the mountainous districts of Mary- 
land and of Virginia. From the success which has attended this exper- 
iment, there is much reason to believe that there will soon be produced 
from these, and other varieties from Europe, a sufficient quantity of 
dried prunes, in those regions, to supply the wants of the whole Union. 
The amount of this class of fruit annually imported into this country, 
according to official returns, is valued at $64,568. 

A quantity of the cuttings of the " Kaisin " and " Currant " grape- 
vines (Vigne cheveles and Vigne corinth) were also imported from 
France, the varieties from which are made the " Ascalon," "Sultana" 
or stoneless raisin, and the " Zante " or "Corinth" currant. They 
were principally distributed in the central latitudes of the United 
States, and, as far as heard from, withstood the severity of the climate, 
last winter, and bid fair to do well. 


A quantity of the roots of "Liquorice," {Glycyrrhiza glabra,) a 
somewhat tender perennial, much cultivated in the south of Europe, 
and, to some extent, in England, was introduced, and has thus far 
answered the expectations of the experimenters in several of the 
Middle and Southern States. From the increasing demands for this 
root in pharmacy, or medicinal preparations of various kinds, there is 


no reason why its culture could not be profitably extended in most 
localities where it will thrive. The amount annually imported in a 
crude and manufactured state is valued at about $300,000. 

For the culture and preparation of this plant see Agricultural Re- 
port of the Patent Office for 1854, page 358. 

A variety of the " Common " or " Opium Poppy," (Papaver som- 
niferum,) indigenous to the warm and temperate parts of Europe and 
Asia, from Portugal to Japan, and especially cultivated in China, 
India, Turkey, Egypt, and in the Morea, has been introduced, and 
has proved itself susceptible of easy cultivation on very rich soils, and 
is well adapted to the climate of the Middle and Southern States. 
The flowers of the "White Poppy," (Papaver s. alba,) the variety 
with which the experiment was made, may be either entirely white or 
red, or may be fringed with purple, rose, or lilac, variegated and edged 
with the same colors, but never occur blue nor yellow, nor mixed with 
these colors, each petal being generally marked at the bottom with a 
black or purple spot. The seeds are black in the plants having purple 
flowers, and light-colored in those which are white ; although the seeds 
of the latter, when of spontaneous growth, are sometimes black. The 
largest heads, which are employed for medical or domestic use, are ob- 
tained from the single-flowered kind, not only for the purpose of ex- 
tracting opium, but also on account of the bland, esculent oil that is 
expressed from the seeds, which are simply emulsive, and contain none 
of the narcotic principle. For the latter purpose, if no other, its 
culture in this country is worthy of attention. 

With regard to the cultivation of this plant, with the view of obtain- 
ing opium, there can be but little doubt that our clear sky, fervid 
summer sun, and heavy dews would greatly favor the production of 
this article ; but how far these circumstances, in connexion with 
American ingenuity in devising improved methods for its extraction, 
would allow us to compete with the cheapness of labor in the East, 
can "only be determined by actual trial. Certainly it is an object 
worthy of public encouragement, as the annual amount of opium 
imported into the United States is valued at upwards of $40*7,000, a 
considerable portion of which might be saved, and thereby add to 
our resources. Besides, if we were to raise a surplus, it could be 
sent to China in exchange for tea. The successful cultivation of the 
plant, however, requires the provision of good soil, appropriate manure, 
and careful management. The strength of the juice, according to Dr. 
Butler, of British India, depends much upon the quantity of moisture 
of the climate. A deficiency even of dew prevents the proper flow of 


the peculiar, narcotic, milky juice, which abounds in almost every part 
of the plant, while an excess, besides washing off this milk, causes 
additional mischief, by separating the soluble from the insoluble parts 
of this drug. This not only deteriorates its quality, but increases the 
quantity of moisture, which must afterwards be got rid of. 

The history of the poppy, as well as that of opium, its inspissated 
juice, are but imperfectly known. The oldest notices of this plant 
are found in the works of the early Greek physicians, in which men- 
tion is also made of the juice ; but opium does not appear to have 
been so generally employed as in modern times, or the notices respect- 
ing it would have been more numerous and clear. 

In the manufacture of opium, in Persia or India, the juice is par- 
tially extracted, together with a considerable quantity of mucilage, 
by decotion. The liquor is strongly pressed out, suffered to settle, 
clarified with the white of eggs, and evaporated to a due consistence, 
yielding from one-sixth to a fifth of the weight of the heads of ex- 
tract, which possesses the virtues of opium in a very inferior degree, 
and is often employed to adulterate the genuine opium. The heads 
of the poppies are gathered as they ripen ; and as this happens at dif- 
ferent periods, there are usually three or four gatherings in a year. 

The milky juice of the poppy, in its more perfect state, which is 
the case only in warm climates, is extracted by incisions made in 
the capsules, and simply evaporated into the consistency in which it 
is known in commerce under the name of opium. In Turkey, the 
plants, during their growth, are carefully watered and manured, if 
necessary ; the watering being more profuse as the period of flowering 
approaches, and until the heads are half grown, when the operation 
is discontinued, and the collection of the opium commences. At sun- 
set, longitudinal incisions are made upon each half-ripe capsule, not 
sufficiently deep to penetrate the internal cavity. The night dews favor 
the exudation of the juice, which is collected in the morning, by 
scraping it from the wounds with a small iron scoop, and depositing 
the whole in an earthen pot, where it is worked in the sunshine with 
a wooden spatula, until it acquires a considerable degree of thickness. 
Tt is then formed into cakes by the hands, and placed in earthen 
pans to be further exsiccated, when it is covered with the leaves of 
the poppy, tobacco, or of some other plant. 

Two kinds of this article are found in commerce, distinguished by 
the names of "Turkey" and "East India" opium. The former 
comes in solid, compact, and translucent masses, of moderate specific 
gravity, possessing a considerable degree of tenacity, yet somewhat 


brittle. When half cut through, the section is dense, a little shining, 
of a dark-brown color, becoming softer by the warmth of the fingers, 
in handling, and is reduced with difficulty to powder, unless done 
when it is cold, and after having been long dried in small pieces. 
The best article comes in flat pieces ; and, besides the large leaves in 
which they are enveloped, they are usually covered with the reddish 
capsules of a species of rumex, used in packing. The roundish 
masses of opium, which have none of these capsules adhering to them, 
are regarded as inferior in quality. It is also inferior when it is fri- 
able or soft. The East India opium has usually much less consistence 
than the Turkish, being sometimes not thicker than tar, and always 
ductile. Its color is much darker ; its taste more nauseous, and less 
bitter ; and its smell rather empyreumatic. When imported, it is 
somewhat cheaper than the Turkish opium, and supposed to be of 
only half its strength. 

Among other products which appear to be worthy of introduction 
or extension, and likely to succeed in some portion of our territory, I 
would suggest the following :— 


The Vanilla Plant (Vanilla planifolia) is a native of the island of 

>St. Domingo, where it climbs to the tops of the highest trees ; and is 
somewhat extensively cultivated in Mexico, in the vicinity of Vera 
Cruz. From the great demand, and the high price which it brings 
in the United States, it doubtless could be grown to advantage in some 
parts of the South, with a very little protection during the colder 
months of the year, and perhaps in hot-houses at the North. 

The amount of vanilla imported and consumed in this country, 
principally for flavoring cake, ice-cream, &c, is believed to exceed 5,000 
pounds, valued at from $20 to $30 a pound, or $125,000 a year. The 
Mexicans have three classes of these beans, which they distinguish in 
commerce by the names, pomponr, ley, and simarona. 

When the fruit begins to turn yellow, it is gathered and fermented 
in heaps, in the same manner as is practised with the pods of the 
cocoa (theobroma), then spread in the sun to dry, and, when about 
half cured, pressed flat with the hand, and, rubbed over with the 
oil of Palma-Christi, or of the cocoa ; it is then exposed again to the 
sun to dry, the oiling repeated, and the pods covered with the leaves 
of a reed to preserve them. The pods, as they occur in commerce, 
are of a dark- brown color, about six inches long, and scarcely an inch 


"broad ; they are wrinkled on the outside, and filled with numer- 
ous black seeds, of an agreeable smell, resembling grains of sand. 

This vine shoots out roots at every joint, like the ivy, and may either 
be grown on a piece of a rotten trunk of a tree, or planted in a pot 
of rotten tan-bark, mixed with rubbish, and the stem trained against 
any surface that will admit its roots. Like all the other plants of 
the family to which it belongs, the vanilla requires but little water. 
It should not be exposed in a continued temperature much, if any, 
below 60° F. 

Hie Ginger Plant, (Zingiber officinale,) a native of the East Indies, 
and of various parts of Asia, and extensively cultivated in the West 
Indies, and other warm parts of America, doubtless could be grown 
with advantage in various parts of the South. The amount of ginger 
annually imported into the United States is valued at upwards of 

For the cultivation of this plant, see the Agricultural Report of 
the Patent Office for 1854, page 354. 

Iceland Moss, (Cetraria islandica,) a species of lichen, a native oi 
the mountainous heaths and woods in the Alpine parts of Scotland, 
and of the Asturias, in Spain, as well as in Iceland and the north of 
Germany. It grows to a height of only two or three inches, and has 
rather a rugged, bushy appearance, and doubtless would thrive, and 
perhaps with profit, in the northern parts of the United States, par- 
ticularly in Minnesota, Wisconsin, Michigan, Northern New York, 
Vermont, New Hampshire, and Maine. 

In Iceland and Lapland, this plant is used as an article of diet, 
being boiled in broth or milk, after being freed from its bitterness by 
repeated maceration in water ; or dried and made into bread. The 
dried plant differs but little from its appearance in a recent state. 
Medicinally, it is tonic and demulcent. The decoction, as ordered in 
the pharmacopeias, is so bitter as to prevent many persons from 
taking it; and when deprived of its disagreeable taste, it can only be 
viewed as a demulcent, and is hardly equal in its effects to linseed, 
quince-seed, and marsh-mallows. It certainly does not cure phthisis 
pulmonalis ; but in the last stage of that disease, when solid food is 
oppressive, and the diarrhoea appears to be kept up by the acrid con- 
tents of the stomach and bowels, it has appeared to check the latter, 
and to impart both vigor and nourishment to the digestive organs. 

The Florentine Iris, or Orris-root Plant, (Iris florentina,) a pe- 
rennial, native of Carniola, and common in the gardens of Europe, 


the root of which is remarkable for communicating an oder like that 
of violets, and produces the orris of the shops. The flowers, which 
put forth in spring, are noted for the graceful curve of their petals, as 
well as for the brilliancy of their hues. It has a thick, tuberous,, 
creeping stem, usually called its root, which, externally, is brown 
and yellowish, is white within, and sends out numerous fibres — the 
true roots — from the lower part. When these are pared off, the stem 
appears full of round spots. 

Independent of the value which would be derived from the roots of 
this plant, it would be highly desirable to cultivate it for the purposes 
of ornament, in all parts of the country where it would thrive. 

Tfie Falmated Rhubarb (Rheum palmatum,) is a perennial, native 
of Russia and some parts of Asia, whence the dried root is imported 
into this country lor medicinal purposes. Large quantities of the 
roots are also annually collected for exportation in the Chinese prov- 
inces, within the lofty range of the Himalayas. The best is that 
which comes by the way of Russia, as greater care is taken in the 
selection ; and, on its arrival at Kiachta, within the Russian frontiers, 
the roots are all carefully examined, and the damaged pieces destroyed. 
This is the line article of the shops, improperly calkd "Turkey" 
rhubarb. That of the best quality occurs in small pieces, with a hole 
in the middle of each, made in the fresh root, to facilitate the operation 
of drying. The color is a lively yellow, streaked with white and 
red. Its texture is dense, and, when reduced to powder, it is entirely 

The Chinese rhubarb, called by the natives Ta Hroangor Hai- 
houng, is cultivated chiefly in the province of Chersee. As imported, 
it is known by the name of "East Indian" rhubarb, and comes in 
larger masses, more compact and hard, heavier, less friable, and not 
so fine in the grain as the other, and having less of an aromatic 

This species has been introduced into England, where it has been 
extensively cultivated ; and there is little doubt, therefore, of its 
proving perfectly hardy in many parts of our own country. Large 
quantities are annually imported, the cost of which might be saved if 
its culture were successfully prosecuted here, and we might thus add 
to our productive resources. 

In the middle and cooler parts of the United States, the seeds may 
be sown in March, in a gentle hot-bed, and, when the roots are about 
an eighth of an inch in diameter, they may be carefully drawn up 
preserving the tap-root, and planted in a fine, rich, and deep soil — but 


Dot too much so, lest the roots should be too fibrous — at the distance of 
eight feet apart, a wet or cloudy day being preferred for this operation. 
Should the weather prove dry, they must be watered. When the plants 
are once in a growing state, all further care and trouble are at an end., 
except that of keeping them free from weeds. It may be stated, how- 
ever, that they do not necessarily require a hot-bed to make them 
vegetate; but, if sown in the natural ground in the Middle or Southern 
States, in the spring, when the weather is open, they will soon come 
up and thrive well. One of the greatest difficulties, in pursuing this 
method, consists in carrying the plants through their first season. If 
the weather be hot and dry, they must be shaded, and at all events 
continually watered; yet not too freely, as in most seasons the weather 
can scarcely be too dry, after the plants have been well set. Indeed, 
more evil is to be apprehended from a superabundance of moisture 
than from an actual want of it. In the month of August, or before, 
the seed-stalks should be cut off, which ought always to be done on 
the withering of the radical leaves ; and the crowns of the plants 
should then be covered with mould, in the form of a hillock. 

The largest specimens of this drug have generally been allowed to 
grow six or seven years ; the roots are then very large, sometimes 
weighing from 30 to 50 pounds. The Chinese take up their rhubarb 
in winter. Pallas says that the Tartars take up theirs in April and 
May ;. but Forster, in his " History of Voyages in the North," with 
more reason, affirms that the roots are dug up in winter, because they 
then contain the entire juice and virtue of the plant, as those taken 
up in summer are of a light, spongy texture, and unfit for use. 

In Tartary, after being thoroughly cleansed, and the small radicles 
cut off, the roots are cut transversely into pieces of a moderate size ; 
these are then placed on long tables, or boards, and turned three o* 
four times a day, in order that the yellow, viscid juice may incorporate 
with the substance of the root. If this juice be suffered to run out, 
the roots become light, and of but little value ; and if they are not cut 
within five or six days after they are dug up, they become soft, and 
; rapidly decay. Four or five days after they are cut, holes are made 
through them, and they are hung up to dry, exposed to the air and 
wind, but sheltered from the sun. Thus, in about two months, the 
roots are completely cured. The loss of weight in drying is very con- 
siderable, seven parts, in weight, of the green root, yielding only one 
part of that which is perfectly dry. The Chinese method is somewhat 
different. They peel the roots, cut them into slices, and dry them on 
atone slabs, under which fires are kindled ; but, as this process is not 


sufficient to dry them perfectly, they make a hole through each ©f 
the pieces, and suspend them on strings — some say exposed to the sun, 
while others assert that they are hung in the shade. 

The Castor-oil Plant, (Ricinus communis,) known in almost every 
part of the East and West Indies, South America, China, and the 
countries and islands of the Mediterranean, under the name of "Pal- 
ma-Christi," has proved itself well adapted to the soil and climate of 
our Middle and Southern States ; and were its culture extended for the 
manufacture of castor-oil, there is no doubt that it would be profit- 
able, under improved methods of extracting it ; and we should no 
longer be dependent on other nations for a supply. At present, we 
annually import an amount of this article exceeding in value $30,000. 

Although an annual, herbaceous plant, in the gardens of the cooler 
parts of Europe and the United States, within the tropics and the 
warm climates adjacent thereto, the Palma-Christi becomes a tree of 
several years' standing, often having a woody trunk, of the size of a 
man's body, and fifteen or twenty feet high. 

This plant thrives best on a light, sandy loam, although it may be 
cultivated with success in almost any soil tolerably fertile, or in any 
climate and situation where Indian corn will thrive. In the cooler parts 
of the Union, it may be planted in hills, two feet by three feet apart, 
two seeds in a place, as early in the spring as the warmth of the ground 
and the season will admit ; but in the South, where the season is longer, 
and the plant assumes the character of a tree, the hills should be six or 
seven feet apart in one direction, and three and a half feet in the other, 
receiving only one seed to a hill, covered to the depth of two 
inches. The culture is so simple that it only requires to keep the plants 
free from weeds, with a small flat hill to each. The only difficulty to 
contend with is, that in saving or harvesting the beans, the outward 
coats, as they become dry and elastic, fly off the plants to a consid- 
erable distance, causing the seeds to drop to the ground. In order to 
prevent this, it has been recommended to cut off the 'branches from the 
plants, as soon as the pods begin to explode, and spread them on the 
floor of a close room ; and, after the beans and their shells have parted, 
to separate the husks from the seeds with a fanning-mill, as with 
wheat, or try the common riddle and a draught of air. 

The seeds of this plant furnish the well-known medicine, castor-oil, 
which is obtained both by decoction and expression. The former 
method is performed by freeing the seeds from their husks, which are 
gathered, upon their turning brown and when beginning to burst open, 
^are first bruised in a mortar, afterwards tied up in a linen bag, and 


tnen thrown into a large pot, with a sufficient quantity of water, and 
boiled until the oil has risen to the surface, when it is carefully 
skimmed off, strained, and preserved for use. In extensive operations, 
a mill should be provided, moved by the agency of animal power, 
water, or steam, for bruising the seeds ; and the other apparatus used 
in obtaining the oil should be of appropriate dimensions. The oil 
thus obtained, however, has the disadvantage of becoming rancid 
sooner than that procured by expression. The best mode, therefore, 
is to subject the seeds to a powerful hydraulic press, in a similar man- 
ner to that in which oil is extracted from almonds and cotton-seeds. 
The seeds yield about one-fourth of their weight in oil. 

The Assafcetida Plant (Ferula assafcetida) is a native of the South of 
Persia, growing on the mountains in the provinces of Chorasaan and 
Laar, where it is called Hingisch. The gum resin, known in com- 
merce under the name of "assafcetida," is the concrete juice of this 
plant, which is said to vary according to the soil and situation, not 
only in the shape of the leaves, but in the nauseous quality of the 
juice with which it is impregnated, sometimes occurring so mild as to 
be eaten by goats. The root is perennial, tapering, and ponderous, at- 
tains the size of a man's arm or leg, and is covered with a blackish 
colored bark, beset near the top with numerous strong, rigid fibres ; 
the internal substance is white and fleshy, and abounds in a thick, 
foetid, milky juice. The stem is simple, erect, straight, round, smooth, 
striated, herbaceous, six or seven inches in circumference at the base, 
and rises to a height of seven or eight feet. 

When the plants are about four years old, the roots are sufficiently 
vigorous to yield the gum, and it is collected at the season when the 
leaves begin to decay. The oldest and most vigorous plants are se- 
lected, the earth from the upper part of the root of each is cleared 
away, and the stem and leaves twisted off. In this state, it is left 
for forty days, being previously screened from the sun by covering it 
over with decayed leaves. At the expiration of this time, the cover- 
ing is removed, the top of the root cut off transversely, and left for 
forty-eight hours for the juice to exude, when it is scraped off by a 
proper instrument, as opium is from the capsule of the poppy, and 
exposed to the sun, to harden. This operation is repeated three times, 
after which the root is again covered up, and suffered to remain for 
eight or ten days, when it is again uncovered and another transverse 
section is made as before. In this way, the assafcetida is collected 
eight times, when the root becomes exhausted of its juice, and soon 
after dies. 



From the character of the climate in which this plant naturally 
grows, there can he hut little doubt that it could he successfully cul- 
tivated in the mountainous parts of the Southern States, and probably 
furnish the whole country with the requisite supply. 

The Lesser or Malabar Cardamom, (Alpina vel matonia,) the seeds 
of which are imported in considerable quantities, and valued for their 
pungent taste, is cultivated in plots, either level or gently sloping 
surfaces on the highest range of the Ghauts, between latitude 11° and 
12° 30' N., after passing the first declivity from their base. 

The cardamom plots, or farms, vary in size and shape, being from 
fifty to sixty yards in diameter, usually oblong or oval, but sometimes 
irregularly rounded. The variety in these respects is chiefly owing 
to the convenience of the standard or permanent shade-trees. Those 
with lofty, straight stems, extensive heads, and particularly those 
which have nearly attained their full growth, and are known to be 
long-lived, are preferred for this purpose, and are left standing at a 
distance of fifteen to twenty yards from each other. 

On account of the prevailing dry weather, the months of February 
and March are selected by the cultivators as the proper time for com- 
mencing their labors, and planting the seeds, the first part of which 
is occupied in cutting down the large and small trees, leaving of the 
former, standing nearly at equal distances, such stately individuals 
as afford that degree of perpendicular shade which experience has 
taught them to be most favorable for their future hopes. The grass 
and weeds are then cleared away, and the ground disencumbered of 
the roots of the brush-wood ; the larger trees being suffered to lie 
where they fell ; and the shrubs, roots, and grass are piled up into 
small heaps, where, by their spontaneous decomposition, they fertilise 
the space they cover. As the cultivated plant does not flower till it 
is four years old, no further labor is bestowed upon the plots before 
that time has expired. At the revolution of the fourth rainy season, 
and towards its close, the farmers look for a crop, and their hopes 
are rarely disappointed. This first effort of Nature is generally feeble, 
the yield of seeds being not more than half of that which is obtakied 
the following year, and only one-fourth what it is after the sixth rain, 
at which period the plant has reached the acme of its prolific vigor. 

In India, the seeds of this plant are highly prized as an agreeable 
condiment, and, as such, their use is so universal, that they are re- 
garded as a necessary of life by most of the natives of Asia. In fact, 
their general use in those regions renders the plant a very important 
and profitable object of culture. How far its adoption could be made 


applicable to the soil, climate, exposure, and economy of some of our 
Southern States, can only be determined by trial. 

The Sinhara, or Water Nut, (Trapa ?) is a native of the Cashmere, 
but grows abundantly in the lakes near the capital, especially in the 
Wurler lake, and yields an average return of 10,000,000 pounds of 
nuts a year. They are scooped up from the bottom of the lake in i 
small nets, and afford employment to the fishermen for several 

These nuts constitute almost the only food of at least 30,000 per- 
sons for five months in the year. When extracted from the 
shell, they are eaten raw, boiled, roasted, fried, or dressed in various 
ways, after being reduced to flour. The most common preparation is 
to boil the flour in water, so as to form a kind of gruel, which, though 
insipid, is very nutritive. 

The Lotus (Nymphfe lotus) is also a native of the lakes of the 
Cashmere, and its stems serve as another article of food. In autumn, 
after the plate of the leaf has begun to decay, the stem has arrived 
at maturity, and being boiled till tender, furnishes a wholesome, 
nutritious diet, which is said to support 5,000 persons in the city for 
nearly eight months in the year. 

This plant, as well as the preceding, probably would succeed well 
in the muddy bottoms of the coves, creeks, and sloughs of our lakes 
and streams ; and, if not relished as human food, doubtless its pro- 
ducts would serve to nourish animals. 


TJie Guinea Grass, (Panicum jumentorium,) as its name implies, 
is a native of Guinea, and was brought to the island of Jamaica in 1774, 
under the following circumstances : A cage of African birds had been 
presented to Chief Justice Ellis, with which was sent a small bag of 
their native food, the wild grass-seed of the coast of Guinea. The birds 
died, and the seeds were carelessly thrown into a hedge, when they 
quickly grew and spread ; and from the eagerness of the cattle to 
reach it, attention was called to its vegetation. It has since become 
one of the most valuable productions of the West Indies, and, doubt- 
less, could be cultivated with advantage in the warmer parts of the 

Guinea grass, in Jamaica, is best planted in the spring, because it 
takes four months before the seed ripen, and the stalks acquire suffi- 
cient substance to form plants from the joints, similar to those of 


sugar-cane. The soil should be dry, and entirely free from stagnant 
water, which would immediately scald and rot the roots. In plant- 
ing, dig holes four feet apart, each way, to the depth of a hoe, say 
six inches, and insert a small piece of grass-root, taken from a large 
plant ; open the stalks of each torn piece of root, and place them in the 
holes, covering their centres with earth, thus dividing the stalks. 
Indian corn may he planted between the rows, one hoeing of which 
will be sufficient to carry forward the grass, and the expense will be 
covered by the corn. In four months, the grass will be seeded and 
the stalks ripe, when horses or cattle may be turned into the field to 
feed, and trample the joints into the ground. If the weather be wet, 
which is usually the case in the months of September and October, 
the young joints, thus trodden, will grow, making the field of grass a 
perfect mass of verdure, keeping down all the vegetation, unless, 
perhaps, that of quick-growing bushes, or the sprouts which spring up 
from the stumps of trees, that have not been eradicated or killed by 
burning, in the preparation of the land. 

This grass may be grazed every six or eight weeks, if carefully 
shut off in the intervening time, and the stock never allowed to eat 
it too low. The stubble is usually left at least a foot high. In lands 
which have been in sugar-cane or other cultivation, where the stumps 
have been eradicated, the grass can be planted with a plough, two 
hands following the furrow, and laying down the roots in such a manner 
as will allow the plough to cover them with the succeeding fur- 
row-slice, or mould. In dry weather, if the stubble be left high, 
when the grass appears to be completely parched and withered, it 
affords great nourishment; but the moment after the fall of rain, the 
stock should be removed ; and in six weeks afterwards, if the stubble 
has been attended to, and not fed too low, the field will be luxuriantly 
green again, and fit to be fed. If the grass is cut for soiling or 
making hay, the land will require manure, as it is then an exhausting 
crop ; but if kept solely for pasturage, it will maintain itself for 
years, unless it is very poor. 

The Tussock Grass, (Festuca flabellata,) the " gold and glory" of 
the Falkland Islands, grows in great abundance, especially on the 
sandy, spongy and boggy soils of these islands, which are utterly 
uncultivable for other products ; and, from the circumstance of its 
growing well in England, it may be inferred that there is a possibility 
that it might be adapted to many places in our Middle and Southern 
States, even where it would be bathed with the spray of the sea. Its 
roots form large balls, which rise five or six feet above the ground, 


and are often as many feet in diameter. The culms spring from the 
tops of these balls, bearing beautiful sheathing, compressed, green 
leaves, which hang down all round in the most graceful manner, 
numbering from two hundred to three hundred to each plant, and are 
themselves six or seven feet in length. The interior of the stem, to 
a height of five or six inches above the root, is white and soft, of an 
agreeable flavor, resembling that of the filbert or the cabbage-palm. 
This substance consists of the lower sheath, with the young central 
leaves and stem firmly encased within each other. These heaps of 
tussacks generally grow apart, but within a few feet of each other, 
the intermediate space of ground being quite bare of vegetation, 
so that, in walking among them, a person is hidden from view, 
and the whole tussack-ground is a perfect labyrinth. Cattle thrive 
admirably well upon this grass, and fatten in a short time ; and so 
fond are they of it, that when they can get at it, they will touch 
nothing else ; and with horses it is the same. 

With respect to the climate of the Falkland Islands, wehave toler- 
ably exact information. D'Urville, in the account of his voyage, 
states that it is much more temperate than might have been expected 
from its latitude (52° S.) From the observations made by himself 
?md others, he concludes that the thermometer scarcely rises above 
59 °, or falls below 32° F. According to Bougainville, the winter 
is very cold, but the snow lies on the ground only for a short time. M. 
D'Urville also states that, in 1822, at the beginning of December, 
which answers to June in the northern hemisphere, the highest tem- 
perature observed was almost always between 51° and 66°. On the 
o.her hand, Sir Woodbine Parish tells us that in the Eastern Island 
the thermometer often ranges as high as 75°, in summer, and some- 
times falls as low as 26°, in winter. He moreover confirms the French 
statements, that snow disappears in a few hours, and that the ice is 
seldom above an inch thick. It is affirmed by others, however, that 
the snow, near Port Cook, has been known to remain upon the ground 
several days. The days of summer are described as being long and 
warm, visited with occasional showers, and producing a rapid vege_ 

How far this plant would flourish about the "Everglades" of 
Florida, in the " Tulares" of California, or on the salt marshes and 
oeaches near the Chesapeake and Delaware bays, experiment alone 
*;an determine. It has succeeded well on the island of Lewis, one of 
the largest of the Hebrides, in latitude 58° N., and is scarcely less 
luxuriant than in its native soil, having matured its seeds ana pro- 


ducing leaves five or six feet in length. Those who may interest 
themselves in procuring this grass from the Falklands may not be 
aware that there is another tussack grass on those islands, much in- 
ferior to the Festuca jiaoellata, the Gar ex trifida, which only grows to 
the height of a foot or a foot and a half, and spreads over every part, 
even to the top of the hills. 

To those who may have occasion to cultivate the tussack grass 
from seeds, which necessarily will have to be obtained from abroad, it 
is recommended that they should sow them immediately on their arri- 
val, in sandy, peaty soil, covering them to the depth of about an eighth 
of an inch. If under glass, a moderately moist temperature should 
be kept up, ranging from 45° to 55° F. When the plants are about 
half an inch in height, they may be put into three-inch pots, and 
gradually removed into a cooler situation, until they are about three 
inches* high, when they may be planted six or seven feet apart in the 
open air. When the above-named heat cannot conveniently be ob- 
tained, a cold frame or garden hand-glass will be found the best sub- 
stitute. The soil, in all cases, should be of a peaty nature, and not 
sifted nor chopped too fine, except that in which the seeds are sown. In 
the early stages of the plants, a weak solution of common salt, applied 
occasionally, is found to promote their growth. When once fairly 
established, they may be multiplied with the greatest facility by slips 
from the roots. 

It may be proper to add, that the above remarks are only applica- 
ble to seeds imported from the Falkland Islands, or to such as have 
been subjected to several great and sudden changes of temperature y 
during some long sea voyage. 


Among the plants producing fibrous materials,, which are worthy 
of experiment, or of further extension in the United States, are the 
"Manilla hemp" (Husa textilis); the "New Zealand flax" (Fhormium 
tenax)\ the "China grass" (Bcehmeria tenacissima) ; and the "Si- 
sal hemp" {Agave sissalana) ; the two latter of which are treated of 
in another part of this volume. 

The Cochineal Plant, (Cactus cochinillifer,) or some of its congeners, 

is found in varying abundance throughout the torrid zone, as well 

as in several warm and temperate countries without the tropics. 

But much doubt still exists as to what particular species nourishes the 

cochineal insect, as it is believed that the plant which was named by 

Linnasus, and which has been almost universally called Cactus cochinil- 


lifer, is not the one that produces the best Mexican cochineal ; nor is it 
positively known in what part of America it was originally a native. 
Linnseus speaks of it as indigenous to Jamaica, and the warmer parts 
of the New World ; but others assert that it was brought from South 
America by a Spanish priest. 

"Cochineal," it is well known, is a small insect, {Coccus cacti,) 
which feeds upon the cactus above named, having a general appear- 
ance not very dissimilar to that of the " meal-bug" of our gardens, 
and equally covered with a white powdery substance. It was propa- 
gated in Mexico long before the conquest of that country, for its pre- 
cious dye, which affords the fine red coloring matter so extensively 
used in the manufacture of carmine, and in dyeing silk and wool. 
There are two varieties known in commerce, the " black grain" and 
the u silver grain," which terms arose from the fact that, when first 
carried to Europe, this insect was considered to be a seed, or grain, 
and its dyes were spoken of as " grain" colors. 

The plantations in Mexico, where the cochineal is produced, are 
called "Nopaleras," the most extensive of which are in the Misteca 
and Oaxaca. 

M. de Raynal imagines that the color of the cochineal is to be as- 
cribed to the red fig on which the insect feeds ; but he is mistaken in 
this respect, as it does not feed upon the fruit, but only on the thick, 
succulent leaves, which are perfectly green ; nor does that species of 
cactus bear red, but white figs. It is true, the insect may be reared 
upon the species with red figs ; but that is not the proper plant of 
the cochineal. 

The Dyers' Madder, (Rubia tinctoria,) is a perennial plants a native 
of the south of Europe and Africa, as well as of the Levant ; and, 
from the immense consumption of the roots as a dye-stuff, by calico 
printers and others, its extended culture in this country would become 
an object of great national importance. 

Madder, it is well known, contains at least two distinct coloring 
matters, a fawn and a red, and the admixture of the former with 
the latter very much impairs its clearness and beauty. In conse- 
quence of this, two kinds of red are obtained from the root. One 
is simply called " madder red/' which contains the whole of the col- 
oring matter ; the other, whigh possesses far more lustre, and is much 
more valued, is -called " Turkey red," because it was first obtained 
from the Levant. The manner of producing this desirable effect was 
for a long period a subject of much interest and inquiry, as the process 
used in Turkey was enveloped in mystery. Notwithstanding that the 


industry of the French chemists was stimulated by the interest which 
their government took in the discovery, the attempts, for a long time, 
at imitating this beautiful dye, were fruitless ; and, when at length 
they proved successful, this success was limited to one or two estab- 
lishments. It was only by very slow degrees that it became more dif- 
fused, and then each individual, who acquired the knowledge, jeal- 
ously guarded his own peculiar secrets, which he had introduced in 
the process. The most important discovery, however, was made 
known, in 1804, by Sir H. C. Englefield, of England, for a fine lake, 
manufactured from madder, which was obtained after many different 
processes. He found that the color produced from the Smyrna was of 
a deeper and richer tint than any prepared from the Dutch madder. 
In pursuing his experiments, he discovered that the coloring matter 
might be extracted from the fresh roots, and thus, not only save all 
the expenses and difficulty attendant on the process with prepared mad- 
der, but the cost of transportation, also, which would be at least one- 
fourth less than for the roots entire ; besides, when separated, the color- 
ing matter may be kept for any length of time without danger of being 
impaired. A further advantage would also arise in the quantity ob- 
tained, as all the coloring matter could be extracted ; while, in the 
manner which the dyers use the roots, a very considerable part of it 
is left in the refuse, and consequently lost. 

The juicy root of madder, like that of other plants, consists merely 
of an assemblage of cells. A transverse section, when more fully 
grown, seen under the microscope, shows, first, a ring of very 
small cells (the bark) ; second, a more or less compact mass of larger 
cells, (the wood,) which become smaller and smaller, according to the 
central position ; third, a texture quite different from the other two, 
occupying the more central part of the root, and which is a com- 
pound of vessels and fibres (the heart). These differences, in the 
structure of the roots, are still more clearly seen in a section made 
somewhat obliquely. At the very first period of existence, the root 
contains a light, yellowish-colored juice. If subjected to a similar 
examination, at a more advanced stage of its growth, the same parts 
will be found on a larger scale of development, but the juice will be 
less yellow. The heart of the root will have become more developed 
than the surrounding coat which covers it, and which, as the plant 
grows, is constantly diminishing, while the heart is'increasing. At 
the same time, it is to be observed that the yellow color of the juice 
of the exterior parts (the bark and wood) is less dark than 
that of the juice, in the more internal parts. It might be inferred 


from this, that the root contains more coloring matter when it is more 
advanced in age, and that, on the other hand, the coloring principle 
contained in the heart has a greater value than that of the cellular 
texture ; and experience has shown that such is the case. The best 
quality, which is known in Holland, under the name of "Krap," is 
prepared only from the heart of the root that has been previously de- 
prived of the other parts of less value. It is also generally known 
that the roots which are more advanced in age are preferable to the 
younger ones, and that the roots of the older plants have much more 
value, and bear a higher price, than those which are younger. And 
thus the alizari, as the same dye is called in the East, is also preferred, 
as it is derived from roots which have been in the ground five or six 
years. There is considerable difference, also, between these parts of 
the root, in the loss of weight, which they respectively sustain by dry- 
ing. When the heart and surrounding layers are separately treated, 
the amount of this loss is, in the case of the former, 57 per cent. ; 
but, in that of the latter, 76 per cent. The total loss of weight, in 
drying the raw root, as it comes from the ground, is from 72 to 80 per 
cent., or, on an average, 75 per cent. After a preliminary drying, 
which takes place, in the southern parts of France, in the open air, the 
roots, before being ground, are dried a second time in kilns or stoves, 
and undergo a further loss, say 7 or 8 per cent. ; but this loss, accord- 
ing to experience, is at least from 10 to 15 per cent, of the light-red 
colored, and from 20 to 25 per cent, of the red roots ; the latter, which 
are in the greatest demand, being, on that account, not dried quite 
so well by the cultivators. The loss of weight, in Zealand, after the 
first and second drying, is not less than in France. 

In respect to the culture of madder, it need only be stated that 
the French and Dutch methods are herein given in detail, as this 
branch of industry is best understood and most successfully carried 
on in those countries ; and, as our climate does not much differ, es- 
pecially from that of France, no material alteration is required in our 
practice as regards the growth and management of the crop. 

Madder is much cultivated in the French departement of Vaucluse, 
where a particular geological formation occurs, belonging to the more 
ancient alluvium, which seems to have been formed by the rivers 
Sorgue and Durance, by bringing a large quantity of calcareous mat- 
ter and depositing it along their banks. The land thus formed, 
called "Paluds," contains from 80 to 90 per cent, of chalk, and is 
very favorable to the development of the root, being calcareous, light, 
and rich. 


Madder is also cultivated in the Dutch, province of Zealand, where 
it grows on the rich alluvial " bottoms" produced by the sea, and 
consequently abounding in soda and silicious sand, and in Alsace, 
where the soil is known to contain much lime. These differences in 
the constituents of the soil, no doubt, exercise a great influence on the 
production of the red coloring matter of this root ; for it is well known 
that Zealand madder contains more of the yellow and less of the red 
coloring matter than the better sorts of the French and Alsacian pro- 

Madder is propagated both from seeds and from the off-sets of the 
roots. In Vaucluse, it is grown only from seed. The soil is well 
worked, and manured during the winter with a liberal coat of dung. 
In spring, the seeds are sown in beds about five or six feet wide, with 
a space of eighteen or twenty inches between the beds. As soon as 
the young plants are up, great care is taken in clearing the land. In 
the month of November, the beds are covered with a layer of earth 
to a thickness of two or three inches, this earth being taken out of 
the intervals between the beds. The second year, the weeding is con- 
tinued, but it then presents no great difficulty nor expense, because 
the plants are more developed, especially when sufficient care has 
been taken in eradicating the weeds the first year. When the 
plants are in flower, they are usually cut and given to the cattle 
for the purpose of feeding, but are sometimes left for seed. It is 
stated that the tender foliage is as good for fodder as lucerne. The 
seeds are gathered when they present a dark-violet hue. In the third 
year, the plants require no other treatment than weeding, and again 
mowing or cutting the green crop. In tne month of August or Sep- 
tember, the digging of the root is usually commenced, as soon as the 
soil is wet from autumnal rains. If the earth is dry, at the time of 
harvesting, the roots are simply cleaned ; but if they are humid, they 
are washed. In digging, one or two workmen are placed along each 
bed, who make a trench in it, in the direction of its breadth, and work 
the land carefully over, throwing out the plants and loosening the 
roots, which are then pulled out of the ground with the hand, placed 
on linen cloths, and taken to the house, where they are dried in the 
open air and packed up in bales. 

Madder is not cultivated from seeds, in Zealand, but from shoots, or 
off-sets, planted in May, in well-worked ground, in rows about two 
feet or more apart. Great care is taken the first year in extirpating 
the weeds. In November, the plants are covered with earth taken 
from the intervals between the rows. The weeding and covering with 


earth are repeated the second year. The third year, the ground is 
still carefully weeded, and digging hegins in August. The roots are 
lifted from the ground with strong spades and transported to the stoves 
(Meestoven) for the purpose of being dried, because the climate is too 
wet to dry the roots in open air, as in the south of France. After the 
first operation, the roots are dried again before they are ground. The 
roots, being cleansed and ground to a fine powder, are then packed in 
barrels and sold. There is, however, some difference in this trade in 
Zealand and Yaucluse. In the former, the farmer not only produces 
the root, but the madder in a manufactured state ; in the latter, 
it is only sold in the dry root (garance.) In Vaucluse, the root is com- 
monly dug the third year, when it is about thirty months old. In 
Zealand, it is frequently taken out of the ground the second year, 
when it is eighteen months old ; and this is done because the severe 
winter of Holland injures the crop. In some cases, however, the 
Dutch farmers contrive to keep the roots in the ground another year. 

The average yield of dried roots to the acre, in Vaucluse, is 2,800 
pounds, or about 2,240 pounds of madder powder. In Zealand, the 
yield is 2,350 pounds of powdered madder, of the first quality, 
besides about 100 pounds of an inferior article. 

In the preparation of madder for market, there are three modes of 
drying the roots — by the sun, in the shade, and with stoves. When 
dried by the sun, there is a considerable loss in weight, and in the 
quality of the roots. Therefore, it is preferable to dry them in the 
shade, exposed to a current of air, although the operation may be 
more promptly effected with a stove ; but, by the latter process, they 
lose nearly seven-eighths of their weight. 

When the roots are sufficiently dried, they are reduced to a powder, 
first by placing them on close osier hurdles, where they are lightly 
beaten with flails, which separates the earth as well as the epidermis 
and radicles, the smallest of which are used for inferior dyeing. The 
larger roots, which are good and of a red color, are then ground in a 
small mill, winnowed or sifted, to separate the remaining dirt, re- 
dried, ground, and cleaned once more, and reduced to a fine powder 
by passing through a bruising mill ; then packed in barrels or casks 
for market or use. 

The following information, relative to the culture of madder in the 
United States, is founded on experience, and, if strictly observed, will 
be conducive to successful results : A location facing the south or 
south-east is to be preferred. In choosing a soil, it should be neither 
too wet nor too dry, too stiff nor too light. A deep, rich, upland, 


sandy loam, free from foul grass, weeds, stones, and stumps of trees, 
on which there has been cultivated a crop of potatoes, peas, wheat, 
or Indian corn, the season previous, perhaps, would be the best, bear- 
ing in mind that the presence of calcareous matter in the soil is essen- 
tial for the production of good madder, to be used in dyeing. The 
land should be ploughed deep, once in September, and again in Oc- 
tober, and permitted to lie during the winter, in ridges, to be acted 
upon by the frost. As soon as the spring has opened and the ground 
become dry and warm — say on the first of April, in Tennessee, the 
middle of April, in Ohio, and the first of May, in New York — plough 
again deep, harrow well, and strike it into ridges with a one-horse 
plough, three feet wide, with four-foot water-furrows between, or 
make the ridges seven feet wide at once, raising them, if the ground 
be moist or wet, ten or twelve inches, or if the land be dry, six or 
eight inches above the natural surface ; then, with a light harrow, 
level and shape the ridges as in a well-formed bed for carrots or beets. 

The madder-sets, or seed-roots, are best selected when the crop is dug 
in the fall. Those which grow horizontally, having numerous eyes, 
are regarded as the best. They should be separated from the lower 
roots and buried in a cellar or pit, where they are to remain during 
the winter ; or they may be covered with earth in heaps, after the 
manner of storing potatoes in the field. If they are not dug in the 
fall, it must be done early in the spring, before they begin to sprout. 
Previous to planting, they should be cut or broken into pieces, con- 
taining from two to five eyes each, say three or four inches in length. 
The time for planting is as early in the spring as the ground can be 
got in good order, and there is no longer any danger from severe frosts. 
With the land prepared, as directed above, stretch a line lengthwise 
the beds, and, with a hoe or some other suitable implement, 
make a drill from two to four inches deep, according to the moisture 
or dryness of the soil and climate, along the edges of the beds, say 
six inches from the margins, and then other drills through the middle, 
about two feet apart. Into these drills, insert the sets ten inches asun- 
der, and cover them from two to four inches deep with fine earth, pat- 
ting it lightly with a hoe, after the manner of planting Indian corn. 

As soon as the young plants are seen above the ground, they should 
be carefully hoed, so as to destroy the weeds, which operation must 
be repeated as often as the weeds are liable to be injurious to the crop. 
If any of the sets have failed to grow, the vacancies may be filled by 
taking up and transplanting parts of the strongest roots, which may 
be done in June or July. When the plants are ten or twelve inches 


high, the tops are to he hent down to* the surface of the ground and 
covered, except their tip-ends, with earth shovelled from the alleys. 
They should he hent outward, as well as inward, so as to fill the 
vacant spaces of the beds — say, about a foot in each direction. After 
the first covering, repeat the weeding, if necessary, and run a single- 
horse plough through the alleys several times to keep the earth mellow 
and clean. As soon as the plants again become ten or twelve inches 
high, bend down and cover as before, repeating the operation as often 
as the plants will admit, which is commonly three times the first 
season. The last time may be as late as September, or later, if there 
be no frost. By covering the tops in this manner, they throw out 
new roots, with which it is designed to fill the ground as full as 
possible. When the vacant spaces are entirely filled with the plants, 
there will be but little chance for the growth of weeds ; but all that 
do appear must be pulled out by hand. 

The second year, the beds must be kept free from weeds, and the 
tops of the plants covered with earth from the alleys as in the pre- 
ceding year, which may be repeated two or three times in the course 
of the season. If the alleys now present deep narrow ditches, and it 
is difficult to obtain good earth for covering the tops, that operation 
may be omitted, this season, after the second time. Care should be 
taken, when covering the tops, to keep the edges of the beds as high 
as the middle ; otherwise, the water from heavy showers will run off, 
and the crop suffer from drought. 

The third year, very little labor or attention will be required, as 
the plants now cover the whole ground, and but few weeds appear. 
Should any weeds be seen, however, they must be eradicated ; other- 
wise their roots will cause trouble when harvesting the madder. 
The crop is sometimes dug the third year ; and, if the soil and culti- 
vation have been good, and the seasons warm and favorable, the roots 
will be of good quality ; but, generally, it is much better in quality, 
and more in quantity, when left until the fourth year. 

The digging or harvesting of the roots may be .performed from the 
middle of August to the end of September. The first thing to be 
done is to remove the tops of the plants, and about half an inch of 
the surface of the earth, with a sharp-edged shovel ; then take a 
plough of a large size, with a sharp coulter, and a double team, 
and run a furrow outward, beam-deep, around the edge of the bed ; 
stir the earth with a fork or iron-toothed rake, removing it from 
the bottom of the furrow, and carefully picking out all the roots ; 


then plough another furrow beam-deep, as before,, remove the earth, 
pick the roots, and thus proceed until the whole bed is completed. 

As soon as possible after digging, take the roots to some running 
stream, if at hand, but, if not, to a pump or well, to be washed. 
Take a large round sieve, from two and a half to three feet in diameter, 
with the meshes about as open as those used in winnowing wheat. 
Into this sieve, put half a bushel of roots at a time, and stir them in 
the water, pulling the bunches apart, so as to wash them clean ; then 
lay them on movable platforms, about two inches deep, to dry in the 
sun. These platforms should be placed side by side, not far from the 
farm building, in rows running east and west, with their ends north 
and south, leaving sufficient room to walk between them. The south 
ends may be elevated about eighteen inches, and the north ones about 
six inches from the ground. After the second or third day's drying, 
the roots should be protected from dews at night, and from rain, by 
placing the platforms one upon another, and covering the uppermost 
one with tarpaulins or boards. Then spread them out again in the 
morning, or as soon as danger from rain is over. In five or six clays 
of ordinarily fine weather, the madder will be sufficiently dried to be" 
stored away preparatory to grinding. 

If the climate is not hot and dry enough to deprive the roots of 
their moisture, and thus render them fit for grinding, resort may 
be had to stoves or kilns. As soon as they are thoroughly dried, 
they may be taken to a barn and gently thrashed with flails, and de- 
prived of their rootlets and particles of dirt by winnowing ; or, what 
would be better, if the culture were conducted on a larger scale, they 
might be broken in a cast-iron bark-mill, or by some other machinery 
appropriate for the purpose, so that the particles thus reduced could 
readily be fed into a common grist-mill, or, perhaps, a mill constructed 
of iron. Let it be borne in mind that, if the roots are not broken and 
ground immediately, they will gather dampness from the atmosphere, 
so as to prevent them from grinding freely. When ground to the 
requisite degree of fineness, the madder is fit for use, and may be 
packed in barrels like flour. 

The quantity of madder yearly consumed in the United States, 
chiefly imported, is variously estimated from 4,000 to 5,000 tons, 
valued at, say at least $1,000,000 — a sum paid annually to foreign 
countries for an article that might be produced as cheaply, and of as 
good quality, at home. 



The Tea Plant, (Thea viridis,) which has so long afforded a most 
grateful Leverage to millions of people in every civilised country of 
the globe, there is much reason to believe, may be successfully culti- 
vated in favorable situations and under proper management, for local 
consumption, at least, in most, if not all of our Southern States. This 
was partially realised from an experiment made at Greenville, in the 
mountainous parts of South Carolina, by the late Junius Smith, in 
1848 to 1852. He imported several cases of black and green tea 
plants, of Chinese stock, of from five to seven years' growth, and 
planted them in the village above named, where they remained about 
two years. On their removal to a plantation in that vicinity, in 
March, 1851, Dr. Smith stated that, " they grew remarkably last 
summer, and are now fully rooted, with fine large main and collate- 
ral roots, with an abundance of fibrous radicles. They all stood the 
snow, eight or nine inches deep upon the level, on the 3d of January, 
and the severe frosts of winter, without the slightest covering or pro- 
tection, and without the loss of a single plant. They are now all 
forming part of the plantation, composed of those received from 
China last June, and a few planted the first week in June 3 which 
germinated the 17th of September. All these young plants were 
thinly covered with straw. Some of them have lost their foliage — 
others have not. The stems do not appear to have sustained any in- 
jury. The fresh buds are beginning to shoot. I cannot help think- 
ing that we have now demonstrated the adaptation of the tea-plant 
to the soil and climate of this country, and succeeded in its perma- 
nent establishment within our borders." 

Considering the practical bearing this subject has on the economy 
and agricultural interests of our Southern States, it is surprising that 
a simple herb, which has proved of such universal acceptance, should 
retain this position in the world for centuries, and yet still con- 
tinue to be restricted in its production almost entirely to the coun- 
try of its origin, although corresponding regions, with respect to lat- 
itude, elevation above the sea, and other circumstances, which modify 
the climate, are open to its introduction and culture, and the most in- 
telligent, as well as the most enterprising merchants and others have 
ever sought to learn every fact connected with its growth and subse- 
quent preparation. Though regarded, in general, as a luxury, and 
by some even as food, yet it is not an article from which the people of 


any country should be debarred. On the contrary, it is the policy in 
this case, as well as in most others, of every government, to gratify 
the wishes of its people, and to facilitate the acquisition of this luxury 
by its economical importation, or, what would be far more desirable, 
to extend the production to its own soil. Eespecting the expediency 
of such a measure in this country as that last named, little more need 
be stated than that most of our citizens will have it, and millions of 
dollars will annually be paid for its importation. To the argument 
which has often been advanced, that the very low rate of wages in 
China is the reason why the production of tea has not been encouraged 
in this country, it may be stated that, with improved machinery and 
other appliances, facility of transportation, robust and well-fed la- 
borers, and probably with the aid of the Chinamen, now in California, 
there can be little doubt that we can successfully compete, at least 
for local consumption, with the primitive utensils, tedious manipula- 
tions, and absence of railroads, canals, steam navigation, and even 
of common roads, of the enfeebled and poorly-fed Asiatics. The 
cost of the transportation of tea in China, say at a distance, upon 
an average, from the plantations to Canton, the port of shipment, of 
800 to 1,000 miles, at a waste of from six weeks' to two months' 
time, whole cargoes being constantly carried upon the backs of 
porters, is about four cents a pound, or about one-third of its value at 
the place of its growth. It is supposable that in no part of the Uni- 
ted States, at a corresponding distance from the seaboard, would the 
cost of carriage be equal to one-fourth of that sum, or occupy one- 
tenth of the time. Dr. Jameson, superintendent of the tea planta- 
tions of the East India Company, on the Himalayan mountains, in 
his report of 1847, remarks that the task-work of one laborer is to 
dress, weed, and keep in order three acres of tea- land. In our Mid- 
dle and Southern States, one hand cultivates, annually, and keeps in 
order, six acres of cotton, or of Indian corn. Therefore, assuming 
the amount of time for cultivating the respective crops to be equal, the 
American laborer would perform more than double the amount of 
work done by the Hindoo, which, undoubtedly, is about the differ- 
ence in their physical force. Again, low-priced labor compels cheap 
living, which, with the Hindoo, consists principally of a little boiled 
rice, without animal food. This meagre diet just keeps his attenuated 
frame in existence, and renders him incapable of severe toil. On the 
contrary, the hardy laborer of the South is well and amply fed, three 
times a day, upon the healthiest food consumed by man — bacon, hom- 
mony, and corn-bread. But the chief part of the expense incurred 


in bringing tea to the consumer in this country consists in freight, in- 
surance, storage, and the profits and commissions of the importers, 
factors, retailers, &c, most of which would be saved were this 
article produced near the place of its consumption. Without further 
elucidation of the subject, let us be content to rest the claims of the 
American cultivator for success upon the merits of the arguments 
herein set forth. 

The tea-plant is not only found in China and Japan, chiefly in a 
cultivated state, but is indigenous in the mountains which separate 
China from the Burmese territories, especially in Upper Assam, bor- 
dering on the province of Yun-nan. It is also cultivated in Nepal, at 
an elevation of 4,784 feet above Bengal, in latitude 27° 42' N. 

Before proceeding in the inquiry, it would be desirable to ascertain 
whether one or several species of the genus Thea yield the several 
varieties of tea ; as this might explain some of the discrepancies in 
the accounts respecting the soil and climate required for its cultiva- 
tion. Some authors, among whom are Mr. Fortune and Dr. Lett- 
som, who travelled extensively in China, and had ample opportuni- 
ties for investigating this subject, consider that all the varieties of 
tea may be obtained from the same plant, and that the differences are 
therefore due to the soil or climate, or to the age of the leaf and the 
mode of preparation. Others, on the contrary, are of the opinion 
that they are produced from at least two distinct species, Thea 
viridis and Thea bohea. There is no doubt, however, that the 
plants usually known as "Green" and "Black," when cultivated 
under similar circumstances, retain permanently their characteristics, 
and that their leaves, respectively, generally resemble those obtained 
after infusing good specimens of green and black tea. The green tea 
plant, moreover, is much more hardy than the black ; one of the 
former having lived twenty years in the open air, near London, and 
being only killed in the very severe winter of 1837-38, when the 
thermometer fell to 4^° F. Yet, from the great extent of territory 
over which the tea-plant is found, and from the variety of situations 
in which it is produced, there can be but little doubt that it is grown 
in very different soils, though there are, doubtless, certain physical 
conditions that are best suited to the production of the finest flavored 

The tea-plant loves to grow in valleys, at the foot of mountains, 
and upon the banks of streams, where it enjoys a southern exposure 
to the sun, Jhough it endures considerable variations of dryness and 
moisture, and of heat and cold ; for it flourishes in the climate 


of Pekin, in latitude 40°, as well as about Canton, in 23° 8' N. ; 
and it is observed tbat the degree of cold at the former place is nearly 
as severe in winter as it is in some of our Middle States. The best 
tea, however, grows in a mild, temperate climate, the country about 
Nankin producing a better article than either Pekin or Canton. 
Mr. Bruce, who travelled in Upper Assam, in 1836, describes the tea 
districts as consisting of little mounds or hillocks of earth, on which 
large trees had grown, their roots alone appearing to save them 
from being washed away. One thing he observes as worthy of 
notice, that all the Assam tea grows near water, of which it appears 
to be very fond, for wherever there is a small stream, tea is sure to be 
found. He subsequently discovered, however, that tea plantations in 
that country were very extensive, both on the hills and in the plains. 
But excessive moisture, either in the soil or in the air, is not con- 
genial to the growth of the tea-plant, as it is evident from its 
preference for sandy or porous soils, or the moulds, in the moist 
climate of Assam, but which probably would not be requisite where 
the climate is dry. 

Mr. Fortune, who had frequent opportunities to inspect some of 
the most extensive tea districts of Canton, Fokein, and Chekiang, 
states that the soil of those of the northern provinces is much richer 
than it is in Quantung. " Tea shrubs," he says, " will not succeed 
well unless they have a rich sandy loam to grow in. The continual 
gathering of their leaves is very detrimental to their health, and, in 
fact, ultimately kills them. Hence, a principal object with the 
grower is, to keep his bushes in as robust health as possible ; and 
this cannot be done if the soil be poor. The tea plantations in the 
north of China are always situated on the lower and most fertile sides 
of the hills, and never on the low lands. The shrubs are planted in 
rows, about four feet apart, and about the same distance between each 
row, and look at a distance like little shrubberies of evergreens. 
The farms are small, each consisting of from one to four or five acres ; 
indeed, every farmer has his own little tea garden, the produce of 
which supplies the wants of his family, and the surplus brings him 
in a few dollars that are spent on the other necessaries of life." In 
Japan, tea is planted around the borders of fields, without regard to 
situation or soil. 

The tea-plants are raised from nuts, or seeds, usually sown where 
they are to remain. Three or more are dropped into a hole, and 
covered with earth four or five inches deep ; these come up without 
any further trouble, and require little culture, except that of removing 


weeds. The leaves are not collected from the cultivated plants until 
they are three years old ; and, after growing nine or ten years, they 
are cut down, in order that the young shoots, which will then rise, 
may afford a greater supply of leaves. The best time to gather the 
tea is while the leaves are small, young, and juicy. The first gathering 
usually commences at about the end of February, when the leaves are 
young and unexpanded ; the second, about the beginning of April; 
and the third, in June. The first collection, which only consists of fine 
tender leaves, is most esteemed, and is called by us " Imperial" tea. 
The second is denominated " Tootsjaa," or Chinese tea, because it is 
infused and imbibed after the Chinese manner. The last gatherings, 
which are the coarsest and cheapest of all, are drunk by the people of 
the lowest class. Besides the three kinds of tea named above, it may 
be observed, that, by sorting these, the varieties become still further 
multiplied. The Chinese, however, know nothing of " Imperial" 
tea, "Flower" tea, and many other names, which, in Europe and 
America, serve to distinguish the quality and the price of the article ; 
but, besides the common tea, they distinguish two other kinds, namely, 
the " Voui" and "Souinlo," which are reserved for people of the 
first order of society, and for those who are sick. The principal 
varieties used in Europe, and in this country, are the " Green" tea, 
which is the " Bing," or common tea of the Chinese, and is gathered 
in April; the " Voui," or " You-tche," a delicate kind of " Young 
Hyson," which differs only from the other in being gathered a few 
weeks earlier, and consists of the young leaf-buds just as they begin 
to unfold ; and the various descriptions of " Black" tea, which di- 
minish in quality and value as they are collected later in the season, 
until they reach the lowest kind, called by us " Bohea," and by the 
Chinese " Ta-cha," or large tea, on account of the maturity and size 
of the leaves. The early leaf-buds, in spring, being covered with a 
white, silky down, are gathered to make "Pekoe," a corruption of 
the Canton word Pa-Jco, white down. A few days later growth 
produces what is sometimes styled " Black-leaved Pekoe." The more 
fleshy and matured leaves constitute "Souchong;" as they grow still 
larger and coarser, they form "Congou;" and the last and latest 
picking of all is the "Bohea." The variety named above, called 
"Voui," is a scarce and expensive article, and the picking of the 
leaves in so young a state does considerable injury to the plantations. 
The summer rains, however, which fall copiously about this season, 
moisten the earth and air, and, if the plants are young and vigorous, 
they soon push out fresh leaves. 


The process of gathering tea is one of great, nicety and importance. 
Each leaf is plucked separately from the twig ; the hands of the 
gatherer are kept clean ; and, in collecting some of the finer sorts, it 
has been stated, upon credible authority, that he is obliged for some 
weeks previous to abstain from all gross food, lest his breath or 
perspiration might injure the flavor ; to wear fine gloves while at 
work, and to bathe two or three times a day during this period. In 
the general harvest seasons, the natives are seen in little family groups 
on the side of every hill, when the weather is dry, engaged in gather- 
ing the tea-leaves, which are stripped off rapidly and promiscuously 
into round baskets, made for the purpose, of split bamboo or ratan. 
When a sufficient quantity is gathered, it is carried home to the cottage 
or barn, where the operation of drying is performed. The Chinese 
dislike gathering the leaves on a rainy day, for any description of tea; 
and never will do so, unless necessity requires it. Some even pretend 
to distinguish the teas made on a rainy day from those made on a sunny 
day. The process of rolling and drying the leaves, it is stated, can only 
be learned by actual experience ; yet the system adopted to attain this 
end is as simple as it is efficacious. Let it be borne in mind, however, 
that the grand object is to expel the moisture, and at the same time 
to retain as much as possible of the aromatic and other desirable 

As to the differences of flavor and color peculiar to the green and 
black teas, it is well known that, in many instances, they are pro- 
duced by art. In describing the green teas grown in the districts of 
Chekiang, Mr. Fortune remarks that "it must not be supposed that 
they are the green teas which are exported. The leaf has a much, 
more natural color, and has little or none of what we call the beauti- 
ful bloom upon it, which is so much admired in Europe and America. 
There is now no doubt that all these blooming green teas, which are 
manufactured at Canton, are dyed with Prussian blue and gypsum, 
to suit the tastes of the c foreign barbarians !' Indeed, the process may 
be seen any day during the season by those who will give themselves 
the trouble to seek after it. It is very likely that the same ingredients 
are also used in dyeing the northern green teas for the foreign market." 
The Chinese, it is asserted, never use these dyed teas themselves ; and 
certainly their taste, in this respect, is more correct than ours. It is 
not to be supposed that the dye employed can produce any very bad 
effects upon the consumer, for, had this been the case, it would have 
long since been discovered. As to the opinion that green tea owes its 
verdure to an inflorescence acquired from plates of copper, on which 


it is supposed to be curled or dried, there is no foundation for the 
suspicion, as the infusions undergo no change on the addition of vol- 
atile alkali, which would detect the minutest portion of copper by 
turning the liquors blue. And, besides, the drying pans and furnaces 
used throughout China, for this purpose, are said to be invariably 
made of sheet-iron. 

The Box-wood Tree (Buxus sempervirens arborescens) is a hardy 
evergreen shrub or tree, indigenous to many parts of Europe and 
Asia, and has proved itself well adapted to the climate of the United 
States. In its natural habitat, it seldom exceeds twelve or fifteen 
feet in height, with a trunk from six to eight inches in diameter ; 
but, in a state of cultivation, it sometimes attains double these di- 

This tree is found abundantly in Turkey, particularly on the shores 
of the Black sea ; but a great portion of the box-wood of commerce, 
sold in the European and American markets, as "Turkey" box, is 
grown in Circassia and Georgia, whence it is brought to Odessa for 
shipment. It is also found in various parts of Persia, China, Cochin- 
China, and, from some statements, in Japan. This tree, which is of 
great longevity, and subject to but few diseases, is sufficiently hardy 
to stand the open air near Philadelphia, without protection during 
winter, where it has attained the height of twenty-five feet, with a 
trunk two feet and a half in circumference, or about ten inches in di- 
ameter. It may be propagated from seeds, by cuttings, or by layers. 
When allowed to grow freely, it produces an abundance of seeds, which 
should be gathered as soon as the capsules appear ready to open, and 
sown immediately in light, rich earth, consisting chiefly of vegetable 
mould well drained. 

The principal use to which the wood of this tree is applied in this 
country is for engraving, for which purpose it is admirably adapted ; 
and, for the finer class of illustrations, there is no wood which can be 
employed as a substitute. Hence, as in the case of the cork-oak, should 
non-intercourse between this country and the Old World ever occur, 
we should soon be without a supply of this useful material, which is a 
strong argument for extending its culture by establishing plantations 
of it on some of the waste lands of our Middle and Southern States. 

The European Sweet Chestnut, (Castanea vesca,) a native of Asia 
Minor, but cultivated in the temperate parts of Europe and Africa 
from time immemorial, has proved itself well adapted to the climate 
of the Middle and Southern States, when grafted on stocks of the 


American species, and is deserving of extended culture in this country 
for its fruit. 

The two most desirable varieties of this tree, cultivated in France, 
are " La Chataigne verte du Limousin," which produces very large, 
excellent nuts, of a rich creamy flavor and aromatic odor, when roasted, 
that will keep a long time, and the tree of which preserves its leaves 
green much longer than any of the other sorts ; and " La Chataigne 
exalade," the fruit of which is the best of all common chestnuts for 
the table ; but, although the tree is low, with spreading branches, it 
is such an abundant bearer that it soon exhausts itself. 

The principal countries in which the chestnut is employed as an 
important article of food are the south of France, Spain, and the north 
of Italy, where it serves, in a great measure, as a substitute both ion 
potatoes and bread. In Spain, it is produced in such abundane&as to 
be, not only a common food of the peasantry, but an article- ef ex- 
portation to the more northern nations. The quantity of chestnuts 
consumed in Great Britain and Ireland exceeds 20,000 bushels per 

The usual modes of cooking chestnuts in France and Italy are, 
boiling them in water, with simply a little salt, or with leaves 
of celery, sage, or any other herbs which may impart to them a© 
agreeable flavor ; and roasting them, in hot ashes or in a coffee- 
roaster. They are also occasionally scorched before the fire, or on a 
shovel ; but, when thus prepared, are not considered so good. In 
whatever way they are roasted, the French cooks previously slit the 
skin, or shell, of all except one ; and, when that cracks and flies off, 
it is an indication that the rest are done. 

The Grammont or Siveet-acorned Oak, (Quercus gramuntia,) formerly 
a native of the wood of Grrammont, near Montpelier, in France, and 
growing wild at present in great abundance in some of the forests of 
Spain, is quite hardy, maturing its acorns in England, where it 
has been introduced ; and would be a desirable acquisition to our Mid- 
dle and Southern States. 

Captain S. C. Cook, (now Captain Widdrington,) who paid great 
attention to this oak, when in Spain, remarks of it as follows : — 

" This species is quite distinct from the Q. ilex, its nearest con- 
gener. The leaves are thicker, more rounded at the point, of a dull 
glaucous green, and the tree altogether is of a more compact and less 
graceful form than the Italian ilex. The great and essential differ- 
ence, however, consists in the acorns, which are edible, and, when in 


perfection, are aj good as, or superior to, a chestnut. To give this 
sweetness, they must be kept ; as, at first, they have a considerable 
taste of the tannin, like those of the other species, which disappears in 
a few days, and accounts for the skepticism of some writers, who as- 
sert that both sweet and bitter acorns are the product of the same 
tree, and that their sweetness is no character. These are the edible 
acorns of the ancients, which they believed fattened the tunny fish on 
their passage from the ocean to the Mediterranean — a fable only prov- 
ing that the acorns grew on the delicious shores and rocks of Anda- 
lusia, which, unhappily, is no longer the ca"se. Eemains of them, 
however, may still be traced in the West ; and they fattened the 
swine which produced the celebrated salt meats of Malaga and that 
vicinity. These are the bellota3 which Teresa, the wife of Sancho 
Panza, gathered herself, in La Mancha, where they grew in the 
greatest perfection, and sent to the Duchess, wishing, instead of their 
being only the best of their kind, they were the size of ostrich-eggs. 
I have frequently seen them produced by individuals, and offered to the 
company as bon-bons are in some countries, with a sort of an apology 
for their intrinsic value, from their flavor and size. This species is, 
beyond question, very hardy, I believe even more so than the ilex of 
Italy. It ascends the sides of the sierras in the inclement region of 
the centre of Castile; and, in Arragon, is seen within the limits of 
the Pinus sylvestris and P. uncinata, as also in the cold and wintry 
valley of Andorre. The widest forests of it are now in Estremadura, 
where the best sausages and other salted meats are made from the 
vast herds of swine which are bred in them." 

As a proof of the hardiness of this tree, Dralet mentions that he 
found it growing on the crest of the mountains of the Andorras, where 
the snow covers the ground during several months of the year ; and 
this circumstance, he says, explained to him the reason why the 
kings of Spain had succeeded in getting it to grow in the park at the 
Praxlo, near Madrid, where they had tried to cultivate the olive in 

The Kermes Oak, (Quercus coccifera,) a low, bushy, evergreen 
shrub, much resembling a holly in miniature, a native of the south of 
Europe, and well known as producing the " kermes," or scarlet 
grain of commerce. Although there has been but little demand for 
this article since the discovery of America, in consequence of the 
cheapness of cochineal, this shrub, doubtless, could be cultivated in 
favorable locations in the Middle and Southern States, on which 


could be propagated the kermes, somewhat after the manner they are 
at present in Turkey and the Levant. 

This production was known to the Phoenicians, before the time of 
Moses, under the name of tlwla ; and to the Greeks by the appella- 
tion of coccus, and to the Romans that of coccus bopliica ;■ hence the 
origin of the word "Coccinati," the persons who wore robes that 
were dyed with the kermes. Previous to the discovery of America 
it was employed to a great extent in dyeing a very rich blood-red 
which is of so permanent a nature, that the old tapestries of Brussels, 
and other parts of Flanders, although manufactured more than two 
centuries ago, have lost none of their richness of tint. Since the 
settlement of America by Europeans, it has been supplanted, in a 
great degree, by the Coccus cacti, or cochineal. The kermes, never- 
theless, is still extensively prepared in some parts of Spain, as well 
as in the East ; and Bancroft states in his " Permanent Colors," that, 
with a solution of tin, which is used with the cochineal, the kermes 
is capable of imparting a scarlet quite as brilliant as that dye, and 
perhaps more permanent. At the same time, however, as ten or 
twelve pounds contain only as much coloring matter as one pound of 
cochineal, the latter, at its ordinary price, is more economical. 

The kermes {Coccus ilicis) occurs as a parasitic insect, having all 
the appearance of a berry or seed, exhibiting not the slightest indica- 
tion of its insect Dature, being immovably affixed, in clusters, to the 
branches of the oak, upon which it subsists, by introducing into the 
substance of the stem a long and delicate haustellum. It is only at 
the close of its existence, however, that it assumes the form of a seed. 
Although the insect is provided with two legs, and, when young, 
possesses locomotive powers, yet, after impregnation, it greatly in- 
creases in size, and the eggs are deposited beneath the body ; so that, 
by degrees, as the eggs are excluded, the two surfaces of the body 
come together and form a covering for the eggs ; hence, it will be 
observed that it is only the females which are collected for traffic ; the 
males, in the perfect state, being minute, active, two-winged flies, 
totally unlike their inert partners. 

In the natural state, the kermes are of a shining appearance, and 
of the' color of a plum covered with a whitish bloom. In the condi- 
tion in which they are brought to market, they appear of a dull 
reddish-brown, which is not, of course, the natural color of good kermes, 
but is imparted to them by steeping in vinegar. The inhabitants of 
the countries where these insects are obtained, distinguish three 


stages in their existence. In the Provencal language, the term 
" Le ver" is applied to them, when they are in the earliest stage of 
activity ; " Le ver couve," subsequently, in the month of April, 
when they become stationary; and " Le ver commence d'eclore," 
in the last stage, in the middle or towards the end of May, when 
each female insect is found reduced to a skin, covering its brood of 
eggs to the number of 1,800 or 2,000. 

The crop of kerines is more or less abundant, according to the mild- 
ness or severity of the preceding winter ; when, therefore, there has 
been little or no frost, and the weather has been generally mild, a 
good yield is expected, which is not obtained every year ; and, as 
there is no trouble in planting or otherwise attending to the manage- 
ment of the trees, after they are once established, and as no other in- 
struments are required for collecting the kermes than young finger- 
nails, it may be reasonably supposed that the harvest may be an in- 
expensive one. The kermes are usually collected in the morning be- 
fore the dew is off the oaks, as at that time their leaves and prickles 
inflict less injury to the hands, i* n experienced person will thus 
pick two pounds each day. It is stated that price of the kermes 
decreases considerably, according to the period in which they are 
gathered. Those earliest collected are the most valued, and the later 
ones less, in consequence of being lighter than those first obtained, 
owing to the young insects having escaped. The merchants who pur- 
chase the kermes, immediately steep them in vinegar, and then expose 
lliem to the action of heat sufficient to destroy any remaining vitality 
in the young. This process changes their color to a bright-red hue, 
for which they have so long been celebrated. 

The Gall-nut Oak, (Quercus infectoria,) a native of Persia, Asia Mi- 
nor, Arabia, Egypt, Morocco, and Algeria, in its natural habitat, is an 
evergreen shrub, with a crooked stem, and seldom attains six feet in 
height. From the circumstance of its growing near Paris, where it 
bears the winter quite well in the open air, though losing its leaves 
in the autumn, it doubtless would be adapted to the climate of our 
Middle and Southern States. 

On this shrub, it may be unnecessary to state, is found the well- 
known " gall-nuts" of commerce, which are extensively used in the 
manufacture of writing-ink, and in dyeing. These ^xcrescenoes are 
the product of the gall-fly, (Cynips scriptorum,) a small insect of a 
pale-brown color, which may often be found enclosed in the galls sold 
in the shops of the druggists, collected before the fly had made its 


escape. The natural history of the family to which this insect 
belongs may be given in a few words, although the physiological 
nature of the changes that take place in the action of the juices 
of the plants attacked by them, whereby galls of a very great di- 
versity of form are produced, has not been ascertained. The female 
cynips is furnished with an instrument, or ovipositor, of a curved 
form, which, in most of the species, is concealed in the abdomen, with 
the extremity only slightly exposed. After impregnation, the eggs 
are deposited by means of this boring instrument, which is exsertile, 
within the leaves or twigs of various trees and shrubs ; shortly after, 
the galls are formed on the outside of the attacked part, the egga 
being forced from the place where they were originally deposited, 
and occupying the centre of the newly formed gall, which is gen- 
erally of a fleshy nature, and serves as food to the young grub when 
hatched. The pupa state succeeds, and is passed either within the 
gall, as in the insect now under consideration, or in the earth, the 
larva having previously to its change eaten its way out ; soon after, 
the insect assumes its imago or perfect state. Hence, it will at 
once be obvious that a gall from which the insect has escaped 
must necessarily contain less of the astringent principle than one 
which has its interior less consumed by the insect remaining enclosed 
therein ; and hence it is that there are two kinds of gall-nuts known 
in commerce : those which still contain the insect, and are known in 
the trade under the names of " Black," " Blue," or " Green" galls, 
termed yerly by the natives of the country in which they are col- 
lected ; and those from which the insect has escaped, and which are 
called " White" galls. The latter contain not more than two-thirds 
of the astringent qualities of the former, and are of a pale-brown or 
whitish color, being not so heavy and less compact. 

Should this insect ever be propagated in any part of the United 
States, it would necessarily have to be brought over in the gall-nut, in 
the larva state, and then at some period after the introduction of the 
oak itself, unless it should be found that the flies, after coming out, 
would deposite their eggs on some of our native oaks, on which they 
might succeed. 

The JEgilops, or Valonia Oak, (Quercus segilops,) is indigenous to 
the islands of the Archipelago, and, indeed, to all Greece, and often 
grows to a height of fifty or sixty feet. It is perfectly hardy in the 
climate of England, from which it may be inferred that it also would 
grow in favorable localities in our Middle and Southern States. 

The cups and acorns of this tree are annually conveyed to Europe, 
where they are in great demand for tanning, and are believed to con- 


tain more tannin than any other vegetable, in proportion to their 
bulk. These acorns, which are commonly called " Valonia," form a 
very considerable article of export of the Morea and the Levant, be- 
ing worth in England from $60 to $70 a ton. The more substance 
there is in the husks, or cups, of these acorns the better. They are of 
a bright-drab color, which they preserve as long as they are kept dry ; 
but dampness injures them, as they then turn black, and become im- 
paired, both in quality and strength. 

A kind of gall is found on this tree somewhat similar to that on 
the Quercus infectoria, and which is employed for the same purposes. 
These galls are rugose, of an angular form, and are either the fruit 
itself, distorted by the puncture of the insect, (Cynips quercus calycis,) 
or merely the scaly cup which is enlarged into a gall. 

The Date Tree (Phoenix dactylifera) is indigenous to Syria, Ara- 
bia, and the lower parts of Persia, Egypt, and Northern Africa, 
whence it was introduced into the South of Europe ; and it is also 
more or less cultivated in British India, South Africa, and in some 
parts of America. Though belonging to the extensive family of 
palms, which abound and nourish in most tropical regions, it attains 
perfection only in comparatively high latitudes, and doubtless would 
be adapted to the soil and climate of the more arid regions of Cali- 
fornia and of our Southern States. 

The date is a lofty tree, growing to a height of sixty feet, with a 
rugged trunk, crowned with leaves six or eight feet long, with pinnse 
three feet long, and a little more than an inch broad. The flowers of 
both sexes, which grow on separate trees, come out in very long 
bunches, from the trunk, between the leaves, and are covered with a 
spatha, which opens and withers. Those of the male tree have six 
short stamens, with narrow, four-cornered anthers, filled with pollen. 
The female flowers have a roundish germ, which afterwards becomes 
an oval berry, with a thick pulp, enclosing a hard, oblong nions. 
This berry is the fruit known as the date of commerce, upon which a 
considerable portion of the people of Egypt, Arabia, and Persia almost 
entirely subsist. A single tree will produce from ^~e hundred to three 
hundred pounds of this fruit in the season. They c^me into bearing 
at from six to ten years of age, and are fruitful for upwards of two 
hundred years. Being,: dioecious — that is, the stamens and pistils 
occurring in the flowers of different trees — the crops entirely fail, or 
the fruit is unfit for food and worthless, if the fecundation is in any 
way prevented. It is a fact worthy of note, however, that the male 


flowers will keep during the year ; and yet, if shaken over the female 
flowers, at the time of opening, impregnation will readily take effect. 

The extensive importance of the date tree, in the countries where it 
occurs, is perhaps one of the most curious subjects to which a trav- 
eler can direct his attention. Independent of the use of the fruit as 
food, the inhabitants make a conserve of it with sugar, and even 
grind the hard stones, to feed to their camels. In Barbary, they 
form handsome beads of these stones. From the leaves, they make 
couches, baskets, bags, mats, brushes, and fly-traps ; the trunk is 
split, and employed in erecting small buildings, also for fences to 
gardens ; and the stems of the leaves are used for making cages for 
their poultry. The threads of the web-like integument at the base 
of the leaves are twisted into ropes, which are employed in rigging 
small vessels. The amylaceous central part of the trunk is also good 
to eat, and the buds are esteemed a delicate vegetable ; and even the 
young shoots are said to resemble asparagus. The sap, which is 
sweetish when first collected, and may be drunk as a mild beverage, 
is distilled into a kind of spirit, known in eastern countries by the 
name of "arrack." It is obtained, by cutting off the head of the tree, 
and scooping out a hollow in the top of the stem, where, in ascend- 
ing, it lodges. Three or four quarts may be obtained daily from a 
single palm, for ten or fifteen days ; after which, the quantity de- 
creases until, at the end of six or eight weeks, the stem is exhausted, 
becomes dry, and is used for fuel. 

The Tamarind Tree (Tamarindus indica) is a native of Egypt and 
Arabia, as well as of the East Indies. In the West India islands, 
where it has become naturalised, it is cultivated, both for the sake 
of its shade and its acid, cooling, highly grateful fruit, the pulp of 
which is mixed and boiled with sugar, and forms an important article 
of commerce. It is very abundant in Jamaica, growing to a large 
size, and thrives well in the savanas, but most luxuriantly in the 
deep, rich brick mould of that island. This tree was very early 
introduced into England, where it sometimes is known to flower ; from 
which circumstance it may be inferred that it would prosper in 
favorable localities in some of our Southern States, and probably 
mature its fruit. 

There is, perhaps, only one species of this genus ; but the West 
Indian tamarind, believed to be only a variety, differs so much from 
the East Indian, in the form of its fruit and the number of its seeds? 


that it is regarded by some as specifically distinct.* The pods of the 
West Indian variety are from two to five inches long, containing 
from two to four seeds ; hut those from the East Indies are almost 
twice as long, and contain from eight to twelve seeds. The seeds in 
both are roundish, somewhat angular, flattened, hard, polished, with 
a central circumscribed disc at each side, and lodged in a quantity of 
soft pulp. When ripe, the pods are of a dull-brown color. 

In Jamaica, the pods, or fruit, are gathered in June, July and 
August, according to their maturity. They must be fully ripe, which 
is known by their fragility, or easily breaking on a slight pressure 
between the finger and thumb. The pulp and seeds are first taken 
out of the pods, and cleaned from fragments of shells, placed in casks, 
in layers, and the boiling syrup from the sugar-house is poured in 
just before it begins to granulate, till the cask is filled ; the syrup 
infuses itself into every part of the tamarinds, quite to the bottom, 
and when cooled, the cask is headed for sale. Sometimes a superior 
article is made with clarified syrup, which imparts to the fruit a more 
agreeable taste. The East Indian tamarind differs from that of the 
West Indies, not only in the size and form of the fruit, but in its 
relative sweetness. The former are preserved without syrup or sugar, 
being simply cured with salt. Those employed for domestic use are 
merely dried in the sun. 

The Frankincense or Olibanum Tree (Boswellia serrata) is indi- 
genous to the mountains of Central India, where it is known under 
the name of Sali, and as producing the olibanum of commerce, or the 
gum frankincense of the ancients. It is a lofty tree, with the foliage 
crowded at the extremity of the branches, and is frequent in the forests 
between the Sone and Nangpur, from which circumstance it may be 
inferred that it would be adapted to the soil and climate, in favorable 
locations, in some of our Southern States. 

° Correction.- — It may here be stated that the account of the Tamarind Tree, as growing 
in Virginia, which appeared at page 321 in the Agricultural Report of the Patent Office 
for 1854, is incorrect. Doubts were expressed at the time the statement was received as 
to the probability of such a circumstance, for it was believed that the climate of Virginia 
jras too severe for the successful growth of this fruit in the open air. I will only add, 
*hat the tree in question proves to be the " Honey Locust," (Glcditsclda triacanthos,) which 
.rrows wild in abundance in Louisiana, Mississippi, Kentucky, and Tennessee, and is 
sparingly produced east of the Alleghanies, from Pennsylvania to Florida. Its fruit con- 
sists of flat, crooked, pendulous pods, from twelve to eighteen inches in length, of a red- 
dish-brown color, the pulp of which, for about a month after maturity, is very sweet, but, 
in a few weeks after, becomes extremely sour. Formerly, sugar was extracted from 
these pods, and a beer was mada from them by fermenting the pulp while fresh. 


Olibanum distils from incisions made in the bark of the tree during 


the summer months, occurring in the form of semi-transparent 
masses, or tears, of a pale-yellowish or pink color, solid, hard, and 
brittle. It has a bitterish acrid taste, and, when chewed, sticks to the 
teeth, and renders the saliva milky. When heated , it burns brilliantly, 
and diffuses an agreeable odor, in consequence of which, in the early 
ages, it was much used as incense in the sacrifices, and, in modern 
times, the Greek and Roman Catholic churches still retain the use of 
frankincense, in some of their ceremonies. It is seldom employed 
for other purposes, except as a perfume in the rooms of the sick, 
although other gums bearing that name are in more general use, 
and are by many regarded as identical with it ; for instance, Lam- 
arck designates the gum of the Amyris gileadensis by this name ; 
Forskal and Sprengel, that of the Amyris kataf ; while Linnasus 
erroneously thus denominates the resin of the Juniperus lycia. 

The Balsam of Gilead Tree (Amyris gileadensis) is a native of 
Arabia, and grows spontaneously in the mountains of Yemen. Al- 
though not indigeneous to Judea, it was cultivated with great perfec- 
tion many years before Christ, in the gardens of Jericho, on the banks 
of the Jordan ; and it is from Grilead, in that country, whence the 
merchants brought the resinous product to Egypt, that is derived the 
appellation of "Balsam of Grilead." 

This shrub, or tree, which seldom exceeds fourteen feet in height^ 
has a trunk eight or ten inches Jp diameter, with many spreading, 
crooked, purplish branches, having protuberant buds, loaded with 
aromatic resin. The great value set upon this drug in the East is 
traced to the earliest ages. When Alexander the Great was in Judea, 
a spoonful of the balsam was all that could be collected on a summer's 
day ; and, in the most plentiful year, the great royal park for these 
trees yielded only six gallons. It was consequently so dear that it 
sold for double its weight in silver. That of the best quality is said 
to exude naturally, but the inferior kinds of the present day are ex- 
tracted by boiling the branches. It is at first turbid and white, of a 
strong, pungent, agreeable, aromatic odor, and of a slightly bitter, acid 
taste ; upon being kept it becomes thin, limpid, of a greenish hue, 
then of a golden yellow, and at length of the consistency of honey. 
This balsam is highly prized among Eastern nations, particularly by 
the Turks and Arabs, both as a medicine and an odoriferous unguent 
and cosmetic. It has been highly extolled as a powerful anti-septic, 
vulnerary, and preventive of the plague. Its great scarcity, however, 


has prevented it from coming into use among European and Ameri- 
can practitioners. It is extremely liable to adulteration, and, from 
its high price, and difficulty to he obtained, it is believed that not a 
single ounce of the genuine article can be found in this country, nor 
even in Europe. 

The Eygptian Gum-Arabic Tree, (Acacia vera,) which affords the 
finest gum-arabic of commerce, is a native of the sandy deserts of 
Arabia, Egypt, and the western parts of Asia ; it also grows abun- 
dantly in Barbary and other parts of Africa, particularly in the 
Atlas mountains. In Morocco, or Barbary, where this tree is 
called Atteleh, it rises to a height of several feet, having a crooked 
stem, covered with a smooth grey bark, while that of the branches is 
of a yellowish-green, or purplish tinge. At the base of the leaves, 
there are two opposite awl-shaped spines, growing nearly erect, 
and having a slight, glandular swelling below. The wood is hard, 
and takes a good polish. Its seeds, which grow in a hard coriaceous 
pod, resemble those of the lupine, yield a reddish dye, and are used 
by tanners in the preparation of leather. 

The gum exudes spontaneously from the bark of the trunk and 
branches of the tree, in a soft or nearly fluid state, and hardens by 
exposure to the air, or to the heat of the sun. The more sickly the 
tree, the more gum it yields ; and the hotter the weather, the more 
prolific it is. A wet winter and a cool or mild summer are unfavora- 
ble to the crop. It begins to flow^in December, immediately after 
the rainy season, near the time of the flowering of the tree. After- 
wards, as the weather becomes hotter, incisions are made through the 
bark, to assist the exudation of the juice. The gum, when new, 
emits a faint smell, and when stowed in the ware-house, it may be 
heard to crack spontaneously for several weeks ; and this cracking is 
the surest criterion of new gum, as it never does so when old. 

Several kinds of gum, yielded by different trees, are occasionally 
to be met with, but that which is commonly substituted for it is 
broftght from the Island of Senegal, on the coast of Africa, and is 
called " Gum Senegal." 

The Mastic Tree (Pistacia lentiscus) is a native of the south of 
Europe, the Levant, and the west of Asia, and probably could be cul- 
tivated with success in California, and perhaps in some parts of the 
South. This tree, which seldom exceeds twelve feet in height, with 
a trunk ten inches in diameter, is covered with a smooth, brownish 
bark, and produces the resin known in commerce under the name of 
"mastic." It is cultivated in various parts of Continental Europe, par 
ticularly in Italy and Portugal, but no resin is said to flow from it in 


those climates. The culture is very simple, and is attended with but 
little trouble, consisting of nothing more than keeping the surface of 
the soil clean. It does not require any pruning, but, on the contrary, 
the cultivators endeavor to prevent the trunk from growing in a hand- 
some form. The more crooked the stem, the greater the yield of 
resin. In the island of Chios, the officinal mastic is obtained most 
abundantly by making transverse incisions in the bark, from which 
the resin exudes in drops, and, hardening on the trees, or running 
down and concreting on the ground, is thence collected for sale or use. 
The time chosen for making these incisions is about the beginning of 
August, when the weather is dry. In the course of the following 
day, the mastic begins to appear in drops, which continue to exude 
till the end of September. Cloths are frequently spread under the 
trees, so that the mastic, which falls, may not be intermixed with im- 
purities or earth. 

The Quassia Plant, (Quassia amara,) a native of Surinam, is a 
beautiful shrub, or low tree, the roots, bark, and wood of which af- 
ford the true officinal quassia of commerce. This plant is sufficiently 
hardy to withstand the summer climate of England, where it flowers 
freely for several months, from which circumstance it is believed 
that it would succeed well in favorable localities in our Southern 

Aside from its use as a bitter tonic, in materia medica, it is asserted 
that the brewers in England have, of late years, used quassia- wood 
instead of hops. Beer made with it, however, does not keep well, 
but soon becomes muddy and flat, has a mawkish taste, and runs into 
acetous fermentation. Consequently, it is less nutritious and whole- 
some than that which is properly hopped. This wood, from its nar- 
cotic power, is also used to poison flies. 

The Egyptian Senna Plant (Cassia senna) grows spontaneously in 
Syria, Arabia, and Upper Egypt, and is cultivated in Italy, the West 
Indies, and other parts of the world, for its leaves, which form a con- 
siderable article of commerce. This shrub has also been grown in Eng- 
land, but, as it is an annual, it becomes necessary to sow the seeds 
early in the spring, in a hot-bed, which adds much to the labor and 
expense of its cultivation. 

This plant rises with a somewhat woody, erect, branching stem, to 
a height of about two feet. The leaves, which form the true senna of 
the shops, are green, without any yellowish cast. It is stated that, at 
Cairo, the traders mix the leaves of other plants with those of the 
true senna, in the proportion of 500 parts of the Cassia lanceolata, 


which are of a bright yellowish green, 300 of Cassia senna, and 200 
of Cynanchum arquel. 

The Bhatany Plant, (Krameria triandria,) indigenous to several 
provinces in Peru, delights in dry, argillaceous or sandy soils, and 
grows on the declivities of mountains exposed to* the intense heat of 
the sun. How far it would succeed in California, or in favorable 
localities in our Southern States, can only be determined by actual 

This plant partakes of the form of an under-shrub, with very long, 
much-branched, spreading roots, of a blackish-red color externally, 
red within, and having an intensely styptic, bitter taste. The stem 
is procumbent, round, and divided into numerous spreading branches, 
which, when young, are white and silky, but afterwards become naked 
below, and acquire a black color. The flowers put forth nearly all 
the year, but most luxuriantly in October and November. It is col- 
lected in considerable quantities, and from it a beautiful extract is 
prepared, which, as well as the root, is imported into Spain and 
Portugal for improving the color, astringency, and richness of red 
wines. The root, however, which is somewhat larger than a goose- 
quill, is the part most used for this purpose. The cortical part, 
in which its sensible qualities predominate, is very thick, and breaks 
short. The ligneous part, which is tough and fibrous, is somewhat 
mucilaginous. On being slightly masticated, the root discovers a 
very grateful astringency, which is perceptible for some time to the 
palate, and is slightly aiomatic and bitter. These qualities, as well 
as the coloring matter, are imparted both to cold and boiling water, 
as well as to proof-spirit. The tincture made with brandy approaches 
very nearly to the flavor of Port wine. 

The simple tincture is made by adding three ounces of the root to a 
quart of proof-spirit, and is much used by dentists, combined with 
equal parts of rose-water, as a lotion to astringe the gums, and correct 
any unpleasant fcetor of the mouth. Equal parts of powdered rhatany- 
ro6*t, orris-powder and areca-nut charcoal, are stated to form the best 
tooth-powder in use. 

The Bunya-Bunya, (Araucaria bidwellii,) a half-hardy evergreen, 
indigenous to some of the northern districts of New South Wales, is 
easy of propagation by cuttings or layers, and it is believed would be 
a desirable acquieition to New Mexico or some of our Southern States. 
It was introduced into England about twenty years ago, but will not 
bear the climate near London, without protection during winter. It 
also has found its way into some of the conservatories of the Northern 


and Middle States of the Union, where it is not adapted for open cul- 
ture, except in the milder and warmer months. 

This tree, perhaps, is deserving of a more extended notice, not 
because the quality of its timber is superior to that of most other 
pines, but because each tree belongs to some one individual of the 
aborigines of the country in which it abounds. It grows in " scrubs," 
or ranges of hills or mountains, but is not found in a wild state 
further south than the range dividing the water-falls of the Brisbane 
and Burnett ; but, in the Wide-bay district, in the twenty-seventh 
parallel of south latitude, it grows plentifully over an extent of ter- 
ritory about thirty miles by twelve, which bears the name of the 
" Bunya-Bunya" country. It is readily distinguished, as it far over- 
tops every other kind of tree in the scrub ; and, instead of the 
branches pointing downwards, like some of its congeners, they grow 
nearly at right angles from the trunk, with rather a curve, or an in- 
clination upwards. Its height is represented to be immense, some- 
times presenting a naked trunk to the height of one hundred and 
sixty feet before the branches begin to appear ; which, in old trees, in 
their wild state, only grow near the tops, owing to the want of light 
in the scrub ; but, if planted out in an open state, they feather down 
quite to the ground. The leaves are of a rich dark-green, and so 
sharp-pointed that they are prickly to the touch. The cones, or fruit, 
are very large, growing quite to the extreme tip of the tree, and are 
only plentiful every third year. In appearance, they are like immense 
fir-cones, sometimes occurring twenty-seven inches in length and 
twenty-five inches in diameter, and before they are quite ripe are 
of a beautiful green color. Attached to the rachis, or core, which 
runs through the centre of each cone, there are often as many as one 
hundred and twenty nuts, or seeds, about an inch and a half in length, 
resembling in shape and color the kernel of an almond. When the 
proper season arrives, the natives assemble in great numbers, often 
from a distance of several hundred miles, for the purpose of collecting 
and eating these seeds, which they generally roast. Each tribe has 
its own peculiar set of trees, and each family, as well as each indi- 
vidual, its own particular allotment. These rights are handed down 
from generation to generation, with the greatest exactness, and if any 
one is found in a tree not his own, the inevitable consequence is a 
fight. This is believed to be the only hereditary personal property 
possessed by the aborigines of Australia, and is, therefore, generally 
adhered to with the greatest respect. 

TJie Deodar or Indian Cedar, (Cedrus deodara,) bids fair to prove 


a valuable acquisition, not only to the list of our ornamental, but to 
that of our valuable timber trees. This lofty and very graceful object 
is a native of the Himalayas, Nepal, Kamaon, and of regions as far 
north as Cashmere, at elevations of from 7,000 to 12,000 feet above 
the level of the sea, where it attains a great altitude, even surpass- 
ing in dimensions the cedar of Lebanon, rarely falling short of a 
height of one hundred and fifty feet, with a trunk thirty or more feet 
in circumference. Its wood is described as of first-rate quality, being 
compact, resinous, highly fragrant, of a deep rich color, which has 
been compared to that of a polished brown agate. It is also of the 
most durable nature, instances being on record where its timber, 
employed in the roofs of buildings, was found perfectly free from 
decay after a period of upwards of two hundred years ; and pieces 
of it from the Zein-ul-kadal bridge, in Cashmere, proved but 
little decayed, although exposed to the action of water for four hun- 
dred years. 

The loftiness and spreading branches of this tree accord admirably 
well with the description given of the cedar in Holy Writ, but not 
with the f< Cedar of Lebanon" of the present day. Its wood, which 
is regarded as almost incorruptible, from its hardness and the fineness 
of its grain, perhaps, could be as easily wrought as that employed in 
the construction of Solomon's Temple. The principal difficulty, with 
reference to its being identical with the cedar mentioned in the 
sacred writings, is, that it has never been found on, nor near, Mount 
Lebanon ; yet it might have formerly grown there in abundance, and 
subsequently disappeared, and given place to another species, as is 
frequently the case in many parts of the globe in modern times. It 
is regarded by the Hindoos as a sacred tree, and, in some places, is 
highly venerated, never being used, except to burn as incense on 
occasions of great ceremony ; but, in others, it is employed for the 
purposes of construction, as a valuable timber tree. 

In addition to the superiority of its wood, the deodar is highly 
ornamental, and sufficiently hardy to thrive in any part of the United 
States south of the Delaware, except at great elevations. Much en- 
couragement has recently been given to its propagation in England, 
for its timber. Several thousand bushels of the seeds were imported 
some four years ago from India, by the way of Egypt, and placed in 
the hands of reliable nurserymen, to cultivate, on condition that they 
should return one-half of the product to the government at the 
expiration of three years. By this means, upwards of a million 
seedlings of this valuable tree have been added to the wealth of the 


kingdom, many of which, at some future day, may prove subservient 
to the purposes of construction or the defence of the country. Would 
not this example be worthy the imitation of our own government, by 
establishing plantations of the deodar, as well as of the live-oak, in 
favorable localities, at accessible points along the seaboard of our 
Middle and Southern States? No branch of agriculture claims a 
stronger degree of public attention than the planting of timber, 
which, in the present state of our country, would form the true basis 
of national prosperity, in preserving its peace and perpetuity by the 
strength and permanency of its naval force. Though, in times of 
peace, a great number of ships of war may not be deemed necessary, 
yet the old adage is true : " He who has his sword by his side, seldom 
wants to use it." With equal force we are impressed with the wise 
admonition of Galgacus, the brave leader of the Caledonians, who 
flourished in the first century : " Think of your ancestors ; think of 

In conclusion, whether we consider the suggestions herein offered as 
agriculturists or economists, or as moralists and patriots ; whether 
we look to their effects on the wealth, happiness, and perpetuity of 
our Union ; we cannot fail to cultivate and cherish the enterprise, 
and ever regard it as a sacred duty. 

Very respectfully, your obedient servant, 


Hon. Charles Mason, 

Commissioner of Patents. 




Of the domesticated quadrupeds, which man transports to every 
part of the habitable globe, and subjects to various kinds of manage- 
ment, both in regard to heat and cold, moisture and dryness, as well 
as to labor and nourishment, it cannot be denied that considerable 
changes are manifested in their form, contour, size, color, and secre- 
tions ; but these, in general, are merely superficial, the animals being 
greater or less in bulk, with longer or shorter limbs and horns, or 
even an entire absence of the latter, having a larger or smaller mass 
of fat on the shoulder or rump, or being covered with a coat of finer, 
coarser, thicker, or thinner hair, down or wool ; still, these differ- 
ences, when proper care is taken to prevent crossing, usually continue 
for a long period in those races or breeds that have been transported 
to countries remote from those in which they were originally pro- 
duced. They also depend upon determinate circumstances, and their 
extent increases or diminishes in proportion to the intensity of the 
causes which occasion them. 

Upon these principles it has been observed that the most super- 
ficial characteristics are the most variable. Thus, color depends much 
upon light ; thickness of hair or wool, upon heat or cold ;. and size, 
form, or the secretion of milk, upon the scarcity, abundance, or qual- 
ity of food. It is not to be understood, however, that these varia- 
tions constitute the differences in the races or varieties of our domes- 
tic breeds, but that they have long existed with similar forms and 
habits as at present, either acquired and accumulated through a se- 
ries of generations, which, in the course of time, have become heredi- 
tary, or that they have ever retained their original and typical castes 
from their earliest progenitors. 

In respect to the effects produced by the change of food and cli- 
mate on our domestic animals, I would cite the instance of the horse : 
given in the Agricultural Report of the Patent Office for 1854. 
If the London " Dray " be conveyed to Arabia and subjected to the 


same influences as the native horses of that country are exposed, in 
the course of a few generations, he will present the leading charac- 
teristics of the Arabian horse. The head will gradually diminish in 
size, the limbs will become fine and clear, the massive proportions of 
the whole body will disappear, and not only will the external form of 
the native be acquired, but, aside from this, something also of the 
chivalrous disposition or spirit. Again, if the race thus improved be 
conveyed back to the central or northern parts of Europe, it will gradu- 
ally deteriorate, and, in the course of some generations, will assume 
all its original proportions. These facts would tend to prove that the 
Arabian horse cannot long exist in perfection in the cool, humid climate 
of Britain ; and the influences arising indirectly from that cause are re- 
garded as the principal reasons of the change. It has also been as- 
certained that the large coach horses of Leicestershire, in England, 
when carried to some parts of Yorkshire, where the pasturage is more 
sparse, degenerate and become small; and that the "Pad" and 
saddle horses of the last named county, when brought to Leicester- 
shire to breed, change into a fleshy animal with large heavy limbs. 

There is also another class of interesting facts connected with this 
subject : If sheep are carried from either of the temperate zones to 
the burning plains of the tropics, after a few years, material changes 
take place in their covering. The wool of the lambs, at first, grows 
similar to that in the temperate climates, but rather more slowly. 
When in a fit state for shearing, there is nothing remarkable about 
its quality, and, when shorn, it grows out again as with us ; but, if 
the proper time for shearing be allowed to pass by, the wool becomes 
somewhat thicker, falls off in patches, and leaves underneath, a 
short, close, shining hair, exactly like that of the goat in the same 
climate, and wherever this hair once appears there is never any re- 
turn of wool. Numerous facts of a similar nature have also been 
observed in other animals : For instance, in the Cashmere goats 
which have been brought down from the mountains of Thibet to 
Kanour, in British India, where the mean annual temperature is but 
65° F., the down, or undervest, of their wool, that grows in colder cli- 
mates directly under their fine, long, silky hair, wholly disappears 
the first year. 

In pursuing the subject still further, it may be stated, that the horned 
cattle originally taken to the Pampas, beyond Buenos Ayres, by the 
earliest Spanish settlers, have undergone a most singular modification 
of the bones of the head, consisting of a shortening of those of the nose 
together with the upper jaw. This race, or breed, called riiata, exter- 
nally appear to hold a similar relation to other cattle as the bull-dog 
does to other dogs, their foreheads being very short and broad, with 
the nasal end turned up, and the upper lip much drawn back ; the lower 
jaw projects beyond the upper, and has a corresponding upward curve, 
in consequence of which the teeth are always exposed to view. From 
their very open and high-seated nostrils, short heads, and protuberant 
eyes, when standing or walking, they assume a most ludicrous, self- 
confident air. It may further "be remarked, that their hinder legs 
are rather long, when compared with the foremost ones, which ad$s 
to their awkwardness, by bringing their heads near to the grotind. 


It is also a notable fact, that cattle reared for several generations 
on rich soils, as those in the West Riding in Yorkshire, in England, 
become very large and fat, and are distinguished by the shortness of 
their limbs, while, in drier or colder situations, their whole bulk is 
less, and their legs are more muscular and strong, which powerfully 
verifies the truth of the axiom in breeding that, "Good cattle are 
coincident with good soil," and are never found as a race on a bad 
one, as is manifested on the Isle of Skye, on the west coast of Scot- 
land, where the cows, when exposed to the rigors of winter are often 
reduced to mere skeletons in the spring, many of them not being able 
to rise from the ground without help, but recover as the season be- 
comes more favorable to the production of grass. Then they acquire 
new flesh, which is both tender and sweet. The fat and lean are not 
so much separated in them as in the beef reared further south, but 
are interlarded, as it were, which renders the meat very agreeable to 
the taste. 

In New Granada, and other inter-tropical countries, the cow also 
undergoes another remarkable physical change : she furnishes a sup- 
ply of milk no longer than the period her calf is running by her 
side; when it ceases to suck, the milk immediately dries up. This, 
doubtless, is owing in a great degree to the high temperature of her 
blood and the increased flow of perspiration, which are generally 
manifested in all cattle of the warmer portions of the torrid zone. 

In arriving at the more immediate object of this paper, I would offer a 
few observations on the character of some of the internal and exter- 
nal structures of the organs of animals, chiefly those of ruminants, in 
order to arrive at a knowledge of them as indications of their capaci- 
ty for fattening and reaching an early maturity. Let it first be stated 
that the chief utility of rumination, as applicable to all the animals 
in which it takes place, and the final purpose of this wonderfully 
complicated function in the animal economy, are still imperfectly 
known. Whatever may be our ignorance of its object or cause, it is 
certain that the nature of the food has a considerable influence in aug- 
menting or diminishing the necessity for the performance of that func- 
tion. Thus, dry food requires to be entirely subjected to a second mas- 
tication before it can pass into the third and fourth stomachs, while a 
great portion of that which is moist and succulent, passes readily into 
those cavities on its first descent into the second stomach. It may 
here be remarked that in the young calf, and also in the lamb, we 
find the fourth stomach considerably the largest, being fully devel- 
oped, while the other three are but imperfectly so. This arises from 
the fact of the nutriment on which the young animal subsists (its 
mother's milk) being in so matured a state as to require compara- 
tively but little exertion for the organs of digestion. The other three 
stomachs, therefore, are not required until the young ruminant begins 
to crop the crude herbage or to feed upon dry fodder or hay, when 
the digestive apparatus gradually becomes developed. 

When a calf or lamb commences feeding upon solid food, then it 
begins to ruminate ; and, as the quantity of solid aliment is in- 
creased, so does the size of the first stomach increase until it attains its 
full dimensions. In the latter case, the first stomach has, becorao 


considerably larger than the other three cavities taken together. 
A curious modification of this organ to adjust itself to the altered 
condition of the animal is beautifully shown in the instance now 
under consideration, the nature of which will be easily understood by 
a reference to the accompanying diagrams, giving the exact relative 
proportions of the different cavities of the stomach to each other in 
the young calf, and in the adult cow. 

The four stomachs of a Calf, with their relative proportions. 

The letter a, denotes the first stomach, or paunch ; h, the second 
stomach, or honey-comb bag ; c, the third stomach, or many-plies ; 
c 7 . the fourth stomach, or reed ; e, a portion of the oesophagus, as 
connected with the first stomach ; /, the pylorus, or opening into the 

A knowledge of the above-named facts has taught the intelligent 
breeder that care must be taken to feed the calf at first with the milk 
of its own dam, which, at the time of its birth, is of a peculiar cha- 
racter, and acts as a gentle purge, indispensable to its health at this 
critical period, but which would be hurtful at a later stage of its 
growth. In order to preserve its thriftiness and health, it should 
have an abundance of new milk, warm from the cow for the first two 
or three weeks, after which, it may be gradually trained to eat more 
substantial or solid aliment, alternately with new milk, sweet clover 
hay, Indian meal, or the best grass the farm can afford, until com- 
pletely weaned. If fed entirely upon milk, until the time of wean- 
ing;, it is obvious that the fourth stomach of the calf would be un- 


able to receive and perfectly digest the recently swallowed herbage or 
hay, without its having previously undergone the process of rumina- 
tion ; and that each of the other three stomachs would be quite as unpre- 
pared to perform its proper functions until the fourth had become suffi- 
ciently developed to perform its part. Hence, if a calf be suddenly 
changed from a diet consisting purely of milk to one wholly of grass 

The four stomachs of an adult Co%v, with their relative proportions. 

or hay, a suspension of healthy functions must necessarily take place, 
which will ever after more or less affect its successful growth. While 
on this subject, it may be stated that there is a great diversity in the 
milk of cows, which is increased by many circumstances, such as her 
age, the condition she is in, the proximity or remoteness of the 
time of her calving, and, above all, the manner in which she 
is fed. It frequently happens that, of cows, not only of the same 
breed, but even those which are the offspring of the same parents, 
fed on the same farm, and in the same manner, the one will yield 
more milk than the others. Cows too old or too young also give 
less milk than those of middle age. A lean cow never gives so much 
milk as one in good condition. Cows generally give more milk for a 
few weeks after they have calved than they do at any other time. 
The food with which they are fed has a powerful influence on the 
milking properties of all cows ; and the mode in which they are 
reared has a considerable effect on their capacity to give milk. A 
cow reared on bad or indifferent pasture and scanty subsistence will 


never turn out so good a milker as one reared on pasturage which is 
sweet and rich. From these and other circumstances, it is not easy 
to determine the average quantity of milk given by a herd of cows. 

The health of an animal depends chiefly on the supply of nutri- 
ment which it receives being equal to the waste that is going on in its 
body. Healthy adults weigh as much at the end as at the beginning 
of the year ; and this depends on their having had sufficient food to 
supply the waste which has been going on in the system. In young 
and growing animals, it is somewhat different. They require a larger 
supply of nourishment than there is waste, because their bodies arc 
constantly increasing in size, which arises chiefly from the activity of 
their respiration and nutrition even from the moment of their birth. 
Milk, the food that nature supplies them with at this period, is well 
adapted to assist the functions of organic life, which are now more 
active than in adults. Its chief ingredients are nitrogenized matter, 
(casein,) and phosphates, for developing the system, and carbonised 
materials (butter and sugar) for supplying animal heat. The casein, 
or cheesy matter, is the nitrogenous principle, and affords nourish- 
ment to the muscular and other tissues ; the phosphates principally 
are expended in the formation of hair and bones, and are also neces- 
sary for the healthy functions of the body ; and the butter and sugar 
are the materials, which, by their combustion, supply heat to the 
body. Thus in milk, we have all that is necessary for the growth of 
the young animal, and it is the type and representative of all food ; 
for, unless an aliment contains the principles of milk, it is not fitted 
for the promotion of the health and perfect development of the body. 
And, besides, the stomachs of young animals are not adapted for ex- 
tracting the nitrogenous principles from food, and the casein of milk 
is supplied to them ready separated. In the young ruminant, as the 
calf, the first three stomachs, as before stated, into which the food of 
the adult animal enters before it is digested, are not used at all. 
The milk passes at once into the fourth stomach. Hence the neces- 
sity of weaning these animals gradually, in order that their stomachs 
may be fully able to prepare the raw food for digestion. A large 
quantity of the casein in milk is required for the rapid development 
of the body ; and the butter, a highly carbonised material, is required 
for supporting a large amount of animal heat. Consequently, it 
is a bad thing to feed calves on skim-milk, as both the butter and 
casein have been removed in the shape of cre;.m. Earl Spencer, of 
England, who was very successful in weaning his calves, fed them 
first with new milk, and then with skim-milk and meal, the latter 
supplying the necessary nitrogen and nitrogenised materials. In 
feeding young animals, they should have good food, and there should 
be no stinting them as to quantity. 

In the growth of young animals, as well as the fattening of adult 
ones, it has been found by experience that all exposure to cold should 
be avoided as much as possible, as a low temperature diminishes the 
vitality of the system, and whatever decreases vitality gives a pre- 
ponderance to chemical action in the body, and injury of some kind 
or other will be the result. Exercise is also necessary for the rearing 
of young animals, although it should be avoided in fattening. In 


order to develop a calf or a lamb, it should be allowed plenty of ex- 
ercise; but, in fattening, another object is to be gained. All motion 
consumes something in the body, which is the cause of the loss of so 
much material in the fattening of the animal. In a similar manner, 
exposure to cold is also an absolute loss. The primary cause of all 
this waste is the increased supply of oxygen to the lungs ; for, what- 
ever increases this supply, tends to the waste of the body and the ne- 
cessity for a supply. Where much exercise is allowed to milch cows, 
the produce of butter is small, which arises from the oxygen con- 
suming the carbonaceous material that would otherwise be secreted 
in the milk in the form of butter or cream. With regard to the pas- 
tures which produce the most casein, or cheese, it has generally been 
found that they are poor. It has also been conjectured that the exer- 
cise which the cows take on poor pastures, in order to obtain their 
food, tends to increase the development of the casein in their milk. 
Furthermore, it has been observed that stall-fed cows yield much 
more butter and less cheese than those fed in pastures, or that are 
allowed to run at large when fed upon hay. It may be stated, how- 
ever, that the richness and flavor of milk depend much upon the na- 
ture of the food of the cow. 

In reference to the size and structure of the internal organs of ani- 
mals, as tending to their capacity for fattening or reaching an early 
maturity, it may be stated that large livers and lungs indicate a 
general coarseness of muscle and bone ; and hence may be regarded 
as signs of incapacity for taking on fat. It is supposed by some that, 
all animals with large, broad, round chests fatten best, and that they 
have small lungs ; but' this is found not to be the case, for horses 
have narrow chests and large lungs. Southdown sheep have nar- 
rower chests than the Leicester breed, yet they have the largest lungs ; 
but the Leicesters are known to fatten sooner. Again, it is a prevail- 
ing opinion among butchers that the fattest cattle have both small 
livers and lungs. This, it will be conceived, must be a necessary 
consequence, according to the principles just laid down. In all cases 
where there is the most oxygen taken into the system there is the 
greatest destruction of carbon, and consequently less carbonaceous 
material deposited in the form of fat. If two bullocks had the same 
quantity of food, and one of them had lungs of double the capacity 
of the other, that bullock would only appropriate half as much of 
his food in the formation of fat. Milk, containing much butyraceous 
matter, it is well known, is produced by cows with small lungs. The 
same holds good with regard to the liver ; for, where there is a large 
liver there must of necessity be a large secretion of bile, and conse- 
quently a large destruction of carbonaceous matter. Thus, if two 
animals were to eat 100 pounds of food, and one were to secrete 60 
pounds of bile, and the other only 40 pounds, the food that was not 
formed into bile would be converted into fat ; hence the gain on the 
animal with a small liver. 

With regard to external signs, small bones indicate a delicacy of 
constitution in an animal as well as smallness of liver and lungs, 
which shows a tendency to fatten rapidly ; while, in an animal with 
large ears, which are usually accompanied by a general coarseness* 


and largeness of bone and muscle, the reverse is the case. The 
" mellow feel " of an animal depends on the rebounding of the cellu- 
lar tissue, in which is deposited the fat. Where there is much mel- 
lowness, it arises from the blood being easily pressed from one part of 
the cellular tissue to another, and indicates a susceptibility to fatten- 
ing*. The chief reason why animals get more rapidly fattened at the 
end of their feeding season is, that the fat accumulating in the abdo- 
men presses upon the diaphragm and abdominal muscles, thus pre- 
venting the more complete action of the lungs, and consequently the 
destruction of carbonaceous materials by the inhalation of oxygen. 
The fat also prevents the oxygen from being absorbed by the skin, 
and diminishes by its pressure the capacity of the liver, and thus also 
adds to the fattening process. To similar causes may be ascribed the 
fact that fattened animals take on more flesh on their hindmost 
quarters than on those before. 

The foregoing views accord in a singular manner with many well- 
established facts connected with the rearing and fattening of stock ; 
but, as it is impossible in this short essay to treat of the subject in all 
its abstruse and interesting course of reasoning, it must necessarily be 



Were an ox of fine symmetry and high condition placed before a 
person not a judge of live stock, his opinion of its excellencies would 
be derived from a very limited view, and consequently from only a 
few of its qualities. He might observe and admire the beautiful out 1 - 
line of its figure, for that might strike the most casual observer. He 
might be pleased with the tint of its colors, the plumpness of its body, 
and the smoothness and glossiness of its skin. He might be even 
delighted with the gentle and complacent expression of its counte- 
nance. All these properties he might judge of by the eye alone. On 
touching the animal with the hand, he could feel the softness of its 
body, occasioned by the fatness of the flesh. But no man, not a judge, 
could rightly criticise the properties of an ox further. He could not 
possibly discover, without tuition, those properties which had chiefly 
conduced to produce the high condition in which he saw the ox. ELe 
would hardly believe that a judge could ascertain, merely by the eye, 
from its general aspect, whether the ox were in good or bad health — 
from the color of its skin, whether it were of a pure or cross breed' — 
from the expression of its countenance, whether it were a quiet feeder 
— and from the nature of its flesh, whether it had arrived at maturity 
or not. The discoveries made by the hand of a judge might even 
stagger his belief. He could scarcely conceive that that hand could 
feel a hidden property — the touch — which of all tests is the most 
surely indicative of fine quality of flesh, and of disposition to fatten. 
It can feel whether that flesh is of the most valuable kind ; and it 


can foretell the probable abundance of fat in the interior of the carcass. 
In short, a judge alone can discriminate between the relative values 
of the different points, or appreciate the aggregate values of all the 
properties of an ox. The parts of the ox by which it is judged, let it 
be remembered, are called " points/' 

Thus it may be seen that a person even totally ignorant of cattle 
may judge of some of the most apparent properties, or points, of a fat 
ox ; but were a lean one placed before him, he would be quite at a 
loss what opinion to pass on its present, and far more of its future, 
condition. The outline of its figure would to him appear rugged and 
angular, and consequently coarse. To him the body would feel as a 
number of hard bones, covered with a tough skin and coarse hair. A 
judge, on the other hand, could at once discover the good or the bad 
points of a lean as well as of a fat ox ; because the properties of the 
former are the same in kind, though not in degree, as those of the 
latter ; and, in accordance with the qualities of these points, he could 
anticipate the future condition of the lean ox, save and excepting the 
effects of accidents and disease. 

But, it may be asked, if the qualifications of a judge of cattle may 
be so easily acquired as is here represented, how is it that the opin- 
ion of a judge is always held in deference, and is always referred to 
in cases of difference of opinion ? This question admits of a very 
satisfactory answer : Errors in the judging of cattle arise not so fre- 
quently from not knowing the points to be judged of, as from judges 
attributing to one or more of their favorite points too great an 
influence over the future increasing condition of the ox ; and as 
long as there are so many points to be considered, and as most of 
them may be partially altered by local circumstances, a difference of 
opinion may exist among judges of lean stock. 

Now, what are those points of an ox, a thorough knowledge of 
which is so essential to constitute a perfect judge ? Could they be 
described and illustrated with such precision as that they might be 
applied at once to every ox, in whatever condition he might be, a great 
advancement would be made towards establishing fixed rules for the 
right judging of all the domestic animals. Fortunately, nature has 
herself furnished rules for ascertaining points for judgment, a know- 
ledge of which can nevertheless be only acquired by careful observa- 
tion and long and constant practice. 

The first point to be ascertained in examining an ox is the 
purity of its breed, whatever that breed may be, which may be ascer- 
tained from several marks. The color or colors of the skin of a pure 
breed of cattle, whatever those colors are, are always definite. The 
color of the bald skin on the nose, and around the eyes, is always 
definite, and without spots. This last is an essential point. When 
horns exist, they should be smooth, small, tapering, and sharp- 
pointed, long or short, according to the breed, and of a light color 
throughout in some breeds, and tipped with black in others. The 
shape of the horn, however, is a less essential point than the color. 

The second point to be ascertained in an ox is the form of its car- 
cass. It is found that the nearer the section of the frame of a/at ox, 
taken longitudinally vertical, transversely vertical, and horizontally, 


approaches to the figure of a parallelogram, the greater quantity of 
flesh will it carry within the same measurement. That the carcase 
may fill up the parallelogram as well as its rounded form is capable 
of filling up a right-angled figure, it should possess the following 
configuration : The back should be straight from the top of the shour- 
der to the tail. The tail should fall perpendicularly from the line ef 
the back. The buttocks and " twist " should be well filled out. The 
brisket should project to a line dropped from the middle of the neck. 
The belly should be straight longitudinally, and round latterally, and 
filled at the flanks. The ribs should be round, and should project 
horizontally, and at right angles to the back. The " hooks " should 
be wide and flat ; and the rump, from the tail to the hooks, should 
also be flat and well filled. The quarter from the aitch-bone to the 
hook should be long. The loin-bones should be long, broad and 
flat, and well filled ; but the space between the hooks and the short- 
ribs should be rather short, and well arched over with a thickness of 
beef between the hooks. A long hollow from the hooks to the shorfc- 
ribs indicates a weak constitution, and an indifferent thriver. From 
the loin to the shoulder-blade should be nearly of one breadth, and 
thence it should taper a little to the front of the shoulder. The neck- 
vein should be well filled forward, to complete the line from the neck 
to the brisket. The covering on the shoulder-blade should be as full 
out as the buttocks. The middle ribs should be well-filled, to com- 
plete the line from the shoulders to the buttocks along the projection 
of the outside of the ribs. These constitute all the points which aise 
essential to a fat ox, and which it is the business of the judge to know, 
and by which he must anticipate what the lean one, when fed, would 
realise. The remaining points are more applicable in judging o£ a 
lean than a fat ox. 

The first of the points in judging of a lean ox is the nature "of 
the bone. A round, thick bone indicates both a slow feeder, and an 
inferior description of flesh. A flat bone, when seen on a side view, 
and narrow, when viewed either from behind or before the animal, 
indicates the opposite properties of a round bone. The whole bones 
in the carcass should bear a small proportion in bulk and weight to 
the flesh, the bones being only required as a support to the flesh. 
The texture of the bone should be small-grained and hard. The 
bones of the head should be fine and clean, and only covered with 
skin and muscle, and not with lumps of fat and flesh, which always 
give a heavy-headed, dull appearance to an ox. The fore-arm and 
hock should also be clean and full of muscle, to endure travelling. 
Large joints indicate bad feeders. The neck of an ox should be, 
contrary to that of the sheep, small from the back of the head to the 
middle of the neck. The reason of the difference, in this respect, 
between the ox and the sheep is, that the state of the neck of the ox 
has no effect on the strength of the spine. 

A full, clear and prominent eye is another point to be considered ; 
because it is a nice indication of good breeding. It is always attend- 
ant on fine bone. The expression of the eye is an excellent index of 
many properties in the ox. A dull, heavy eye certainly indicates a 
slow feeder. A rolling eye, showing much white, is expressive of a 


restless, capricious disposition, which is incompatible with quiet feed- 
ing. A calm, complacent expression of eye and face is strongly in- 
dicative of a sweet and patient disposition, and, of course, kindly 
feeding. The eye is frequently a faithful index to the state of fife 
health. A cheerful clear eye accompanies good health ; a constantly 
dull one proves the probable existence of some internal lingering 
disease. The dullness of eye, arising from the effect of internal 
disease, is, however, quite different in character from a natural or 
constitutional phlegmatic dullness. 

The state of the skin is the next point to be ascertained. The skin 
affords what is technically and emphatically called the " touch" — a 
criterion second to none in judging of the feeding properties of an oa. 
The touch may be good or bad, fine or harsh, or, as it is often termed, 
hard or mellow. A thick, firm skin, which is generally covered with 
a thickset, hard, short hair, always touches hard, and indicates a bad 
feeder. A thin, meagre, papery skin, covered with thin silky haiis, 
being the opposite of that just described, does not, however, afford a 
good touch. Such a skin is indicative of weakness of constitution, 
though of good feeding properties. A perfect touch will be found with 
a thick, loose skin, floating, as it were, on a layer of soft fat, yielding 
to the least pressure, and springing back towards the fingers like a 
piece of soft, thick chamois leather, and covered with thick, glossy, 
soft hair. Such a collection of hair looks rich and beautiful, and 
seems warm and comfortable to the animal. It is not unlike a bed 
of fine soft moss, and hence such a skin is frequently styled "mossy." 
The sensation derived from feeling a fine touch is pleasurable, and 
even delightful, to an amateur of breeding. Along with it is gener- 
ally associated a fine symmetrical form. A knowledge of touch cam 
only be acquired by long practice ; but, after it is once acquired, it is 
of- itself a sufficient means of judging of the feeding qualities of the 
ox; because, when present, the properties of symmetrical form, fine 
bone, sweet disposition, and a purity of blood, are the general accom- 
paniments. These are the essential points of judging lean cattle ; 
but there are other and important considerations which must claim 
the attention of the judge, in forming a thorough judgment of the ox. 

The proportion which the extremities bear to the body and to each 
other, is one of these considerations. The head of the ox should be 
small, and set on the neck as if it appeared to be easily carried by 
the animal. This consideration is of great importance in shewing 
cattle to advantage in the market. The face should be long from the 
eyes to the point of the nose. No face can be handsome without this 
feature. The skull should be broad across the eyes, and only con- 
tract a little above them, but should taper considerably below them 
to the nose. -The muzzle should be fine and small, and the nostrils 
capacious. The crown of the head should be flat and strong, and 
the horns should protrude horizontally from both sides of it, though 
the direction of the growth from the middle to the tip varies in the 
different breeds. The ears should not be large, but should stand a little 
erect, and be so thin as to appear translucent when exposed to the 
sun. The neck should be light, tapering from the front of the shoulder 
and neck-vein, with a gradual rise from the top of the shoulder to the 


head. The length of the neck should be in proportion to the other 
parts of the animal; hut this is a non-essential point, though an 
apparently short neck would be preferred to a long one, because it is 
generally well covered with the neck-vein. A droop of the neck, 
from the top of the shoulder to the head, indicates a weakness of con- 
stitution, arising frequently from breeding too near akin. The legs 
below the knee should be rather short than long, and clean made. 
They should be placed where they apparently bear the weight of 
the body most easily, and should stand wide asunder. The tail 
should be rather thick than otherwise, as thickness indicates a strong 
spine and a good weigher. It should be provided with a large tuft 
of long hair. 

The position of the flesh on the carcass is another great considera- 
tion in judging of the ox, the flesh on the different parts being of 
various qualities. Those parts called the "spare-rib," "fore" and 
"middle ribs," "loins," and the rump or "hook-bone," are of the 
finest quality, and are generally used for roasts and steaks. Conse- 
quently, the ox which carries the largest quantity of beef on these 
points is the most valuable. Flesh of fine quality is actually of a 
finer texture in the fibre than coarse flesh. It also contains fat in 
the tissue between the fibres. This arrangement of the fat and lean 
gives a richness and delicacy to the flesh. The other parts, though 
not all of the same quality, are used for salting and making soups, 
and do not command so high a price as the parts just described. 

A full twist lining the division between the hams, called the 
" closing, " with a thick layer of fat, a thick flank, and a full neck- 
vein, are generally indicative of tallow in the interior of the carcass ; 
but it frequently happens that all these symptoms of laying on inter- 
nal fat fail. The disposition to lay on internal fat altogether depends 
on the nature of the individual constitution ; for it is often observed 
that those animals which exhibit great fattening points on the 
exterior do not fill with internal fat so well as others which want 
these points. On the contrary, thin-made oxen, with flat ribs, and 
large bellies, very frequently produce large quantities of internal fat. 

The first part which shows the fat in a feeding ox, is the point or 
top of the rump, which, in high-bred animals, is a prominent point ; 
sometimes it protrudes too much, as the mass of fat laid on these is 
out of proportion to the lean, and therefore useless to the consumer. 
This is the part which frequently misleads inexperienced judges in the 
true fatness of the ox, because fat may be felt on this part when it is 
very deficient on most of the other points. 

The parts, on the other hand, which are generally the last in being 
covered with flesh, are the point of the shoulder joint, and the top of 
the shoulder. If these parts are, therefore, felt to be, well covered, 
the other and better parts of the animal may be considered " ripe. " 
Kipeness of condition, however, can only be rightly ascertained by 
handling, for there is a great difference between the apparent and 
real fatness of an ox. The flesh of an apparently fat ox to the eye, 
may, on being handled by a judge, feel loose and flabby ; but a truly 
fat ox always feels "hard fat." With such, the butcher is seldom 
deceived, while loose handlers give no assurance of killing well. 


It is proper, in judging of the weight of a fat ox, to view his gait 
while walking towards you, which, if he has been well fed, will he 
accompanied with a heavy rolling tread on the ground. In this way, 
a judge can at once come very near to its weight. 

The application of all these rules and considerations to the judging 
of lean stock, constitutes the chief difficulty to the judge. An ox 
in high condition, in so far as its condition alone is under considera- 
tion, can be judged of, as we have seen, by any one ; and sometimes 
the fatness may be so great as obviously to deform the symmetry to 
any observer. The superiority of a judge to others, in these cases, 
consists in estimating the weight, observing the purity of the blood, 
and valuing the points of the animal. But in judging of a lean ox, 
its future condition and symmetry must be foreseen. These rules, if 
studied practically, will enable an inquiring observer to foresee these 
points ; and, in judging between a number of valuable points, it 
should be remembered that purity of breeding will always insure 
aptitude to fatten, which, in its turn, will insure the largest remu- 
neration for the food consumed. D. J. b. 


The "Devon," or rather " North Devon" cattle, chiefly produced 
in the county from which they take their name, are of great an- 
tiquity, and have been celebrated and justly admired for centuries, 
for their pleasing color, elegant form, gentle temper, active gait, and 
other good qualities, which fit them beyond all other breeds for the 
cart or the plough, if not for the excellence of their milk and flesh. 
Their color is generally a light red, but varying a little, either darker 
or more yellow, seldom having any white, except about the udder of 
the cow, or the belly of the bull, which is little seen, or, perhaps, a 
few white hairs towards the extremity of the tail. On the whole, 
there is scarcely any breed so rich and mellow in its touch, so silky 
and fine in its soft, long hair ; added to which, it has a greater propor- 
tion of weight in the most valuable joints, consuming at the same 
time less food in its production. 

It is to the grazier, then, that this breed is more especially valua- 
ble, as few if any others will rival them in disposition to fatten and 
in the quality of the flesh. Generally speaking, the cows are inferior 
to many others for the purposes of the dairy, but not as respects the 
quality of the milk ; for they yield more than an average proportion 
of cream and butter, both of which in Devonshire are proverbially 
known. Some farmers, however, have found them to yield even a, 
large produce of milk, so that in this particular much may depend 
on the choice of pasturage, or the manner in which they are kept. The 
general average of the dairies is one pound of butter a day for each 
cow, during the summer months, or as long as they are well fed. 


This breed will bear transferring to inferior soils, as well as to 
colder and more exposed situations, without suffering in the slightest 
degree. Thus upon the bleak coast of Norfolk, and upon light and 
inferior pastures, they are found to thrive remarkably well, and to 
sustain their flesh upon very indifferent keeping. 

For working purposes, the Devons are unequalled, and no descrip- 
tion of cattle can be compared with them, either for quickness of 
steps or endurance of "pluck/' There is almost as much difference 
in working between these oxen and those of other breeds, as there is 
in a light, cleanly, active cart-horse, and the heavy, hairy-legged 
sluggish dray. In Devonshire, they are usually put to labor at from 
two to three years old, according as they are wanted, and worked 
until they are five or six years of age, when they are quickly fattened 
for the butcher. Four young and two old bullocks are required to 
plough an acre a day upon heavy land, but on light soils they will 
do more. In Norfolk, these oxen are also extensively used at the 
plough, one pair being employed in the forenoon from six till eleven 
o'clock, and another pair from one till six in the evening. In this 
manner, they will generally plough upon turnip soil, one acre and a 
half in a day. It is no uncommon thing, however, for a three year 
old bullock to work in a plough alone, and if well kept, he will per- 
form without difficulty all through the spring. But when the 
weather becomes warm he will suffer very much if worked longer 
than five or six hours at a time. In hoeing ridged turnips or man- 
gold wurzel, with a single plough, or horse-hoe, two steady bullocks, 
one at a time, will walk over five acres in a day; but to do this, they 
must work about eleven hours in a day instead of ten. After a little 
practice, they are preferred to horses, as they are easily managed 
and turn at the ends without trouble, scarcely injuring a single root. 

For feeding purposes, the Devons possess every qualification to 
fatten, being celebrated for the fineness of their flesh and the lightness 
of their offal; and, although they do not attain so great a weight as 
some other breeds, they will fatten at a very early age. They may 
be made quite fit for the butcher when twenty-seven or thirty months 
<dd, and will weigh at that age from 560 to 700 pounds. If kept 
until three years old, or a little longer, they may easily be made to 
weigh from 700 to 840 pounds. 

The period at which the working Devons are fattened greatly 
varies. A favorite old bull is frequently worked too long, and it 
then requires both additional time and quantity of food; but, gener- 
ally speaking, a certain number are fed off each } r ear, and fresh ones 
are broken in to supply their places. These old oxen, when well fed, 
attain a good weight, frequently weighing from 1,120 to 1,260 pounds. 
In this case, however, they are immense consumers, and will devour 
daily, when first put to turnips, 5 or 6 bushels, besides other food. 

For certain districts, the Devons must be considered most valuable 
animals, being hardy and easily kept upon the most scanty herbage 
on poor soils. Their rich milk and fine quality of flesh, combined 
with their unrivalled working qualities, are becoming more appreci- 
ated than formerly, and they are increasing in importance both in 
Europe and in this country, amongst the other breeds. 



The North Devon hull has a hold countenance, indented forehead, 
clear, full and prominent eyes, surrounded by an orange-colored ring ; 
his head is square, with a light cream-colored muzzle, or nose ; his 
horns are moderately strong, a little turned up at their tips, and of a 
wavy color ; his back is straight from the hip-bone to the insertion 
of the tail ; his hind quarter is full and round quite down to the 
hough, with the thigh full of muscles, and a deep, rich flank; his 
shoulder is also deep and strong from the withers to the chest, and thick 
through the breast behind the elbow ; his fore-arm and knee are thick 
and strong, with the bone small and short under the knee ; his flank 
is well down the body, which is rather straight underneath. 

The cow has a neat, sharp head, with graceful, upturned horns, a 
very full, clear eye, encircled with an orange-colored ring, and she is 
of the same color within the ears ; the muzzle, or nose, is narrow, and 
of pale cream color ; her frame is long and straight, symmetrical in 
shape, with good prominent hips and full springing ribs; her hind- 
quarter is long and full; her shoulder round, slanting and full, and 
she is deep from the top of the plate-bone to the breast-point ; her 
fore-arm thick down to the knee-bone, and thin and short below the 
knee ; her abdomen is straight along the under-side ; her flank is low 
down near the hough ; she is usually small when compared with the 

JThe North Devon working, ox has a large, long, straight and sym- 
metrical frame, with a clean, sharp-looking head, clear, prominent 
eye, encircled by an orange-colored ring, a cream-colored nose, and 
long, waxy, upturned horns, which are fine at the points.; his shoul- 
der is slanting and well placed; his neck is lean and thin at the 
breast-point; his ribs are rounded and spring out; his hip is high 
and long from the hip-bone to the insertion of the tail, and nearly 
as high as the line of the back; hind-quarter round and full, quite 
to the hough, with great substance and bone; fore-arm, thick and 
large above, but small below the knee, with a good, expansive solid 
hoof. D. J. B. 


The rearing of domestic animals in Russia forms an important part 
of its agriculture, properly so called, and goes hand in hand with the 
raising of grain. If the one branch of husbandry declines, the other 
Buffers ; and their prosperity greatly depends on a good distribution 
o£ productive soil ; or, in other words, on a due proportion of pas- 
tures, meadows, and arable lands. The length and severity of their 
winters, which abridge the season of pasturage ; the frequent droughts, 
which render the hay harvests less abundant ; and the want of other 


kinds of prepared fodder, which in many countries supply the inade- 
quacy of the natural pasturage — all of which circumstances, when 
combined, place their husbandry in an exceptional position, and re- 
quire a larger extent of meadow land than is elsewhere necessary to 
place the rearing of cattle in a normal relation to the culture of the 
soil. But in Kussia, it has been found that this branch of rural in- 
dustry is not always in proportion to the advanced state of the culture 
of the soil. In many of those provinces, where the number of cattle 
and horses raised is large, their quality is very inferior. They are 
small in size and meagre in the production of milk and flesh. It is 
only in districts where cultivation is considerably advanced that the 
two branches, agriculture proper and the rearing of domestic animals, 
are rationally combined, and progress at an equal pace. In a large 
proportion of the steppes, (a region corresponding to our prairies, and 
embracing nearly a fifth of the total area of European Kussia,) where 
cattle and horses remain at pasture the whole year round, a black 
humus prevails, and the soil is hence so fertile as to demand no other 
manure, and its culture is often so easy that the surface scarcely re- 
quires even to be scratched by the plough. The dung of the animals 
goes to waste, or, in some parts, is consumed as fuel. In other sec- 
tions of the country, however, there are such vast differences — as, 
between North and South — between the regions of the steppes and 
the provinces of the centre — between the latter and the governments 
of the West — that we cannot consider their systems of rural economy 
under one point of view, nor apply to them in a general manner the 
principles derived from the experience of other countries. 

In the greater part of those districts where there are few meadows, 
and the culture of artificial provender is neglected, it is usual to leave 
the animals upon open pasture until the cold becomes excessive and 
the ground is covered with snow, when it is often necessary to feed 
them upon straw. In the steppes, where meadows and good pastur- 
age abound, the rearing of these animals is left to the care of Provi- 
dence. For the want of building timber, it is impossible to house 
them in winter, except in the vicinity of rivers, where sheds of cane 
are constructed for the purpose. In other districts, they put stacks 
of hay around the spot where the cattle are fed, which afford some 
protection against the frosts and drift. It is evident, then, that, under 
such rude husbandry as this, improvements in feeding or breeding, 
and sanatory precautions against epizootic diseases, are alike out of the 

The unsatisfactory condition in which this important branch of 
rural economy is found in some parts of Russia has long attracted the 
attention of the government, and several inquests have been made 
with the view of ascertaining in those localities the causes of this state 
of things and devising a remedy. These causes may be summed up 
as follows : Degeneration, resulting from want of care in the selec- 
tion of breeds ; in some provinces a deficiency of good herbage ; fre- 
quent murrains and other epidemic diseases, which, of themselves, are 
the result of bad nourishment, or of the state of abandonment in 
which the animals are left during the winter ; the want of good vete- 
rinary surgeons ; and, finally, the small profit that can be derived-in 


some districts from cattle rearing, in consequence of a want of a mar- 
ket for meat, milk, butter, or cheese. 

The products of the dairy in Kussia are not very considerable, but 
might become important as articles of commerce, if more care were 
observed in their preparation, and they were made to keep better and 
to be more conformable to the taste of foreign consumers. There are 
many districts, it is true, where local circumstances are unfavorable 
to cheese-making ; but there are also many others where the sole 
impediment consists in carelessness. Of this, no better proof need be 
sought than the fact that several proprietors, who have bestowed on 
the dairy the attention it deserves, have been perfectly successful. 
Among other cases, an instance is cited of a gentleman of Wologda, 
who brought Swiss dairy people to conduct the manufacture of cheese 
upon his estate, and now derives an annual income from that source 
of $3, 750 to $4,500. In the Baltic provinces and in Finland, as well 
as in some other districts, the manufacture of cheese has for some time 
past been progressing well. It is also found that, among the pro- 
vision dealers of St. Petersburg and Moscow, imitations of foreign 
cheese of different sorts are sold, which, though inferior, resemble it 
sufficiently to be put off under the names of " Gruyere" and "Duke 
of Gloucester " cheese. 

The preparation of salted butter is less dependent than that of 
cheese upon local circumstances. Bequiring only care and cleanli- 
ness, it might anywhere succeed to some extent ; and yet but little of 
it is produced. 

The annual amount of tallow exported from Eussia is estimated at 
13,746,480,000 pounds, and an equal quantity, including mutton tal- 
low, is presumed to be used for home consumption in the manufacture 
of soap, stearine, candles, &c. 

The most remarkable races of cattle in Russia may be enumerated 
as follows : 

The " Ukraine," Wallach, or Podolian; Little Russia; Donian; 
and the Black Sea breeds. All these denominations are local ; but the 
original character, which nearly resembles that of the Hungarian race 
of cattle, has been preserved. They are distinguished for their 
strength, adaptation for field labor, and facility of taking on flesh and 
fat. The latter singularity consists in the fat not growing so much 
on the outside, but penetrating the flesh itself, rendering it juicy and 
more delicate, especially when the beeves have been fed in the rich 
prairies of the Caucasian line. It is for this reason that butchers in 
large towns give preference to this beef over that of the other cattle. 
The cows, however, yield but little milk. This breed is to be found 
from Podolia to the Ural, but the finest type is found at Karlowka, 
in the government of Poltawa. It is also met with in some places in 
the province of Ekatherinoslaw, near the river Samara, and further 
northward in the provinces of Little Russia, but of not so fine appear- 
ance, from the want of good keeping. 

The "Kalmik" breed is intermediate between the Ukraine and 
Russian races. It is of small size and fine flesh, and is able to endure 
any change of climate. All the year round, such cattle can live on 


the steppes, and during winter subsist on grass, which they obtain 
from under the snow, except when, after rain has fallen and the snow 
is frozen, they cannot break through the ice, and are deprived of food. 
In many districts of country on the Don, the inhabitants prefer 
this race to the Ukraine, though they are less valuable for the pur- 
poses of the dairy and for labor. 

The "Russian" race, properly so called, has no peculiar charac- 
teristics, as its original type is not easily to be distinguished. In 
general, the cattle of this race are ill-shaped, diminutive in size, and 
not well reared. They are found in the middle, northern and west- 
tern provinces, where they are kept for their milk. In the province 
of Wologda, and in the vicinity of St. Petersburg, this race is im- 
proving from better management. 

To the above races may be added the "Lithuanian" breed, which 
is small, but strongly built, giving an abundance of milk. 

Among the foreign races introduced into Russia is the "Cholmo- 
gory " breed, of Dutch origin, distinguished by its fine form and good 
milking qualities. It is found pure only in the districts from which 
it takes its name, in the government of Archangel. The heavy 
bodies of the oxen render them unfit for labor. In general, the cows 
require good keeping and great care, so that the expenses of their 
support are rather excessive, which must be redeemed out of the pro- 
ceeds of their milk. 

The " Foigtland " race, introduced into some districts of the Bal- 
tic provinces, is remarkable for its medium size and fine appearance. 
The cows content themselves with a rather common food, and give 
plenty of milk. The oxen are well adapted for work. 

The "Frisland" race begins to be multiplied among the Menonite 
settlers of Molotchan. The cows produce a fair yield of milk. 

The Tyrolese, Scotch and English breeds have been introduced 
and acclimatised in the provinces of the Baltic. The Swiss breed is 
extensively diffused, as is also the Tyrolese, in the kingdom of Poland. 

A cross between the Cholmogory and the indigenous breeds is also 
found in some districts of the government of Archangel, as well as 
those of Wologda, Kalouga, Twer, Kostroma, Jaroslaw, and in the 
districts near the capitals. 

The crossing of foreign races with each other, especially of the 
English, Tyrolese and Swiss breeds, has often been attempted, but 
seldom with success. As a general rule, cattle of foreign origin do 
not acclimatise well in Russia, excej^t in the districts where the herb- 
age is good. These breeds require more care and better food, and 
likewise yield more readily to epidemics, than those long accustomed 
to the country. The Dutch and Tyrolese breeds appear to have suc- 
ceeded best ; but the English cattle seem to be least adapted to the 
Russian climate as well as to its food. 

The divisions of Russia in Europe, with the number of cattle, the 
quantity of arable land, the quantity of meadow land, and the popu- 
lation of each., together with the quantity of arable and meadow land 
to each inhabitant, in 1851, are indicated in the adjoining table. 

D. J. B. 



Provinces and govern- 
ments of Russia in 





Don Cossacks. . . 


















Nowgorod , 

Olonetz , 




St. Petersburg. . 










Stavropol , 


Tauride , 


Tschernigow. . . . 



Wilna , 




Wologda , 



Number of 


of arable 



of meadow 




to each 


























































































































































































2 000,000 





































































24,917,805 1 




* A dessiatine is nearly 2.7 acres. 



Statement of D. L. R. Butt, of Centre, Cherokee county, Alabama. 

Our beef cattle generally run in the " range," until a month or so 
before killing. They are then fed at a cost of about $3 a head per 

The market value of beef is on an average, 3| cents a pound. 

Statement of T. L. Hart, of West Cornwall, Litchfield county, Con- 

Formerly, cattle were kept here through the winter with very little 
protection except a crooked rail fence ; but, at present, very few good 
farmers build a barn without a cellar in which all their animals are 
stabled at night and in stormy weather. There is much economy in 
this, both in the amount of fodder they consume, and in the better 
condition of the entire herd in the spring. 

We have among our cattle a breed which have been kept on the 
same farms for at least one hundred years. They have not only been 
crossed with the other old breeds of this section, but with the Devons 
and Short-horns, and still retain most of the peculiar characteristics 
of the originals. Our best cattle, however, are crosses between the 
common breeds and the Devons. 

Statement ofD. Barnes, of Middletown, Middlesex county, Connecticut. 

Cows are in high estimation with us, as milk and butter always 
command high prices, and find a ready market. 
Good milch cows are worth from $40 to $100 each. 

Statement of George P. Norris, of Nexv Castle, New Castle county, 


Most of the cattle of this county are of the common breed. Some 
attention has been paid to the introduction of Devons, which, how- 
ever, are not much in favor. A considerable portion of our beeves, 
which are purchased from the Western drovers, are stall-fed, and 
will compare favorably with those from any section of the Union. 

Good cows are scarce, and $60 is not an unusual price for a good 
milker of the common grade. 

Statement of C. W. Babbitt, of Metamora, Woodford county, Illinois. 

The farmers in this section are making considerable effort to im- 
prove their cattle by crossing with the Durhams and other popular 


In rearing calves, I would recommend that, for the first two weeks 
after birth, they be allowed all the new milk they want, and then 
taught to eat corn-meal. If a box or trough be provided, shel- 
tered from the rain, to which they can have free access, and it be 
kept constantly filled with meal occasionally mixed with a little 
salt, with two quarts of new milk, twice a day for each calf for some 
four months, with a good pasture for them to run in, they will yield 
the farmer more profit in the end than if managed in any other way. 

A likely bullock, or steer, of common stock, three years old, is worth 
$25. A good cow with a young calf is valued at something more. 
Beef is bringing $4 50 per hundred. 

Statement of Alexander Heron, near Connersville, Fayette county, 


Next to swine, cattle in this section are the most profitable stock 
to raise. It is somewhat difficult to estimate the cost of rearing them 
as they are turned out to pasture in summer and fed during the win- 
ter on various kinds of fodder. Each animal is expected to thrive 
upon an acre of good grass. After the first year, the total cost of 
rearing may be estimated at $20, leaving a net profit of $15 a head 
at three years old. Those who stall-feed of course expend more in 
the rearing, and receive a larger return. When grain is fed to them 
until they are about four years old, the profits are nearly equal to 
those of hogs. 

Large numbers of Short-horned cattle have been introduced into 
this county from Kentucky, and are much preferred by the butchers 
to the old breeds. 

The value of a bullock, at one year old, may be estimated at $8 ; at 
two years old, at $20; and at three years old, at $35. The cost of 
transportation to New York, per head, by railroad, by the way of Buf- 
falo, is $14. The cost of driving to Cincinnati is $2 a head. 

Statement of Benjamin F. Odell, of Plum Spring, Delaware county, 


The cattle of this county are mostly of the common breed. The 
cost of raising until three years old, is about $20, at which age steers 
are worth from $25 to $50, and heifers from $20 to $30 each. Oxen 
are worth from $75 to $150 a pair ; calves from $8 to $15 each. 

Statement of L. E. Duput, of Shelby ville, Shelby county, Kentucky. 

The best cattle we have in this region are the imported Durhams 
and their crosses. The cross upon our indigenous stock improves 
the latter fifty per cent. The value of a good calf, at weaning time, 
is about $10. The increase in value is $10 or $15 a year. The cost 
of keeping is from $5 to $10 per annum. 


Statement of Samuel J. Fletcher, near Winchester, Clark county, 


Stock, in general, in this county, are very badly treated, being fed 
merely on straw and late-cut prairie grass, with no cover to shelter 
them during the inclement season. I consider a cross from the Dur- 
ham breed the best, being fine milkers, good workers, and profitable 
for the butcher. A promising bull calf from the " Clay" stock, at six 
months old, is worth about $35, while one of the common breeds is 
valued at only $5 or $6. 

For seven or eight months in the year, our luxuriantly rich prairie 
grass furnishes such excellent pasturage, that I have sold steers to 
the butchers, giving 650 pounds of prime beef at three years old. 
Prairie grass, when cut early and salted, also makes excellent hay. 

Statement of J. W. Jones, of Knob Noster, Johnson county, Missouri. 

Cattle, in this county, are raised with a considerable profit. The 
Durham breed, crossed with our common cows, is preferred to any 
other, which is worth about as much at three years old as the com- 
mon breed is at four. 

The price of a bullock at one year old is about $9 ; at two years 
old, $15 ; at three years old, $20; and at four years old, about $25. 

Statement of W. B. Giddings, of Middle Grove, Monroe county, 


The cattle raisers of our county have turned their attention for the 
last few years to the improvement of the breed. They have brought 
a great number of Short-horns from Kentucky, and a few from Ohio. 
Either pure-blooded or mixed animals are diffused throughout this 
section of the State. They are considered superior to any other breed, 
notwithstanding they require richer and higher feeding than our 
common stock. When crossed with our ordinary cows, the progeny 
serves excellently well" for labor, milk or flesh. 

Stock cattle one year old are worth $12 ; at two years old, from $16 
to $20 ; at three years old, from $25 to 30 ; at four years old, from $35 
to $40. Milch cows are worth from $20 to $30 each, and $18 
when farrow or dry. Beef at home is worth from $5 25 to $5 50 per 

Statement o/D. K. Stillman, of Alfred Centre, Alleghany county, New 


There are no pure-bred cattle in this section, although there are 
some high grades of Short-horns which materially improve the old 
breeds for beef without detriment to their milking qualities. Calves 
are usually weaned when two or three months old, when they are 
turned out to grass. The first winter, they are fed with hay and a 


little meal or roots. The second and third winter they are kept mainly 
on straw, and the autumn following are sold directly from the pas- 
ture, as the fattening of cattle here for the butcher is not extensively 

The cost of raising a bullock to three years old is about $7 a year, 
at which age he will bring from $25 to $40. The cost of transporta- 
tion to New York, by railroad, when there are more than one, is 
$13 17 each. 

Statement of Gershom Wiborn, of Victor, Ontario county, New Tori. 

Our old race of cattle is nearly extinct. In color they were black, 
brindled, or speckled; they had hollow backs, cat hams, and lopped 
horns. There were among them, however, many noble specimens of 
working oxen, bullocks, and milch cows. Our present cattle consist 
of crosses of the old race with the Devons, Durhams, and Herefords. 
They are still improving, running more and more into the Durham, 
for the reason that this breed for beef and milk is held in the highest 

Milch cows are high, selling from $30 to $50 a head. A good pair 
of working oxen will bring from $125 to $160 a pair. The price of fat 
cattle is governed by the New York market, to which they are sent 
by railroad, at about $4 each. 

Statement of Joseph Haines, Jotham S. Holmes, John A. Howe, Oliver 
Green, Jr., and A. F. Dickinson, Committee of the Farmers Clnb 
Bedford, Westchester county, New York. 

The rearing of horned cattle has not been followed heretofore to 
much extent in this section, our supplies having been obtained almost 
entirely from other parts of the country. But, in consequence of the 
increased value of late, it is now receiving more attention. A good 
demand has always existed with us for veal calves for New York 
market, so much so, that a fat calf from four to eight weeks old 
would sell for as much as it would at a year old, treated in the ordi- 
nary way, say from $10 to $15. Indeed, the demand has been so 
great, for a few years past, that buyers are in search of them at a 
much younger age, at prices from $1 to $4 a head. A common price 
has been from 4 to 6 cents a pound, live weight. 

The kind of stock now most profitable for us to raise is cows, as 
they are in great demand for milk dairies for the supply of the New 
York market. The cost of raising will average at one year old about 
$12, valued also at $12 ; at two years, $20, valued at $25 ; and at 
three years old, $30, and valued at $30 or $45 each. The cost of 
transportation to New York by railroad is about $1 50 a head. 

We find the Devons to be the best stock for labor, or their cross 
with other breeds. 


Statement ofE. Matcham, of Pittsfeld, Lorain county, Ohio. 

There is great improvement being made in crossing blooded stock 
on our common cattle in this county. There has been kept, quite a 
number of Devons, Durhams, and Herefords for breeding, and re- 
cently the Ayrshires have been introduced. 

The Devons or their cross on our best common cows make fine oxen, 
of good size, active and tractable, of a beautiful red color, which com- 
mand high prices. Steers are raised to three years old, without much 
grain, for $20 or $25 a head. They bring, when trained to the yoke, 
from $80 to $125 a pair. 

The cows, when crossed, are fine for the dairy ; and by many are 
thought to excel for this purpose. They certainly make and carry 
the most flesh when fed on grass, of any cattle raised hero; and I 
think, when fattened for the butcher, they will make as good or a 
better return for the expenses incurred on them. 

Statement of John Young, Jr., of Forest Grove, Alleghany county, 


Neat cattle are raised to a considerable extent in this county, and 
there is a decided improvement in our stock. The Short-horns, 
Ayrshires, and Alderneys are considered the best for dairy pur- 
poses. Some fine stock is produced by crossing these with the 
common cattle. Good milch cows this season range from $25 to $50 
each. A large majority of the cattle raised in this county are of the 
common stock, small in size, and without any particular recommend- 
ing qualities. 

The cost of raising to the age of three years is about $15. They 
were all milkers when two years old ; and, besides furnishing our 
family (twelve in number) with abundance of cream, they yielded last 
year 925 pounds of butter, of which we sold 690 pounds at 25 cents 
per pound, amounting to $172 50, or an average of $28 75 to each 
cow. The surplus milk keeps eight hogs in good condition. The 
butter and milk used for home purposes fully compensates for the 
cost of their keeping. 

Statement of James McK. Snodgrass, of Mifflin, Alleghany county, 


Our stock of cattle is varied. We have the Durham, Ayrshire, and 
common cattle, with different crosses from each. The cost of raising a 
heifer till three years old will average $15, and the price at that age 
is from $15 to $25. Cows at present sell high. Good milkers are 
worth from $35 to $45. Many of our farmers think that a given 
quantity of food will produce more meat when fed to half-bloods, or 
the first cross between the Durham and our common stock, than 
when fed to full-bloods. Our Pittsburg market takes all the cattle 
raised in this part of the State, and a large number are also brought 
from Northern and Eastern Ohio, and elsewhere, to supply the demand. 


Statement of C. Snively, of Perm Township, Alleghany county, 


Very considerable attention has been given to the improvement of 
cattle. Various breeds have been introduced, among them the Dur- 
ham, Hereford, Devon, Alderney, &c. The Short-horns are held in 
high estimation, both for their beef and milking qualities. This is 
the breed most generally sought after. 

Statement of J). Minis, of Beaver Plain, Beaver county, Pennsylvania. 

Besides the common cattle of this county, there are crosses between 
them and the Durhams and Devons, those of the former being 
considered the best for beef and milk. They are generally fed in 
winter on corn, fodder, and hay. 

Butchers pay from $2 to $3 each for calves, four weeks old, and 
from $12 to $25 for cows. Beef sells for from 4 to 8 cents a pound ; 
tallow, from 10 to 14 cents. 

Statement of Richard Lechner, of Stouchburg, Berks county, Pennsyl- 

The value of neat cattle here at the age of three years is from $20 
to $25 each. Good dairy cows command from $25 to $40 each, being 
worth from $5 to $10 more in the spring than in the fall. 

Statement of Albert Hoopes, of West Chester, Chester Gounty, 


Cattle are raised to a considerable extent in this county. We have 
good animals of all the different improved breeds, each of which has 
its advocates, and each its peculiar excellencies. The Durhams are 
best for beef; the Devons for work, and the Alderneys for butter. 
It is hard to find an animal which does not contain blood of some of 
the improved breeds. 

Statement of J. S. Gore, of Tippecanoe, Fayette county, Pennsylvania. 

Formerly, the cattle of this county were the most deplorable looking 
specimens ever seen ; but a new era has dawned, some beautiful De- 
vons having been introduced. Still, the large and symmetrical Dur- 
ham is the first on the list. It is the best milker and the best beef, 
and grows to an enormous size. It costs about $6 to keep a calf the 
first year, $8 the second, $10 the third, and $11 the fourth, making 
$35. Formerly they were worth at that age from $12 to $25. Many 
of the farmers resorted to having them grazed in the mountains, 


where it cost but $1 a summer, during which they lost several head ; the 
cattle were wintered on straw, and some died before spring. But the 
farmers were satisfied that they cost only $1 a head at the mountains; 
and the straw had no other value. Our Durham cattle command 
about $50 a head at two and three years old. 

Statement of John B. Brush, of Skeakleyville, Mercer county, 


The cost of raising cattle till three years old is $15, which is about 
the price of good ones at that age. Good cows bring from $20 to $25 
in the spring, and from $12 to $15 in the fall. There are men here 
from the North engaged in the business of breaking steers. Their 
plan is to build a pen 3 or 4 rods square, of rails. A pair of 
animals are put in here, and coaxed around quietly for a time, when 
a bow is hung over their necks, and the same gentle means con- 
tinued to induce them to walk side by side. When well reconciled 
to this, they are brought together, and the yoke is then applied. 
A short whip is now used with judgment, and not with severity, the 
effort being to teach instead of forcing them. The steers soon under- 
stand that they are not to be killed, and yield unresistingly. Three 
or four-year old animals trained in this manner for six days are suffi- 
ciently well broken, provided they are for some time afterward con- 
tinued at work under a careful driver. 

Statement of Charles Foster, of Jasper, Marion county, Tennessee. 

The Cumberland mountain, at its summit, presents a beautifully 
rolling table country, about 40 miles across, at this point, watered 
with innumerable branches, the heads of the valley streams of this 
region. The climate is unsurpassed in America. As a grazing re- 
gion, I know of none equal to it. Indeed, thousands of cattle and 
hogs are fattened on the range (which is inexhaustible) every year; 
and, as a general thing, the temperature and other circumstances are 
such that cattle can be wintered without being fed. I make this state- 
ment advisedly, and from positive experience. 

Statement of John Brooke, of Sherman, Grayson county, Texas^* 

The cost of rearing neat cattle till three years old is about $1 50 
per head. This is for the attention given to them, as we do not feed 
them at any season. Some do not even salt them. The price at three 
years old is from $12 to $15. The value of good dairy cows in the 
spring is from $15 to $20. Our cattle are not troublesome to break, 
some "working from the first day. They are generally broken in the 
prairie teams in the spring. 


Statement of Robert W. Baylor, of Wood End, near Charlestown, 
Jefferson county, Virginia. 

The raising of cattle is not so profitable as that of horses. A calf 
will require quite as much attention and about the same amount of 
feed to rear it as a colt, but will not command in this market, when 
it is three years old more, than $40 or $50. 

The cost of transporting a bullock to Baltimore on foot is $>1 25 ; 
by railroad, about $6. 

We have some of the half-bred "Kaisi" or "Damascus" cattle, raised 
from the original pair brought to this country by Lieut. Lynch, in 
1848, and subsequently presented to this State by Hon. John Y. Ma- 
son, then Secretary of the Navy. These animals surpass any others 
for the yoke I have ever seen. They are of fine size, almost as fleet 
as horses, perfectly docile and tractable, and haul heavy loads in 
the hottest weather without lolling like our common cattle. Their 
gait is quick and brisk, and they will make their trips to market and 
back as soon as a horse. I am not sufficiently experienced to speak 
knowingly of the milking qualities of the cows. They have been 
represented as great milkers in their Eastern home. 

We have also imported the Ayrshire, Durham, and Devon, each 
of which has its peculiar advantages. 

Statement of James E. Kendall, of Poplar Grove, Kanawha county, 


I am of the opinion that our "scrub" breed suits our mountain 
range the best. The cost of raising cattle is about $3 a year. They 
sell from $18 to $20 at four years old. Steers, when broken, are worth 
from $80 to $100 a pair. Mules are raised with as little expense as 
steers, and are worth from $100 to $150 a head at three years old. 



Statement o/D. L. R. Butt, of Centre, Cherokee county , Alabama. 

There is very little more butter made here, than serves for home 
consumption, though it can be produced in the summer season for 
about 2 cents a pound. We have a very fine "range" for cattle, and 
the cost of keeping them during the summer is inconsiderable. But- 
ter is worth in our country markets from 9 to 10 cents a pound. 


Statement of James S. Waite, of San Gabriel, Los Angelos county, 


The dairy business is profitable in this State. I have been more or 
less engaged in it for the last four years. The first two years, the 
average price of butter was $1 a pound, and it is now selling for half 
that price. From ten cows, I have sold as high as $300 worth a 
month, after having supplied a family of six persons, and allowed 
the calves from a half to a quarter of the milk from each cow. I 
came to this State in 1849, and since that time have been engaged in 
raising stock, the most of which is of the Spanish or Mexican breed. 
They do not give so large a quantity of milk on an average, as the 
cows east of the mountains ; but their milk is richer, and will make 
more butter than a like quantity from the latter. 

Our process of making butter is to set the milk in pans until the 
cream rises ; then skim, and churn every other day, and wash the but- 
ter in cold water until no milk is left to color it ; then salt it with an 
ounce to the pound, and the next day wash it over again, when it is 
in a condition to be packed down and taken to market. 

I think butter would average here *75 cents per pound during the 
year. Good, gentle, Mexican cows, with young calves, are worth 
from $40 to $50 each. 

Statement of D. Barnes, of Middletown, Middlesex county , Connecticut. 

Cows are in high estimation with us as milk and butter always 
command high prices, and find a ready market. 
Good milch cows are worth from $40 to $100 each. 

Statement of George P. Norris, of New Castle, Neiu Castle county, 


Considerable attention is given to the dairy in this county, the but- 
ter being unequalled. At present, it is worth 35 cents in the Wil- 
mington market, and will probably average 25 cents a pound. 

Statement of C. W. Babbitt, of Metamora, Woodford county, Illinois. 

The greater portion of our farmers make more or less butter for 
sale, and a few are engaged in cheese-making. 

Butter has been sold the present season from 10 to 20 cents a pound ; 
cheese at 10 cents. 

Statement of D. K. Stillman, of Alfred Centre, Alleghany county, 

New York. 

The dairy business is a prominent interest in this section. Butter 
can be made for about 10 cents a pound, and sells from 12^ to 25 


cents. Cheese can be manufactured for 5 cents, and sells from 6 to 8 
cents a pound. The use of the whey and sour milk for making pork 
increases the profit considerably beyond the above estimate. 

The cost of transportation of butter to New York, by railroad, is 60 
cents and that of cheese 44 cents per 100 pounds. 

Statement of Gershom Wiborn, of Victor; Ontario county, New York. 

Farmers in this region usually keep from five to ten good milch cows, 
in order that they may make their butter and cheese for home con- 
sumption, besides some to sell. 

Butter is worth from 10 to 25 cents a pound, and cheese about half 
that price. I have a neighbor who keeps from two hundred to three 
hundred cows and sends his milk 22 miles, by railroad, to Kochester, 
where it sells from 10 to 20 cents a gallon. 

Statement of Joseph Haines, JothamS. Holmes, John A. Howe, Oliver 
Green, Jr., and A. F. Dickinson, being that portion of their report 
relating to dairies, to the Katonah Farmers' Club, Westchester county, 
New York. 

One of the principal products in this county is milk, which finds a 
ready sale in the city of New York, at an average price of 3 cents a 
quart, after deducting three-fourths of a cent for transportation. Our 
manlier of taking care of milk and putting it up for market is briefly 
described as follows: — Vessels, called "cans," or "kettles," used for 
conveying it to the city, are made of tin, commonly containing 40 
quarts each. They are cylindrical in shape, 2 feet in height in- 
cluding the cover, and 13 inches in diameter, strengthened with four 
iron hoops about 1^ inches wide, covered with tin, with two conve- 
nient handles placed about 18 inches above the bottom. Immediately 
after filling the cans with milk, directly from the cow, they are 
placed in the water of a spring, where they are kept from 12 to 24 
hours before sending to market; and this, too, even, in the hottest 
weather. It is a fact worthy of notice, that milk treated in this man- 
ner, generally arrives in better condition than when sent immediately 
after being cooled. The covers of the cans should remain off or open 
until the milk is thoroughly cooled, and it is benefitted by an occa- 
sional stirring. Closing the cans tightly after some 10 or 12 hours' 
cooling, is believed by many to be a good practice in hot weather. 
A strong or unpleasant flavor in the milk is thought to be sometimes 
occasioned by closing the cans too soon. 

We find for winter that early-made hay is much the best for the 
production of milk ; and, in addition to this, almost any kind of nutri- 
tious food which keeps up a good or rather improving condition of the 
cow is the best. 

Butter is manufactured here to some extent, the average price the 
past season being about 24 cents a pound. 


Statement ofD. Minis, of Beaver Plain, Beaver county, Pennsylvania. 

Milch cows sell in this section from $12 to $20 each, according 
to quality. The average price of butter is about 15 cents a pound. 
Cheese is but little made, and sells from 9 to 12^ cents a pound. 

Statement of Richard Lechnor, of Stouchburg, Berks county, 


This branch of husbandry is not pursued here to any great extent, 
as it requires too much land for the pasturage and forage of the cows ; 
or, in other words, it appears not to be adapted to this wheat-growing 
country. I think, however, it might be made a profitable business 
if properly attended to. 

A good" cow will produce 200 pounds of butter per annum; and as 
high as 11^ pounds have been churned from the milk of a cow in a 
week. The average price of butter is 17 cents a pound. 

Statement of Albert Hoopes, of West Chester, Chester county, 


For the dairy in this county, there are good cows of all the improved 
breeds, but I believe that our best stock is yet to be found among 
our common cows. 

A good cow will make from 200 to 300 pounds of butter in a year, 
worth from 30 to 35 cents a pound. My dairy of six cows has ave- 
raged 230 pounds of butter a year. 

Statement of John B. Brush, of Sheakleyville, Mercer county, 


There are but few who have large dairies in this county. Every 
farmer keeps more or less cows and makes some butter. A few 
make some fine cheese. The price of butter this year is 12^ cents a 
pound, and ehcese sells for V cents. 





The "Atlas statistique de la production des chevaux" gives some 
interesting details respecting the method of the administration for 
ohtaining the most correct information with regard to the number 
and quality of the various races of horses to be found in France. 
The society, or administration, for the breeding of horses, has 
divided that country into twenty-seven districts, or circonscriptions, 
which comprise two breeding establishments, twenty-four depots for 
stallions, and one for army horses. 

In order to arrive at an exact estimate of the equine statistics, per- 
sons especially chosen for the purpose were employed in 1850 to visit 
every stable, village, and canton in each arrondissement and departe- 
ment. The result of this census of horses is shown in the annexed 
table. It comprises correct statistics of eighty-six departements, 
from three of which, the Seine, Seine-et-Oise, and Corsica, the admin- 
istration was unable at the time of publication to obtain the results, 
and had therefore to use the census for 1840: — 

Table of the equine statistics of France. 





Alpes (Basses-). ... 
Alpes (Hautes-). ... 
























Garronne (Haute-). 












Laire (Haute-) , 

Horses four years old 

Mares four years old 

and above. 

and above. 

. 1840. 










32. 966 





















23, 392 

















16, 094 






















13, 134 









22, 171 



















3, 129 





























































9, 154 






2, 2801 



Colts three years old 
and below. 












22! 383 
















































32, 785 
105. 63U 
16. 145 










37, 103 
19, 160 


Table of the equine statistics of France — Continued. 


Horses four years old 
and above. 

Mares four years old 
and above. 

Loire-lnfericure . . 



Lot-et-Garonne . . 





Mame (Haute-).. 










Pas-de-L'ulais .... 
Pyrenees (Basses-). 
Pyrenees (Hautes-) 
Pyrenees- Orientates 

Rhin (Ha^-) 

Rhin (Haut-) 


Saone (Haute-).., 


Seine et-Marne.. 
Sevres (Deux-) .. 








Vienne (Haute-).. 















31 i 918 












26. 123 



















Colts three years old 
and below. 








20, 135 














33, 193 



















2; 430 

6, 102 








No returns 

for 1850. 










25, 126 


















10, 165 




23, 133 





















28, 166 


















30; 273 










20, 388 








No returns 
for I860. 











12, 128 









































16, 155 











No returns 
for 1850. 

29, 138 


72, 055 
52, 4 r 


87, 194 



28, 163 






67, 188 
94, 145 




39; 662 


No returns 

for 1SS0. 

If we take the two columns for 1840 and 1850, which contain the 
census of eighty-three departements, we obtain the following result : 


Census of 

Census of 


in favor of 



in favor of 




Horses of four 

years and above. 

Mares of four years 










5.53 pr. ct 
59.54 pr. ct. 

Colts of three years 










6.1 pr. ct. 



It will be observed that the census of 1850 reveals the fact of the 
diminution of the number of horses of four years old and above, and 
the increase of mares and colts. It is to be expected,, however, that 
the horse, being more exclusively employed in labor and more ex- 
posed, should perish more readily than the mare ; but it must also 
be concluded, from the great increase of colts, that more general at- 
tention has been directed of late years to reproduction. 

The table below shows the statistics of the horses of Fiance as de- 
termined by the administration from 1831 to 1850, inclusive: — 


Number of 

Number of 

Average of 
five years. 

Number of 


Average of 
Eive years. 

Average of 

\verage of 
five years. 
















■ 944.40 


- 30,322 


























- 855.00 


• 29,586 



























- 997.60 


- 42,440 


























- 1,226.80 


- 58,819 















The above figures demonstrate with sufficient clearness the progress 
and utility of these establishments. The advantages they afford, in 
improving the breeds generally, as well as in giving increased value 
to the animals in an economical point of view, are already appreciated 
by the French, and naturally lead to the suggestion of adopting a 
similar system in the United States for the improvement of the horses 
of our army, as well as for other purposes. If a depot for stallions 
of approved breeds were established by the government in each State 
and Territory of the Union for public use, free of charge, incalculable 
benefits would doubtless accrue to the country, and in less than ten 
years, the improvement and increased value of the horses would be 

In the Atlas herein referred to, each district, or circonscription, in 
France, has its particular map, on which are indicated the chief places 
for race-courses, and the principal breeding stations of every arron- 
dissement and departement in its territory. It also contains beautiful 
lithographic sketches and portraits of the prominent races of horses 
actually shown as at work, as well as an account of the equine sta- 
tistics, and the character of the breeds of each district, an arrange- 
ment which is exceedingly ingenious, and greatly facilitates the 
appreciation and understanding of the subject. D. J. b. 




As far back as the historical accounts of Russia extend, the rearing 
of horses seems to have always formed a notable branch of the na- 
tional industry. The warlike and nomadic habits of the ancient pop- 
ulation ; the increasing demands for the supply of the numerous 
cavalry and artillery of a large army; the immense distances, requir- 
ing a large amount of animal labor, as well for the conveyance of 
produce and merchandize as for locomotion, all combined, have stim- 
ulated the development of this branch of rural economy, favored as 
it is over a large portion of the empire by the great extent of good 
pasture lands. Accordingly the Russians possess excellent horses for 
all uses. 

The introduction of a regular and rational system of horse-breed- 
ing in Russia, however, dates only from the reign of Peter the Great, 
who opened a new era for this branch of industry. He caused the 
steppes in the vicinity of Woroneje to be supplied with Dutch stallions, 
to which the famous " Bitioughine" draft horses owe their origin; 
while. Prince Menschikoff established at Bronitsi, and on the Pakhra, 
no less celebrated studs, which furnished horses for the service even 
of the Czar. Under the reign of the Empress Anna Joannovna, the 
Duke de Biron, by the acquisition of first-class animals, selected 
from every European breed, powerfully contributed to the develop- 
ment of the hippie establishments of the crown ; while the fashion of 
seeping splendid sets of carriage horses, which was maintained 
throughout the reigns of the Empress Catharine II., and the Emperor 
Paul I., induced individuals to form similar establishments, and gave 
rise, towards the end of the last century, to the studs of Counts OrlofT, 
Razoumovsky, Goudovitch, and Koutouzoff. These, from the small- 
ness of their number, could of course exercise but little influence on 
the rearing of horses in general. Still, by introducing into Russia 
the Mecklenberg, Danish and Dutch breeds, they contributed to the 
production of coach horses of a superior quality, distinguished by 
their frame and strength, and by the beauty of their shape, although 
the type has unfortunately since been lost. 

At the beginning of the present century, the exigencies of war 
giving rise to an exclusive demand for cavalry horses — the abolition 
of the old massive vehicles, which were replaced by the more modern 
equipages then used in the rest of Europe — and especially the formi- 
dable competition of the crown establishments — all these circum- 
stances combined had an unfavorable effect upon the studs of indi- 
viduals, and caused their rapid decline, the maintenance of only a 
few of them being continued. About the time of the restoration of 
peace in Europe, in 1815, however, a hippie society was founded 
at Moscow, which undoubtedly gave rise to a new and vivifying im- 
pulse to the rearing of horses in Russia. It gained from the outset 
the patronage of the government and the attention of the public, by 
the institution of horse races, which prominently brought into notice 
the eminent qualities of the trotters. The brilliant success of the 
first experiment had for its immediate result an augmentation of the 


number of private studs, of which the greater part were employed in 
the production of the horses that appeared at the Moscow races. The 
government on its part, did not fail to second the useful efforts of the 
society by putting at its disposal annual prizes, which it justly con- 
sidered the best and most suitable stimulants for the improvement 
of the breeds. These races, in the opinion of breeders, have acquired 
the reputation of an infallible criterion to guide them in the selection 
of good animals. 

Such are the most important historical data in regard to the rear- 
ing of the equine race in Russia; and when we consider the very 
favorable conditions for its development presented by the natural 
richness of the country, and the encouragement held out for it by the 
government, it must be obvious that its ulterior progress must depend 
entirely upon the judgment with which it is pursued. 

The influence of these wise and beneficial measures will become 
more and more manifest in proportion as the public agents acquire 
more experience and aptitude, and the people learn to appreciate the 
advantages to be derived from them. The improvement of the breeds, 
among the agricultural population, is undoubtedly a great desidcr- 
tum, and the establishment of rural depots for breeding is a means to 
this end, of which the experience of other countries has already de- 
monstrated the appropriateness. 

The Imperial studs at present are seven in number, namely, two in 
the government of Woreneje, four in that of Kharkow, and one in 
that of Nijni-Nowgorod. Being destined to raise stallions for differ- 
ent services, they have been arranged accordingly, and each of them 
has a type peculiar to itself: The " Tschesmenka" stud is a nursery 
of pure-blooded horses, and is divided into two sections, one devoted 
to English races, and the other to Arabian, the "Khrenovoie" stud 
is composed of three departments, saddle horses of the old Orloff breed 
uncrossed, saddle horses, and cross-breeds, including the "Rostopts- 
chine" breed, and trotters; the "Derkhoul" stud, for large-framed 
cuirassier horses; the "Streletz" stud, for light cavalry ; the "Novo- 
alexandroff" stud, for carriage horses of large frame; the "Linareff" 
stud for draft horses of medium size; and the "Pochinki" stud for 
heavy draft-horses of large size, and the ordinary farm horses of the 

The rural horse depots, or private studs, are twenty-four in number 
and serve twenty-nine governments. In 1850, they comprised 1,440 
stallions, which, in that year covered 25,189 mares, being an average 
of 17 or 18 for each stallion. 

Among the agricultural horses of Russia, two classes are to be dis- 
tinguished: The first, the "common" or indigenous breed, which 
possesses every proper quality, both as to strength and energy of tem- 
perament; but, although it leaves nothing to be wished for in either 
of these respects, it is unfortunately at the present day, subject to 
degeneracy, in consequence of precocious copulations between animals 
only two or three years of age; and the other, or "improved" breed, 
has shown, in numerous instances, the advantages of crossing it with 


The greatest number of horses is to be found in the provinces of 
Orenburg and Perm, where most of the inhabitants, who are of the 
Tartar race, have a particular inclination for horse-breeding ; in the 
country of the Don Cossacks, where horsemanship is an indispensable 
part of the daily avocations of the people; and in the provinces of 
Middle Russia, which require a great number of horses to carry on 
their extensive trade. 

The following are the several varieties of Russian horses : — 

"The u Mountain race, descended from Arabian stock. 

The "Krimean," also from the Arabian, which keep a round paco 
across the steepest mountain paths. 

The "Don" horse is light and quick. 

The "Boshkir" and "Kirghis." 

The "Kalinik" horse, very strong, patient, and accustomed to 
graze during winter. It is bony, large-headed and stubborn. All 
of the preceding are adapted or used for the saddle. 

The "Viatka" horse, found in the province of the same name, 
though small, is best suited for the purposes of husbandry and post 
service, being capable of carrying heavy loads. In many places, it is 
mistaken for the "Obvan" race; but Obvan horses belong to the 
province of Perm. 

The true Obvan horse is of good proportions, commonly fourteen 
hands high, or varying but half a hand above or below this mark, 
fine looking, quick in its motions and untiring, quiet and docile. Its 
color varies from sorrel to chestnut or russet, and sometimes, though 
rarely, to bay or black. On account of its strength, it is well adapted 
for agricultural labor and for carrying merchandise. 

The "Bitioughine" horse of the district of Boeroff, in the province 
of Woroneje, originated from crossing the common horse of the coun- 
try with a higher breed, chiefly that of Count Orloff Tchesmenski. 
Its chief characteristics are medium size, large but not fleshy head, 
with small, bright eyes, short neck, broad chest, round, slender back, 
strong and steep rump, large and stout leg-bones, flat hoofs, feet 
covered with thick hair, and long main and tail. These horses are 
very intelligent and quiet, regular in their draft, and able to endure 
much fatigue. They are less used for the saddle than as post horses. 
They can run from 30 to 50 miles without resting, upon a good steppe 
road. They easily draw a load of 1,800 pounds or more. They are 
rather long-lived, and subsist without shelter in winter, and on indif- 
ferent fare. 

The "Kazan" horse, remarkable for its long mane, is a cross be- 
tween the Viatka and Bashkir breeds. 

There is also the "Metsensk" horse, from Metsen, in the province 
of Archangel, quite small in size, but strong. It is satisfied with 
very coarse food, even with moss, never tasting oats, which do not 
ripen in that region. 

The divisions of Russia in Europe, with the number of horses, the 
rural and urban population, the population per square mile, the 
number of horses per square mile, and the number of horses to 



each hundred inhabitants, in 1851, are indicated in the following 
table : — 

Table of equine statistics of Russia. 


Number of 

Rural and 



per square 


Number of 

horses per 

square mile. 

Number of 
horses per 100 





Don Cossacks... 










Kostroma , 









Olonetz , 




St. Petersburg... 

Perm , 










Tambow , 






Wilna , 


Wladimir , 




































































































































































































The reader will be struck in perusing the preceding table with the 
great variety of numerical relations between the extent of area, rela- 
tive population, and number of horses. It will be perceived that the 
provinces situated almost entirely alike in regard to the density of 
their population differ essentially in the number of these animals. 
Thus, for instance, the relative population of Toula and Podolia are 
nearly the same ; but the former contains 41 horses to 100 inhabitants, 
and the latter only 6. Again, in the government of Koursk the 
population is denser than in that of Poltawa, and yet the relative 
number of horses in the former is 43, and in the latter only 10 to 100 
inhabitants. No explanation can be found for this seeming anomaly. 

D. J. B. 


Statement of James Williams, of Bolivar, Jackson county Alabama. 

Mules of the best quality can be raised in this county at a cost of 
$25 until three years old. They are then worth from $60 to $100 per 
head. Horses require a little more cost and care in raising. All 
breeds and bloods do well. Very little expense or attention has been 
paid to the importation of stock of any kind. In horses or mules, 
the more the crossing the better, if it be with imported blood. 

Statement of George P. Norris, of Newcastle, Neiocastle county, 


Few horses are raised in this county ; but through the liberality of 
the Messrs. Reybold, several fine stallions of the " Morgan" breed have 
been introduced. A good farm horse will command $150. 

Mules are used here in teams, but as yet, very little on the farm. We 
are beginning to appreciate them, however, and I have no doubt that 
in a few years they will come into general use. 

Statement of William W. Woodbridge, of Paw Paw Grove, Lee 

county, Illinois. 

The raising of horses is considered profitable in this vicinity. The 
cost of rearing a colt till three years old does not exceed $40. The 
average price six months old is $50. Good horses are worth from 
$300 to $400 a pair. We have a few "Black Hawk" and "Morgan" 
horses, from Virginia, which are in great demand. 

Statement of C. W. Babbitt, of Metamora, Woodford county, Illinois. 

The raising of horses in this section yields more profit to the farmer 
than that of any other animal. Their value is full a quarter or a 


third more than it was a few years since. Much effort is made to 
secure "breeds which are best for all purposes. 

Colts five and a half months old, the usual time of weaning, are 
worth about $25; at a year and a half old, $45. A horse at five 
years old, well broken, and accustomed to the harness, will bring from 
$90 to $150. 

Statement of Alexander Heron, near Connersville, Fayette county, 


Much attention is paid to the raising of horses in this county ; but 
as yet, they are not so profitable as cattle or swine, as their rearing is 
attended with more risk. Although we have many fine roadsters 
and saddle horses, yet they are chiefly designed for light harnesses or 

The cost of rearing will average about as follows: — 

Cost of foal, loss of service of mare, &c. . . $30 
Keeping during second year, .... 20 
Keeping during third year, 25 

Total cost, $75 

After the third year, a young horse will earn his keeping, and per- 
haps more, if properly trained ; but a horse ought not to be brought 
into market until he is at least five years old, as the greatest improve- 
ment in him occurs between the ages of four and five. 

At the age of one year a horse is valued at $40 ; at two years, 
$60; at three years, from $80 to $100; at four years, if well broken, 
from $100 to $150 ; and at five years old, a horse will sell from $100 
to $200, according to size and quality, especially when in much de- 
mand for the Cincinnati market. 

The cost of transportation of horses is rather less than that of cattle. 

Statement of Benjamin F. Odell, of Plumb Spring, Delaware county, 


The cost of raising colts in this section until three years old, is 
from $25 to $30. They subsist during the summer on wild grass, 
which is plentiful. In winter, in addition to what hay they can eat, 
they are allowed a small quantity of corn. 

The prices of horses vary from $100 to $200 each. 

Statement of C. F. Mallory, of Romeo, Macomb county, Michigan. 

Horses are now occupying more attention in this region than any 
other stock, as they net a much more profitable return for the amount 


of care and expense bestowed upon them. The cost of rearing for the 
first three years averages about $10 a year, at which age they sell 
from $100 to $150 each. A ready sale is found in the home market. 
The "Morgan/' "Hamiltonian," "Black Hawk" and "Duroc" 
breeds are the favorites. A Hamiltonian Morgan, five years old, a 
very fine animal, is owned in this town, which, at three years old, 
took the first premium at the Horse Fair at Springfield, Massachu- 
setts, in 1854. 

Statement of C. S. G. Clifton, of Leaksville, Greene county, 


The animals affording most profit to the stock-raiser, in this vicinity, 
are horses and mules, other animals being less profitable than cotton. 
They can be raised to three years old at an expense of $35, and will 
sell from $75 to $100 each. The cost of transportation, by rail- 
road and steamboat, to Mobile, is $5 per head. We have but few, if 
any, imported blood animals. 

Statement of J. W. Jones, of Knob Noster, Johnson county, Missouri. 

Mules are raised in this section with great profit ; at weaning time, 
they are worth on an average about $50 each ; at one year old, $60 ; 
at two years old, $85 ; at three years old, about $110 each. The cost 
of rearing is about $10 a year, when they have good prairie grass 
through the warm season. 

Horses are worth from $75 to $150 each. 

Statement of William B. Giddings, of Middle Grove, Monroe county, 


The animals raised to the best advantage in our county are horses 
and mules. All of our largest mares are bred with jacks, because 
mules can be raised at a better profit than horses, which arises from 
the fact that they come to maturity much earlier, and will command 
remunerating prices at any age. We find them much the cheapest 
animal for our farms. They are also easier kept, as they subsist upon 
poorer food, and are less subject to disease. Their power of endu- 
rance is much greater, and they live much longer than the horse. 

At weaning time, breeders generally sell their mule colts to men 
who buy up lots every fall for raising, at an average price of $40 or 
$50 each, although they sometimes will bring as high as $125. 
They are sometimes kept, however, until the fall or winter after they 
are two years old, when they are brought into good condition and 
sold for the Southern market, bringing in lots from $100 to $110 each. 
Stock mules, in lots, are worth, at one year old, about $60 each ; at 
two years old, $80 ; and at three years old, $100 each. 

Good saddle and draft horses are worth from $80 to $200 each. 


Statement of H. G. Stone, of West Boscawen, Merrimack county, Neiu 


The rearing of colts in this section promises to he a profitable busi- 
ness. The variety most approved is the "Morgan," or crosses on the 

Horses four years old and upwards are worth from $100 to $150 

Statement of Edward Van Meter, of Salem, Salem county, New Jersey. 

Our stock of horses is good. We have a breed called the "Dove," 
of the Messenger strain. They are generally grey, and their size and 
speed have always entitled them to notice. There are also a number 
of imported thorough-bred horses among us ; but our stock is chiefly 
derived from the get of half-bloods. For instance, we have had 
"Grand Sultan," "Grand Seignor," and "Bashaw," all imported 
Arabian horses. Our farmers have also bred from "American 
Eclipse," "Sir Henry," and "Sir Charles;" and "Winaflower," 
one of the best horses among us stood here, as well as "Mark An- 
tony," "Kinaldo," and "Rattler," the latter three, splendid sons of 
the renowned "Sir Archy." An effort has been made, and with 
partial success, to introduce the "Morgan" stock, but our breeders 
believe that their progeny show too much their Canadian origin to 
give satisfaction. 

Our horses have become so completely identified with the various 
grades and crosses of blood, that all that is wanting now is good 
treatment and attention to breeding. 

The price of an ordinary roadster is about $125 ; of a "four-min- 
ute" horse, $150 to $175; and of a "three-minute" nag, from $300 
to $500. 

Statement of D. R. Stillman, of Alfred Centre, Alleghany county, 

New York. 

We have no pure-bred horses in this section. Colts are usually 
weaned at four months old, and run to grass till winter, when they 
have access to shelter, with plenty of hay and a daily moderate sup- 
ply of oat-meal or roots. The same keeping is sufficient till they are 
taken up for breaking, which is usually done in the winter before 
they are three years old. After this, they have better care. 

The cost of raising a horse to four years old is about $60, at which 
age he will sell from $80 to $150. The cost of transportation to New 
York, by railroad, when more than one is taken, is $13 17 each. 

Statement of Gershom Wiborn, of Victor, Ontario county, New York. 

The horses in this section, like our horned cattle, are a mixed race. 
"Nimrods," "Durocs," and "Messengers" were formerly noted 


breeds among us, but latterly, the " Sampsons/' "Alfreds," and 
"Morgans," among our farmers take the lead. Sampson was a 
large, heavy, cow-heeled English draft-horse, imported about twenty- 
years ago. Some of his crosses with other breeds, however, make 
excellent horses, gentle, strong, hardy and active. Alfred was a 
cross between the English draft-horse and a more active and lighter 
race. Some of his crosses with "Old Nimrod" make good, tough, 
high-spirited animals. But the Black Hawks and Morgans, at the 
present time, are the most esteemed for business or all work. 

Nearly every farmer in this county raises his own horse; but I 
should judge that more are brought here, than are sold for trans- 

A good horse at five years old, will sell from $100 to $200. 

Statement of John P. Haller, of Lima, Allen county, Ohio. 

Some good horses are raised in this part of the State, and many are 
annually exported. They are worth from $70 to $150 each at four 
years old. 

Statement of James McK. Snodgrass, of Mifflin, Alleghany county, 


Horses are advantageously raised here. Colts cost about $18 per 
head for their keep until they are three years old, when their average 
value is $80. Horses rate in the Pittsburgh market from $20 to $200 
for good heavy draft, and for first-class, blooded animals, from $200 
to $250. There are different breeds here, among which are the ' ' Con- 
sul," "Hawk-eye," and "Glencoe;" also, for heavy draught, the 
"Irish Bay," "Black Sam," &c, mere local names, but all have 
produced some good stock. The "Morgan" horse is being introduced, 
and much more attention is paid to improvement within the last few 
years than formerly. 

The cost of raising a mule, till two years of age, is about $20, when 
it is worth from $80 to $120. At this age, it is put to work. Many 
are used about the coal mines, where they answer a much better pur- 
pose than horses. Large-sized mules, at five years old, will command 
from $175 to $200 each. 

Statement of D. Minis, of Beaver Plain, Beaver county, Pennsylvania. 

Horses are considered the most profitable stock raised in this sec- 
tion of our State. All grades are kept for use, from the full-blooded 
English horse, to the ponies of the Western plains. 

The average price of good work horses is from $80 to $150. 


Statement of Richard Lechner, of Stouchburg, Berks county, 

The raising of horses in this section is considered a profitable busi- 
ness. The cost of a colt at three years old is estimated, at $60. The 
price at that age is from $80 to $100. 

Statement of Albert Hoopes, of Westchester, Chester county, 

Horses in this county are principally raised for our own use. We 
have blood animals, "Morgans," "Lions," "Canadians," and a very 
fine "Norman" diligence horse. The latter is a direct importation 
from France. When crossed upon our blood mares, I think it 
makes a valuable farm and draft-horse. 

The value of a horse at four or five years old is from $100 to $250. 

Statement of Robert W. Baylor, of Wood End, near Charlestoion, 

■ Jefferson county, Virginia. 

Horses can be profitably and advantageously raised with us. A 
colt can be kept in good order in winter on hay without grain, and 
can be pastured in summer for $1 50 a month from the time it is 
foaled until it is three years of age, at which time, if of good size 
and approved breed, it will command from $100 to $150. 

The cost of sending a horse to Baltimore, by railroad, would be $8, 
or $3 on foot. 



According to the most distinguished agricultural authorities, Rus- 
sia, from the great extent of her pastures, and from other local cir- 
cumstances, is one of the most suitable countries in the world for 
sheep-farming, the encouragement and increase of which are extending 
more and more throughout the empire, especially in the spacious 
plains of Little Russia and the Crimea. Although this branch of 
industry had received the attention and encouragement of Peter the 
G-reat, and other distinguished personages for many years before, its 
commencement may date back to 1793, on the arrival of two French- 
men, Ruvie and Vassal, who had taken refuge in Spain during the 
revolution, and there acquired a thorough knowledge of sheep-hus- 
bandry ; but, as they encountered in that country many difficulties, 
and being aware that there were immense unoccupied plains in 


Russia adapted to this purpose, they repaired to the Crimea, and made 
proposals to the government to introduce sheepfolds of Merinos, pro- 
vided they should be allowed a certain quantity of land and a stipulated 
sum of money in advance. The proposition was agreed to, and Ru- 
vie, having received from the government 100,000 rubles ($T5,000) 
and 30,000 dessiatines of land, (81,000 acres,) engaged to establish in 
the Crimea a flock of Merinos, to be brought from Spain, and to mul- 
tiply them to 100,000 head, as well as to teach one hundred pupils 
the art of rearing them. In 1803, Ruvie and Vassal, at the expense 
of the government, were sent to Spain ; the following year, they re- 
turned, bringing one hundred Merino rams of the best quality. Vassal 
then went to Saxony, where he bought from the best flocks one thou- 
sand ewes and five hundred rams of the " Electoral" breed, which were 
taken to the Crimea, establishing in the district of Dnieprovsk a 
sheepfold, which is still believed to exist and to number at least 
100,000 head, in their purity. 

The government has from that period continued to offer every facili- 
ty for the introduction of Spanish sheep into Southern Russia. By 
the Imperial order of January 12th, 1804, the unoccupied public lands 
in the southern provinces were granted for the purpose of establishing 
sheepfolds, with a promise that, if the grantees should keep them in 
good condition, they should be allowed as a reward the possession of 
those lands for life, or even in perpetuity. The following year, the 
government granted 130,000 dessiatines of land, (351,000 acres,) to 
another foreigner, by the name of Miller, provided he should, in three 
years, establish a fold of 30,000 head of sheep, one-third of which 
should be thorough-bred Merinos, and two-thirds of mixed breeds. 
Miller also pledged himself to keep thirty young men in his establish- 
ments as apprentices, each of whom should be permitted to bring at 
a certain season his own ewes to be coupled with Miller's Spanish or 
Merino rams, in order that the Russian breed might the sooner be 
improved. Conformably to these conditions, Miller established near 
Odessa two sheepfolds, which, however, from some cause or other, did 
not long continue. In 1809, a great number of sheepfolds of the best 
breeds was established in Saratoff and New Russia, which, from their 
success, formed the main wealth of those colonies. In 1810, M. Piktet, 
a Swiss gentleman, also established sheepfolds near Odessa, and was 
provided by the government with the same encouragement that had 
been extended to Ruvie and Miller. Such, among these and other 
proprietors as had improved their flocks, were rewarded by the govern- 
ment with presents. So many incitements, of course, could not prove 
fruitless, and the wool-trade was soon prosecuted on so large a scale 
that it became necessary to find an outlet for its sale both at home 
and abroad. 

Sheep-farming in Russia is dependent, first, on the fabrication of 
woollen tissues in that country, and, secondly, on the demand in 
foreign markets. It prospers only so long as its extension goes hand 
in hand with increased demand for the raw material, either at home 
or abroad. The moment the production advances beyond this de- 
mand, the sheep-farming interest begins to languish. Since the com- 
mencement of the present century, and especially since the general 


peace of Europe, in 1815, the increase of woollen manufactures in 
Great Britain, as well as on the Continent, has, with a rapidity un- 
known, given a strong impetus to the rearing of sheep, particularly 
of the fine-woolled sorts. Previously, Spain and a small part of Ger- 
many were almost the only countries of Europe which furnished wool 
suitable for the production of the finer fabrics, and even for those of 
medium quality, the production of the raw material being scarcely 
sufficient for the wants of the manufacturer, either in England or on 
the Continent. Consequently, the price of wool was maintained at a 
figure which insured a good profit to the sheep-farmer, at a time when 
many other agricultural products exhibited a tendency to fall. Such 
powerful encouragement drew the attention of agriculturists in seve- 
ral other countries to this branch of husbandry ; and notwithstanding 
the enormous increase of flocks of sheep, the wool-trade remained in a 
very satisfactory condition until the period, still recent, when the fleeces 
of Australia first made their appearance in the markets of Great Bri- 
tain, and subsequently in those of Germany and France. This com- 
petition became more and more threatening for the future prospects 
of the Continental sheep-farmer. 

In order that we may form some idea of the extent of this business, 
it may be stated that the quantities of wool imported into England 
from the whole English Colonies from 1839 to 1841, inclusive, amounted 
only to about 11,500,000 pounds, forming 21 per cent, of the total 
importation of that article ; while, during the period from 1846 to 
1849, the mean importation from Australia, alone, amounted to 
28,400,000 pounds, or more than 48 per cent, of the total quantity 

Thus Russia is one of those countries which have most keenly felt the 
competition of Australia. This branch of commerce began to acquire 
importance in Russia about 1830, the exportation of wool having pre- 
viously amounted to only from 1,082,400 to 1,443,200 pounds. Since 
that time, it has increased, without reckoning the exportation of Po- 
land, to 30,3*79,360 pounds. This was the culminating point which 
it attained in 1844. From that date, it continued to decrease until 
1848, when it had fallen to 8,587,040 pounds. In 1849, it rallied, 
the exportation of that year being 21,684,080 pounds, two-fifths of 
which went to England ; but the quantity retained for home con- 
sumption amounted only to 5,766,377 pounds. This sudden increase 
would have been a very satisfactory symptom, could it have been sus- 
tained ; but it probably proceeded from temporary causes, as in com- 
merce a single year can never form a basis for estimates of anticipated 
results. At any rate, the great and increasing preponderance of 
Australian wool in the English market is a fact concerning which 
there can be no doubt ; and, what is perhaps of more importance, in 
a prospective point of view, is the appearance of wool from those dis- 
tant regions in the Continental markets, especially in Germany. 

But, notwithstanding this formidable rival, it is confidently be- 
lieved that if Russia would bestow more care on the rearing of her 
stock, and the manipulation of her wool, she would have nothing to 
fear from the competition of Australia nor of any other country. If, 
however, the Russian sheep-farmers continue to direct their attention 


as they have done hitherto, to increase the numbers of their flocks, 
rather than to improve their breeds, and if the wool-trade in the in- 
terior be allowed to continue upon its present unstable basis, it may 
be safely predicted that their foreign export of wool will still decline 
from year to year. It is a notorious fact that the washing and assort- 
ing of wool in Kussia — operations of great importance — with a few 
laudable exceptions, are performed with such consummate slovenliness 
as to be elsewhere unparalleled. Indeed, such is the absurdity and 
desire for gain of some flock-masters that they speculate on the incre- 
ment of weight from dirt, and wash their sheep in muddy water, in 
the expectation that the fleece will thus bring in more money ; the 
fact being that the price offered by the merchant, who is quite alive 
to the trick, is in consequence so small, that the advantage redounds 
to him and not to the farmer. Again, in assorting the wool, no sepa- 
ration is made of the different parts of the fleece ; sometimes, too, the 
wool of dead animals is thrown in along with that shorn from the 
living ones ; and for ordinary wools, the product of different breeds, 
is indiscriminately mixed. This negligence is detrimental, not only 
to the sale of wool abroad, but also to the fabric of their home manu- 
factured cloths, especially in regard to their receiving the dye. Their 
great want, next to equality and softness of texture, is the suscepti- 
bility of receiving a brilliant dye. The latter effect is most mani- 
fest in light and lively colors — the shades being unequal, and always 
presenting stripes or spots — which is owing to the circumstance that 
imperfectly assorted wools do not equally absorb the colors. In packing 
and transporting the wool, the negligence exhibited is as great as in 
any other department, and forms a striking contrast with the care be- 
stowed upon these processes in other countries. The wool is often 
found to contain a mixture of heterogeneous trash, such as waste of 
hay and straw, fragments of bags, grain, husks, &c. It is also packed 
in coarse bags of bad quality, which are easily torn, and as the pack- 
ing is bad, and the bales are exposed to the weather during the trans- 
port, nothing is easier than for moisture to penetrate them. 

On observing such gross carelessness, we cannot but be forcibly 
impressed with the difference which it exhibits from the well-organ- 
ised routine of sheep-husbandry in Germany and other countries, 
where there exists a healthy emulation. Every one takes care to have 
his wool cleanly washed, well assorted, free from mixture, thoroughly 
packed, and properly labelled. Each proprietor endeavors to acquire 
a good character for his flock, and to maintain it, which causes the 
wool of the best producers to be in demand and always sure of finding 
purchasers. Often the very name of the master inspires confidence, 
and secures a ready sale for his goods. 

The rearing of fine-woolled sheep in Kussia, which was carried on 
about thirty years ago only to a trifling extent, has since increased so 
rapidly that in 1846 the official returns exhibited the number of Me- 
rinos within the empire (including Poland) to be 8,300,000 head. 
In many of the flocks, however, the breed has degenerated, in conse- 
quence of the bad selection of males and injudicious crossing. These 
points require unremitting and constant attention; for it has been 
proved by experience that even the best breeds lose a portion of their 


good qualities, and their reproductive powers, if the necessary cross- 
ings are not seasonably undertaken. There are celebrated flocks in 
Silesia and Moravia, where these precautions are observed with a de- 
gree of punctuality and order, which, to the casual observer, would 
appear uselessly minute. The separation of the flocks into sections, 
or families, is strictly observed ; the product of each animal is carefully 
controlled, weighed, and registered, from generation to generation; 
and as soon as it is perceived that the fleece is diminishing in weight 
or deteriorating in quality, there is a change made of the ram or ewe, 
according as the degeneracy is manifested in the whole family, or only 
in the progeny of some ewes ; and experience has shown that very 
frequently to a ram and a ewe the progeny of which had begun to 
degenerate, has been restored the procreative powers solely by the 
effect of these crossings among families of the same flock. It may 
here be observed that the sheep subjected to this careful regime consist 
not of a small number, but of flocks of from 10,000 to 20,000 head. 

The support of sheep-farms organised with such thorough regu- 
larity as this requires no doubt .a large amount of care and capital ; 
but for these the results obtained afford a handsome return. Of course, 
such a perfect system is inapplicable to the countless flocks that graze 
upon the Russian steppes ; but, between a system so refined on the 
one hand, and the negligence which pervades the greater part of the 
empire on the other, there is surely a broad margin for gradual im- 

Deterioration of breeds has been manifested in Russia for some 
time past, not only in the Merinos, but also amongst the indigenous 
sheep, which furnish wool for the more common cloths. There are 
in that country several sorts of these common breeds, some of which 
yield such coarse wool that it can only be used for the manufacture of 
the most inferior felts, or in the caulking of ships ; but there are also 
others, of which the wool is employed for several sorts of ordinary 
cloths, and might be improved, at least up to a certain point, by judi- 
cious crossing and more careful management, but which, neverthe- 
less, goes on deteriorating. Instead of being regenerated by coupling 
with rams of a better breed, they are allowed to mix with races more 
inferior still ; and their scanty nurture in winter, in connexion with 
the inclemency of the season, likewise has a tendency to render their 
wool coarser. It has been observed that the wool of the common sheep 
of the steppes, which are unsheltered from the rigors of the northern 
winter, become sensibly improved when they are removed into the 
central or western provinces of the empire, where they can be pro- 
tected only during a part of the year. 

Thus, considering that the fine-woolled sheep require a temperate 
climate, together with more care and better food, than the common 
breed, it is evident that there are but few parts of Russia in which 
these conditions are found combined ; and that the southern provinces 
especially are scarcely less propitious to the rearing of fine animals, 
which are there very apt to degenerate and yield but little wool. 
This degeneration may be attributed to bad food during winter ; to 
the quality of the pastures in the steppes, where the base is saline; to 
the want of good water ; to the frequent droughts ; to the heavy dews, 



untimely frosts, and other circumstances peculiar to these regions, 
although some of them are merely local ; for in these vast plains, 
there are many districts abounding in good pasturage and furnishing 
a sufficiency of winter food. Neither can we consider all the southern 
provinces of the empire as unsuitable for the rearing of fine-woolled 
sheep. The degeneracy of these breeds in the south of Russia, which 
is an ascertained fact, it is believed proceeds in a great measure from 
the rapid and often inconsiderate extension of this branch of rural 
economy within the last twenty-five years. Encouraged by good 
markets, many of the proprietors in these districts have augmented 
their stock of Merinos beyond bounds, without calculating their means 
of supporting them during winter ; while others, having an eye to 
quantity rather than to quality, have not paid sufficient attention to 
keeping the breed up to the standard — a matter demanding the most 
continuous care and attention ; for the Merino, not being of pure blood, 
readily degenerates, unless this tendency be augmented in time by 
fresh crossings. 

In conclusion, it may be added that, in mild and temperate climates, 
the successful rearing of sheep depends entirely upon the extent and 
quality of the pasture. Thus, for instance, in Dalmatia, one of the 
poorest provinces in regard to the productiveness of the soil, the 
arable land of which does not occupy more than 11 per cent, of the 
whole area, and which is almost entirely destitute of meadow land ; 
possesses a comparatively larger number of sheep than any other pro- 
vince of the monarchy. But, in countries in which the winters are 
long and severe, it is impossible to maintain very large flocks in the 
open air, without exposing them — especially the finer breeds — to 
great and frequent losses, unless they are housed, or otherwise secured, 
and well supplied with fodder for the whole period that they are 
unable to remain at pasture. These are facts which many sheep- 
farmers seem constantly to forget. 

The following table exhibits the number of fine-woolled sheep, and 
the total number of sheep, in each province of Eussia, and the number 
of both to each hundred inhabitants: — D. J. B. 

Table of Sheep statistics of Russia. 






Don Cossacks . . . 



Number of 









Whole num- 
ber of sheep. 









Number of 
sheep to each 
100 inhabit- 















Khai'kow , 





Kowno , 



Molulew , 


Nijni — Nowgorod. 







St. Petersburg 













Tschemigow . . . 








' Total. 

Number of 
















Whole num- 
ber of sheep. 



































































Number of 
sheep to each 
100 inhabit- 













Statement of J). L. R. Butt, of Centre, Cherokee county, Alabama. 

The cost of producing wool in this section is about 12| cents a pound, 
and the market value 25 cents. There is no article that can be pro- 
duced in this region with so little care and cost, according to the 
market price, as wool, and I am surprised that there is not more 
attention paid to its production. 

Statement of T. L. Hart, of West Cornwall, Litchfield county, 


Some ten years since, after having given up the idea of raising wool 
with a view to profit, I bought a few Cots wold sheep, from which, 
with occasional purchases from the best flocks, I could find in the 
State of New York, I have raised my present stock. This year, I have 
exhibited at our State Fair a sheep with her three lambs, all of one 
birth, weighing 100 pounds each at six months old. I raise twenty- 
five lambs to every twenty ewes. This year, I sold the progeny of a 
single sheep, eighteen months old, for $50, and have her fleece left. 
The fleeces of my other sheep this year weighed from 7 to \2\ pounds 
each. I also received $40 in premiums at our late State Fair. The 
income of my entire flock of forty, commencing with the beginning 
of last winter, amounted to more than $600. In June last, I sold a 
lamb thirteen months old, which weighed 157 pounds. With good 
care and management the great weight of these sheep prevents them 
from being unruly or much inclined to ramble ; besides, they are not 
so liable to be killed by dogs as smaller sheep. 

With a view of testing the comparative value of the breeds, I have 
lately purchased a few of the New Oxfordshire sheep, which I intend 
to keep in all respects like the Cotswolds. It has been my practice 
in some cases, to take from their dams a pair of twins and bring them, 
up as cossets, teaching them to run with the cattle. 

The estimated cost of keeping a sheep until eighteen months old 
is $5. 

Statement of William W. Woodbridge, of Paw Paw Grove, Lee 

county, Illinois. 

This part of the State is well adapted to sheep-raising. There are 
some good flocks of the fine-woolled varieties. As the country is com- 
paratively new, the prairie wolf commits some depredations on our 

The price of wool is from 30 to 40 cents per pound. There are a 
few of the Leicester sheep in this section, and they are highly esteemed 
for mutton. 


Statement of Alexander Heron, near Connersville, Fayette county, 


Sheep, in this vicinity, could be raised at considerable profit, were it 
not that they are so frequently killed by dogs, which discourages 
those who would otherwise turn more attention to wool-growing. 
They can be brought to maturity with far less labor and attention 
than any other kind of stock, as they are much closer feeders and do 
not require grain. In my experience, a flock of one hundred Merinos 
crossed with the Leicesters were kept during last winter on 4^ tons 
of blue-grass and Timothy hay, worth $10 a ton. This flock, when 
shorn, averaged 5 pounds of wool per head, which readily sold here 
unpicked at 30 cents a pound, giving $1 50 to each sheep for the wool. 
A portion of the same flock was sold to the butcher, after shearing, at 
$2 50 each, making the yearling sheep worth $4, leaving about $3 
a head in profit, the cost of rearing being about $1. This, perhaps, is 
more than the average profit, which might be about $2 a head. 

Statement of Benjamin F. Odell, of Plum Spring, Delaware county, 


Sheep-raising in this section, as yet, has not been very extensive 
on account of the depredations committed by wolves, but as the latter 
are now becoming scarce, our farmers begin to turn their attention to 
this branch of industry. 

A sheep, after shearing, is worth $2 ; the price of wool is from 45 
to 50 cents a pound. 

Statement of D. R. Stillman, of Alfred Centre, Alleghany county 

New York. 

There are a considerable number of sheep raised in this section 
principally Merinos and their grades. There are quite a number of 
pure-bred Spanish and French Merinos, the latter of which are the 
general favorites. Since their introduction here, in 1849, they have 
increased the weight of fleece on an average to nearly or quite 2 
pounds in the flocks where used. There is also a growing interest in 
mutton sheep, for the improvement of which the South Downs are 
being introduced. Sheep are kept in pasture from seven to eio-ht 
months, and the remainder of the year on hay and straw, the younger 
portion of the flock usually receiving daily a small quantity of grain. 

The cost of keeping a sheep will vary but little from $1 a year and 
at two years old, it will sell for $2 from pasture, leaving the wool foi 
the profit. The transportation to New York city, by railroad, is $1 
each, from which there is a considerable deduction when a large num- 
ber is sent. 

Good wool can be produced at a less expense of keepirg and labor 
than poor, as the fleeces are heavier, while the sheep are more quiet, 
and consequentlv require less food. The cost of raising from three- 


fourths to full-blooded Merino wool is about 25 cents, which sells for 25 
to 50 cents a pound. It costs 60 cents per 100 pounds to transport it, 
by railroad, to New York. 

Statement of John Young, Jr., of Forest Grove, Alleghany county, 


Sheep are profitable stock with us. We have some full-blooded 
South Downs and Leicesters. From what I have seen of their 
crosses upon the common stock, I think a very great improvement 
will be the result. They prosper in every part of the county. Last 
year, their wool was worth 33 cents per pound. The cost of raising 
them is 75 cents per head, and when full grown they are worth $2 
each. The greater part of the stock, however, is of Spanish Merino 
blood, and brings high prices. 

• A good Leicester buck, at one year old, brings $10, and ewes, for 
breeding, $5 each. 

Statement of C. Snively, of Penn Township, Alleghany county, Penn- 

Of sheep we have several varieties. The South Downs and Leicesters 
are considered best for the butcher, particularly the former ; but the 
latter have heavier fleeces. Those uniting good qualities for mutton 
and weight of fleece are most profitable in the vicinity of the Pittsburgh 
market. The South Down is a hardy animal, and takes on fat per- 
haps faster than other varieties. Good mutton is always in demand 
at Pittsburgh. 

The price of wool is varying. Last year's prices ruled from 25 to 
40 cents per pound for common prime. For several years previous, 
prices were higher. 

Statement of James Mck. Snodgrass, of Mifflin, Alleghany county, 


The rearing of sheep has not been much attended to in this county, 
although almost every farmer has a small flock. The devouring dogs 
have been so destructive to them that many farmers have abandoned 
the business. The Leicester, South Down, Spanish Merino and com- 
mon stock are raised to some extent. Many believe the Leicester to 
be the most profitable, on account of the size of its carcass, and the 
quantity of its fleece. 

Good mutton commands a high price in our market, ranging from 
$3 50 to $6 per head. Wool brings from 30 to 40 cents per pound. 

Statement of I). Minis, of Beaver Plain, Beaver county, Pennsylvania. 

In some parts of this county, sheep are considered more profitable 
than any other kind of stock ; but, within the last few years, the 


fluctuation in their value, has operated injuriously to this branch of 
husbandry. We have French and Spanish Merinos, and gra'des down 
to quarter bloods. A large proportion of our sheep, however, are a 
cross with the Spanish and Saxons, few, if any, of the common kind 
being kept. 

The average price of wool with us may be estimated at 33 cents a 
pound. Sheep and lambs sell from $1 to $5 each. 

Statement of J. S. Gore, of Tippecanoe, Fayette county, Pennsylvania, 

Sheep of all kinds have been introduced into Western Pennsyl- 
vania, which has long been celebrated for producing good mutton and 
fine wool ; yet it did not acquire to the reputation it now enjoys until 
within the last few years, during which time some of the finest im- 
ported French and Spanish grades have found their way into this 
county, and it is now clearly shown that our sheep can compare with 
any in the world. From time to time, various coarse-woolled animals 
have been brought among us, but they have never rendered satisfac- 
tion to those who introduced them. A few years ago, many Saxony 
sheep were brought here, but their introduction eventually ruined 
some of the finest flocks in this and in Washington county. 

It costs about $1 50 a head to keep sheep properly for a year, while 
wool is worth about 40 cents a pound ; so that it is evident that sheep- 
clipping, at 2\ pounds a head, leaves no profit. But our improved 
breeds, which yield from 4 to 12 pounds per head, pay very well. 
Besides this, I find that my French sheep raise about three lambs 
per head annually. 

Statement of Robert W. Baylor, of Wood End, near Charlestoicn, 
Jefferson county, Virginia. 

Sheep are very profitably raised in this section, especially the im- 
proved breeds, commanding at home from $8 to $10 each at two 
years old. 

We have as good imported Cotswolds and South Downs as England 
can produce, the latter being preferred. Their crosses upon our com- 
mon stock are regarded as highly advantageous. 

Wool-growing amply remunerates the shepherd for his care. Wool 
cannot be raised under 20 cents a pound. 

Statement of James E. Kendall, of Poplar Grove, Kanawha county, 


This is decidedly a fine sheep-raising county, but the subject has 
not received the attention it merits. The cost of producing wool, I 
believe, does not average more than 12^ cents per pound. Our sheep 
are seldom fed. They keep in fine condition the whole year on the 
mountain range. They are free from disease, and live to a good age. 
Wool is worth from 30 to 3*7^ cents per pound. 




The introduction of wool-bearing goats lias deservedly attracted 
some degree of attention in the United States within the past few 
years, a well-directed and apparently successful attempt having been 
made, in 1849, by Dr. James B. Davis, of Columbia, in South Caro- 
lina. Having resided several years in the dominions of the Sultan, 
in 1838, he procured in Turkey, in Asia, seven females and two male 
goats, alleged to be of the pure Cashmere breed. 

In 1853, when Dr. Davis communicated to the Patent Office 
some account of these animals, he stated that the number of pure 
breeds of his flock was then but thirty, the progeny having been 
chiefly males ; but that the half and quarter-breeds obtained by 
crosses with the common goat, were much more numerous. He also 
stated that the full-blooded young were equal in all respects to the 
imported, with even a finer and heavier fleece, while the mixed breeds 
proved a great improvement upon the common stock. He moreover 
stated that he had a female Thibet-shawl goat, from which there had 
been considerable increase by breeding with a Cashmere buck. The 
demand for the bucks of his flock, at $100 each, was said to be very 
great, and even the mixed breeds were freely purchased by persons 
who were anxious to improve the varieties already in the country. 
Information has also been received from other sources, that some of 
the full-blooded males of this stock were taken to the banks of the 
Hudson, in New York, as well as to other places, and have prospered 

In 1854, Mr. Richard Peters, of Atlanta, in Georgia, purchased 
from Dr. Davis his entire stock of full-blooded female goats, and some 
of the males ; and he has since been understood to decline parting 
with any of them in the hope that other persons may be encouraged 
to make direct importations.. 

In the communication of Dr. Davis referred to above, it is remarked 
that "the Cashmere, Persian, Angora and Circassian goats are one 
and the same animal, changed in some respects by altitude, though 
but little by latitude." Mr. Peters, however, says of those in his 
possession, in a recent communication, that "they differ materially 
from the Thibet shawl-goats, and also from the Angora goats, although 
they may prove to be of that variety, ctiiLged by climate, breeding, 
and selections. "They are in my opinion/' he adds, "the true Cash- 
mere goats, a variety never belore introduced into Europe nor Ameri- 
ca." He proceeds, "A Mons. Tourneau, in 1818, introduced a large 
flock of the Thibet goats into France, descendants of which are now 
bred in England. I have seen specimens of the latter ; they are of 
but little value, and entirely different from the Davis goats. " * * * " The 
goats of the province of Angora are of mixed colors, and have a coarse 
fleece, with their horns turned down, and differ from the Davis goats 
as much as our common sheep differ from the Merinos." 

There appears to be some misapprehensions manifested in these 
quotations, which it may be proper to correct: The Cashmere and the 


Thibet goat are the same. The regions called Cashmere and Thibet 
adjoin each other, and the western portion of the latter, which is called 
Little Thibet, is included in the dominions of the Maharajah of 
Cashmere. This goat is found also in the country of the Kirghiz, in 
Central Asia, at the bend of the Ural, north of the Caspian sea. It 
is of the size of the domestic varieties most common in Europe and 
the United States, and is covered with long, flat, and falling silky 
hair, beneath which there is in winter the delicate greyish wool which, 
constitutes the fabric of the costly Cashmere shawls of commerce. 
Only 3 ounces of this wool are, on the average, obtained from each 
goat. This is sold by the goatherds for a little over $1 a pound. 
Thirty ounces, valued at $2, is all that is required in the manufacture 
of a shawl a yard and a half square. The immense cost of these 
shawls in the European market is therefore a subject of much wonder 
to those unacquainted with the history of their manufacture and 
transportation. The wool is first combed from the goats in the 
mountains of Thibet and sent to Cashmere, where a heavy duty is 
paid upon it. It is there bleached, spun into yarn, and taken to the 
bazaar, where another tax is paid upon it. The thread is then dyed, 
the shawl woven, and the border attached to it, when the weaver has 
to carry it to the custom-house, where it is taxed according to the dis- 
cretion or caprice of the collector. The two dollars' worth of wool 
have by this time become magnified in value ; but if they are intended 
for the European market, they have yet to pass through the ordeal ©f 
still heavier exactions. They must be borne from Cashmere across 
the Indus to Peshawur on the frontier of Afghanistan, a journey oi 
twenty days, upon the back of a man, the road being often impassable 
by camels or mules, deep precipices being crossed upon suspension 
bridges of rope, and perpendicular rocks climbed by means of wooden 
ladders. At various stages of this journey, taxes are exacted, amount- 
ing to $9 or $10 in the aggregate. From Peshawur to near the con- 
fines of Europe, tribute is paid at many custom-houses; but the for- 
bearance of the marauders of Afghanistan and Persia, and of the Tur- 
komanic hordes, must also be purchased at a high price. The precious 
burden is then conveyed to Europe over the Caucasus, and through 
Russia, or, as is now frequent, through the Turkish provinces to Con- 

There is some evidence of the importation both of the Thibet and 
the Angora goats into France at different times. Mr. Peters, as has 
been already quoted, ascribes to a Mr. Tourneau, in 1818, the importa- 
tion into France of the Thibet goat, which he believes he has lately 
seen in England in a degenerate condition. It is probable, however, 
that, as a casual observer, Mr. Peters did not take time to investigate 
the proofs of the idenity of the goats he saw, with the importations 
from Thibet into France. It is well known that, in 1819, a Mons. 
Jaubert brought some 400 or 500 Thibet goats from the Kirghiz 
territory to France, having started from the former country with 
1,300. Those which survived the journey were received at 
Marseilles by a Mons. Tessier, and by him placed in various situa- 
tions in France. A doubt was at one time expressed as to the 
purity of the breed of these goats, but no gwod reason was advanced 


as the basis of such a doubt. Their fleece did not prove abundant 
enough for profit, however, until in 1823, when a Mons. Polonceau 
caused a cross to be made between the Thibet, or Cashmere, and 
Angora goat, (whence the latter was procured was not stated,) with 
great success, insomuch that, instead of three, thirty ounces of 
down was obtained from each of several of the cross-breeds ; and, it is 
added, of a superior quality, being of finer and longer staple, while 
the animals themselves were quite hardy and more docile. 

In 1824, some of the Thibet goats were conveyed from France to 
the county of Essex, in England, by a Mr. Towers ; but the number 
was not regarded as sufficient, nor is there any record of the result. 

Dr. Davis is therefore obviously misled in supposing that the four 
varieties of goats named by him are identical ; and Mr. Peters is 
equally in error in the distinction he defines between Cashmere and 
Thibet-shawl goats, and in alleging that the goats of Angora are of 
mixed colors, coarser fleece, &c, for they are always described as 
"invariably of a silvery white, with long and silky hair of one sort 
only." The specimens received at this Office, of the fleece of Mr. Pe- 
ters' goats, correspond with this description of the hair of the Angora 
goat, and no specimen has been received of the greyish undergrowth 
of down peculiar to the Cashmere or Thibet ; but we have the au- 
thority of an officer of the British army, who passed several years in 
India, for the statement that, from goats taken from the mountains of 
Thibet to the warm climate of British India, this down wholly disap- 
peared the first year. The portraits of a pair of Mr. Peters' goats, 
(shown on PL IV. and PL V.,) correspond to the descriptions usually 
given of those of the Thibet breed. 

From all the information at present obtainable upon this general 
subject, it may be concluded that the goats in the possession of Mr. 
Peters aro probably of the true Thibet or Cashmere variety ; that it is 
to the intelligence, energy, and patriotic enterprise of Dr. Davis and 
Mr. Peters the country is indebted for the best directed, most persist- 
ent, and most successful effort that has ever been made to introduce 
an improved breed of goats either into Europe or America ; and that 
the example of these gentlemen should be emulated by every intelli- 
gent and public spirited agriculturist in the country, who has the 
means of either uniting in the work of making further importations, 
or of causing the general propagation and cherishing of those intro- 
duced by others. The importance of this enterprise is greater than is 
usually supposed ; for, depreciate as we may in theory the desire of 
fine and luxurious apparel, this desire is universal, and will be grati- 
fied at whatever cost. The home demand for woollen fabrics of the 
finest textures will continue to be large, urgent, and permanent, and 
the home supply should correspond to it. The flesh, also, of the goat 
and of the kid, has always been relished and regarded as wholesome 
and nutritious in those countries in which it is abundant. From the 
most remote antiquity, the milk of the goat has been in requisition in 
various parts of the world. In Syria, at the present day, the milk of 
the goat and sheep, almost, if not entirely, supersedes that of the eow, 
and its products of butter and cheese are in general use. In Switzer- 
land, and in mountainous and other portions of France, Spain, Italy, 


&c, the same usages prevail. The variety and coarseness of the fare 
of the goat, the hardiness of its nature, and the facility with which it 
accommodates itself to either a sheltered or exposed life, enable per- 
sons in all situations to keep it without inconvenience, with the singk 
exception that it is destructive to young trees, which it denudes oi 
their bark when they 1 are accessible to it ; but it generally selects bit- 
ter and slightly astringent herbs for its food. 

Many reasons have been assigned for the fact that the presence of s 
goat in a stable is beneficial to the health of the horse, such as that 
the odor exhaled from its body is salutary, that its companionship is 
cheering to him in his solitude, that the portions it selects from his 
food would be injurious to him, &c. Whether the primary fact as- 
sumed is true, and if so, whether each or all of these causes are real, 
will not here be discussed ; but the usage of encouraging this com- 
panionship has been so well approved by experience, that its practice, 
which is seldom attended either with expense or inconvenience, should 
not -be inconsiderately forsaken. These remarks apply alike to the 
common varieties, and to the improved breeds of goats herein com 
mended to favor and adoption. D. J. b. 




As the history of these goats has already been given in the Agri 
cultural Report of the Patent Office for 1853, as well as in other pub- 
lications, by Dr. James B. Davis, of South Carolina, it is deemed 
unnecessary to repeat it here. The full-bred animals of this importa- 
tion, as well as their crosses on the common goat, have been sent 
to various parts of the country. Dr. D. C. Ambler, who has intro- 
duced them into New York, presented the specimens for examination 
to this Office. The value and good points of these animals have been 
so well reported upon, at the various exhibitions at which they have 
taken prizes, that I shall say nothing upon these subjects, but pro- 
ceed at once to the immediate object of this paper. 

The first specimen examined is from a full-bred "Davis" female, 
born in South Carolina, and carried, when four months old, to Water- 
ville, Oneida county, New York, by Dr. Ambler, by whom it is owned. 
The fleece was taken when twelve months old. The lock examined 
shows a very beautiful curled or wavy hair, of silvery whiteness, with a 
fine, downy wool at its base. The hair selected for representation was 
10 inches long. A portion, taken about the middle of its length, ^ 



shown in cut a, magnified about feur hundred times. In copying the 
original drawing, the projecting points of the external scales, or cells, 
of the hair have been somewhat exaggerated. 

The next specimen is also from a full-bred female, born in South 
Carolina, and carried to Harper's Ferry, in Virginia, when four 
months of age. The fleece was taken when twelve months old. In 
this lock, the wool is somewhat more abundant than in the former : 
the hair being nearly as long and a little finer. In all the hairs, 
taken from this sample, the external scales, or cells, were rather less 
evident than in specimen a. In cut b, is shown a hair in which they 
are least plainly marked. 

a. — Hair of a full-blooded Asiatic goat, fron. New Vork, magnified 400 times. 
4.— Hair of a full-blooded Asiatic goat, from Virginia, magnified 400 times. 

The third specimen is from a full-bred male, also born in South 
l arolina, but carried to Charlestown, Chatauque county, New York, 
g vned by Mr. D. Davenport. The fleece was taken when twelve 
mouths old. There is rather l^ss wool, but the character of the 
hair is similar to that of a and 6, a portion of which is denoted on 
cut c. 

e. — Hnir cf a full-blooind Asiatic goat, from New York, magnified 400 times. 

d. — Hair of a second cross between the Asiatic and common goat, magnified 400 times. 

The hair shown in the drawing, by d, is from the second cross be- 
tween the full-bred and common goat, born in South Carolina, and 



carried to New York, when four months old. The fleece is said to have 
been taken when about twelve months of age. This is much shorter 
than any of the others, being about 5 inches long ; but it is exceed- 
ingly beautiful, both in texture and in color. The hair shown in cut 
d, is less in diameter than any of the others. The degree of fineness 
is about that of the finest Saxony wool. 

e. — Outlines of hairs of a full-blooded Asiatic goat, taken from the finest Calcutta shawl, magnified 

400 times. 

By way of comparison, a mere outline is given at e, of different hairs, 
from a piece of shawl stuff, imported from Calcutta, and said to be 
the finest ever brought to this country. The fabric was dyed red, and 
has contracted somewhat in the process. It is evident, from the 
character of the smaller hairs, that they have been taken at a much 
earlier age than those represented above. 

It is gratifying, then, to be assured that the fleece may be raised in 
this country with a fineness closely approximating to that which it 
has ever attained in Asia, under the most favorable circumstances. 

The cress with the common goat is particularly interesting, as 
showing no deterioration in the hair. It has not been considered 
necessary to dwell upon the minute peculiarities of structure in thsee 
specimens. Larger quantities of the hair and more exact information 
as to the treatment, age, and condition of the animals, would be re- 
quired to give any real value to such an investigation. 




The rearing of swine is carried on in Russia to a considerable ex- 
tf at, especially in the governments of Mohilew, Kowno, Tschernigow, 
K harkow, Saratow, Tambow, Woroneje, Orel, and Konrsk. In the 
latter, there were reckoned, in 1846, nearly 600,000 head, and in each 
of the other governments, from 400,000 to 500,000. The aggregate 
in the forty-eight governments was estimated at 10,053,500 head. In 
the kingdom of Poland, it was estimated that there were 800,000. 
Adding Finland and those governments in which the statistics were 
cot officially ascertained, the total estimate was 12,000,000, or about 
one animal to every five inhabitants, the relative number to the popu- 
lation being nearly the same as in Austria, and much larger than in 
Prussia or in France ; but it is still far less than it might be, con- 
sidering the means the Russians have of feeding them. In general, 
they bestow but little care on this branch of rural economy, although 
it is well suited to the country, and is generally very profitable. It 
is much neglected in the provinces of New Russia, where it is believed 
that ten times the number of animals might be raised that now are. 
In the governments of Kherson, Ekatherinoslaw, Tauride, and Bes- 
sarabia the number has scarcely increased for the last forty or fifty 
years, notwithstanding the encouraging example of the German 
colonists who derive great profits from this source. As a proof of the 
negligence with which the swine are treated in some districts, the 
following observation by M. Haxthausen, on the government of Nijni- 
Nowgorod, may be cited : — 

"We have seen herds of long-bristled swine wandering about in 
the forest during summer, like deer, without the least superintend- 
ence. In autumn, the people catch as many as they can, and make 
an equal distribution of them amongst all the families of the village, 
so that, in regard to these animals, there is no distinction of indi- 
vidual property." 

When we consider what large numbers o'f swine have for some 
years past been sent from Hungary and Servia by railway to Ham- 
burg, and thence to England, notwithstanding the enormous expenses 
of such long inland journeys, we may conceive the importance which 
this business might attain in a very short time in those provinces of 
Russia that are not remote from the coast. 

The total value of swine in Russia and Poland is estimated at 
$15,750,000. This includes the value of the bristles, most of which 
are exported from Little Russia, and form no inconsiderable article 
of commerce. d. j. b. 



Statement o/D. L. R. Butt, of Centre, Cherokee county, Alabama. 

Pork cannot be raised here under 5 cents a pound. It usually sells 
for 6 or 7 cents. There is very little more raised than is required for 
home consumption. The cost of transportation to Charleston is $1 75 
per 100 pounds. 

Statement of Alexander Heron, near Conner sville, Fayette county, 


Among the different animals raised in this section for market, swine 
take the lead, as they are far the most profitable. There is some 
objection to them on account of their rooting propensities and the 
consequent destruction to pastures ; but this has been demonstrated 
to be easily avoided by "ringing" the nose, thus rendering them 
almost as harmless as sheepX* 

The best breed of swine which we rear is the "Chester Whitu," 
which constitutes the largest proportion of the hogs in this region. 
Stock hogs will thrive and winter well on seven bushels of corn ; and 
if there be plenty of "mast" they will do well on less. The cukI 
of rearing a hog for market may be estimated as follows: — 

For seven bushels of corn at 30 cents, . . . $2 10 
For three months' pasturage, on clover, from 1st Sep- 
tember to December 1st, . . . 50 
For eighteen bushels of corn for fattening, at 30 cents, 5 40 

Total cost, $8 00 

Hogs fed in this way will average 250 pounds in weight, which, at. 
6 cents a pound, will make the gross sale per head $15, showing 
a net profit of $7 on each head. This is equivalent to selling the 
corn at 60 cents a bushel, besides the improvement of the ground on 
which they were fed, by their manure. 

Most of the hogs reared here are packed at Connersville, our home 
market in this county. The difference in price between this and the 
Cincinnati market is about 35 cents per 100 pounds, which is nearly 
the cost of transportation. The number of hogs which have been 
packed here this season is 25,000. 

Statement of L. E. Dupuy, of Shelbyville, Shelby county, Kentucky. 

Our hogs have been crossed upon the "Berkshire," "Irish Grazier," 
" Woburn," &c. , until we scarcely know what we have, except that thoy 
are hogs. Our rule is to get the longest hog that will fatten early 
and kindly, without regard to name. We make them weigh from 


200 to 350 pounds when a year or eighteen months old, by feeding on 
ciover, rye, oats, and corn. 

Statement of E. A. Holm an, of Harvard, Worcester county, 


The animals raised to the best advantage with us are the " Suffolk" 
swine, which are also successfully crossed on our common breed. The 
best mode of keeping is in sheltered pens, fed from the refuse of the 
dairy with the addition of meal of Indian corn, or some other grain. 
1 he cost of raising at six weeks old is 8 cents a pound. The market 
vnlue at that age is $3 50 each. 

The cost of producing pork is 9 cents a pound; market value 10 
cents a pound; transportation to Boston, $3 a ton. 

Statement of Gersiiom Wiborn, of Victor, Ontario county, New York, 

A considerable number of hogs is raised in this county, though it 
is not thought to be profitable to keep any more than can be pro- 
duced on the farm without feeding too much with good marketable 
giain. It is generally believed that they should be raised until they 
are fifteen or eighteen months old, principally upon grass and milk, 
and then shut up in pens and fattened with barley or corn. 

Our hogs, like other farm stock, are of a mixed character, produced 
by crossing the best breeds of Europe with the old races of this sec* 
tion. The latter were long-legged, long-visaged, flap-eared, and 
coarse-boned. Their most unamiable characteristic was a great affec- 
tion for chickens, goslins, and lambs. The "Berkshire" was for a 
long time a very popular breed, fine-boned, and easily fattened, but 
rather too small. The "Leicester" is a good-sized fine-boned hog, 
and, if bred well, will fatten at fifteen months old, and will weigh 
500 or more pounds. The "Suffolk" breed has also of late been in- 
troduced here, but from the thinness of their hair they do not appear 
to be at all adapted to the severity of our winter climate. 

Statement of James McK. Snodgrass, of Mifflin, Alleghany county, 


Almost every farmer here raises his own pork, and a surplus for 
home trade. To raise it on corn would cost from $4 to $4 50 per 
100 pounds. We have the "Berkshire," the "Chinese," the "Bed- 
ford," the "Chester county," and the common or wood breeds. 
Tire Chinese and Berkshire have been profitably raised several years. 
The Chester county hog has been introduced, and is much valued by 
our farmers. 


Statement afD. Minis, of Beaver Plain, Beaver county, Pennsylvania. 

Hogs are not much raised with us beyond the wants of the conaty, 
not being considered so profitable as other kinds of stock. The " Chi.ia' ' 
breed is the most prevalent, though some keep the "Russian," the 
latter of which are not much esteemed on account of the cost of bring- 
ing them to maturity. 

Pork is worth from 5 to 8 cents a pound; lard from 9 to 12\ 

Statement of Albert Hoopes, of West Chester, Chester county, Ptiti- 


Hogs are raised here for home consumption, and a few for market. 
Several of the imported breeds have been tried, but all have given 
way to an "Improved Chester county" hog. Swine are generally kept 
in pastures during the summer, being allowed the slops from the 
kitchen, and the refuse milk from the dairy. When fattened with 
whole corn between the ages of six and eighteen months, they w ill 
gain about a pound a day. 

The price of pork is from 9 to 10 cents a pound. 

Statement of James E. Kendall, of Poplar Grove, Kanaivha counhj 


Hogs are regarded as indispensable stock in this county. Tlwjf 
grow large, and do well on acorns and beech mast. The only uc- 
tention required is to keep them tame. A cross of the Berkshir? 
and China breeds suits us best. 



Statement of George P. Norris, of Newcastle, Newcastle county, 


I have devoted much time to the poultry department of the farm ; 
and, though at present the great mania for large fowls appears to 
have subsided, it cannot be said that our people have not been bene- 
fitted in having their attention called to the improvement of the 
various breeds. 

The "Large Shanghai" fowls generally introduced throughoul 
the country, are by no means the most profitable. They are regular. 
hut not extraordinary layers, and grow very rapidly, but are enor- 
mous eaters. The principal benefit to be derived from them will bt 
the cross obtained between them and ths smaller breeds. 

Of all the fancy fowls, I prefer either the "Black Spanish, " or tho 
" Polands. " The former are handsome, of moderate size, hardy, 


easily kept, and great layers, in consequence of which they have 
obtained the name of " everlasting layers." 

The Poland fowls resemble the Spanish in everything except 
appearance. They are jet black, with a characteristic white top- 
knot, and are by many considered the handsomest variety known. 
Having had some experience with each breed, I can unhesitatingly 
recommend them, as they are well adapted to the wants of the farmers 
of the Middle States. 

I should have mentioned, however, that none of the breeds noticed 
above are good sitters ; therefore, a few hens of other breeds should 
be kept for the purpose of hatching the eggs of these, and rearing the 




The cotton-plant furnishes food for numerous insects, some of which 
feed exclusively upon the leaf, some upon the flower, while others 
destroy the young buds and bolls. It is my purpose to describe the?s 
insects, not in the order of their classification by natural families, but 
according to the part of the plant they most generally frequent, or 
to which their ravages are chiefly confined. Thus, by referring to 
the parts injured, one can easily recognise the insects, or their larva', 
which attack them in any of the stages of their existence. 

Many of these insects at first appear in small numbers, and only 
become formidable in the second or third generation ; for instance, if 
a female boll-worm produce 500 moths, one-half of which are males 
and the other half females, the next generation, if the increase be in 
the same ratio, will amount to 125,000 catterpillars or moths ; and 
all this is accomplished in the space of a few weeks. It will there- 
fore be perceived that their destruction depends upon prompt and 
timely action ; and planters may materially aid in carrying out a 
work designed for their mutual benefit, by minutely observing the 
habits a"nd characteristics of these pests of our fields, devising means 
for their destruction, and communicating the results of their ob- 
servations and experiments, through some appropriate channels, to 
the public. 

Insects injurious to the cotton-plant consist of those very destruc- 
tive to the general crops, such as the boll-worm, cotton caterpillar, 
and some others ; and those which do comparatively little injury, 
their numbers thus far not being sufficiently great to cause much 
damage, such as the leaf-rolling caterpillar (tortrix) and several 


insects hereafter mentioned. There are still others, which do not 
materially injure the crop itself, such as the span-worm, and others 
which only feed upon the petals or pollen of the flowers. There are 
also many insects found in the cotton-fields which do no damage 
whatever to the plant, but merely feed upon weeds and grass grow- 
ing between the rows, such as the caterpillar of the Argynnis colum- 
bina, which feeds upon the passion-vine, and that of the Zanthidia 
niceppe, which sometimes devours the Maryland cassia, and produces 
the beautiful orange-colored butterflies, seen in vast numbers hover- 
ing over moist or wet places on the plantations. 

A class of insects which is highly beneficial, comprehends the larva? 
of the lady-bird, the ichneumon flies, and many others, that are ever 
on the search for living victims amongst the noxious tribes, and 
which serve to keep the numbers of the latter within proper bounds. 

Thus, it is highly necessary to be able to recognise the injurious 
from the comparatively innoxious as well as the useful insects, and I 
have therefore thought proper to describe and figure most of those 
which infest the cotton-fields, as many of them feed upon or injure 
the plants in one state or another ; and, although they may do but 
little injury at first, yet, were they to multiply as fast as some others, 
they would eventually become as great a nuisance as the boll-worm is 
at present. According to a communication from Colonel Whitner, of 
Tallahassee, in Florida, tbe latter insect was scarcely known in that 
region before the year 1841 ; but it has since increased to such an ex- 
tent as to cause an immense yearly loss to the planters. 

Several methods of *destroying insects on plantations and elsewhere 
have been recommended, one of which is the. use of fire or burning 
torches. The innumerable myriads of nocturnal moths, being 
attracted by the lights, burn their wings as they hover around, and 
are either destroyed at once, or disabled from flying about to deposit 
their eggs in distant parts of the field. A species of lantern has been 
used for entrapping such as are attracted by light, and with some 
success. It is formed of a top, bottom, and back, made of wood, with 
a glass front and sides, a little more than a foot square, according to 
the size of the glasses used. The front is supported by a pillar at 
each corner ; on the inside of the back of the lantern is fastened a tin 
or glass reflector. The three glazed sides consist of two panes, slid- 
ing in grooves, made in the top and bottom boards, and meeting in 
the middle at an angle of about 120°, instead of one pane, as in com- 
mon lanterns. These panes can be slipped in and out, so as to leave 
a space open between them, larger or smaller as may be desired. A 
lamp is placed in the centre of the bottom, protected from insects and 
wind by a common glass chimney, which protrudes through a hole in 
the top. All the bottom of the box inside of the glass having been 
previously cut away, excepting a circular place on which to put the 
lamp, it is then deposited on a vessel or barrel covered with cloth, 
having an aperture cut in it corresponding with the bottom of the 
box, and the vessel beneath, containing molasses, or some other ad- 
hesive substance. Tbe insects which may be flying about will be 
immediately attracted by the light, and approach the angle of the 
panes until they shall have entered the aperture, when, once within, 


and not being able to fly out again, they will come in contact with 
the heated glass chimney, and thus be precipitated into the vessel 
beneath, in which they will perish. 

Another plan, which it is hoped may, upon experiment, be found 
applicable to the enemies of the cotton-plant, has lately been reported 
as having proved efficient as a means of destroying the tobacco-worm, 
in Florida. This worm is the larva of a large moth commonly known 
by the name of the "tobacco-fly," (Sphynx Carolina,) which is in 
the habit of feeding upon the nectar, or honey, contained in flowers, 
over which it may often be seen in the evening, poised in the air in a 
manner similar to that of the humming bird, making a buzzing noise 
with its wings, and busily employed in extracting the sweets by means 
of its long trunk. 

As it had been previously observed that these moths are particu- 
larly fond of the Jamestown weed, {Datura stramonium,') a plan 
adopted in Florida as an effectual means of destroying them, and 
which it is said has succeeded to a considerable extent, has been com- 
municated to this Office by Mr. Jesse Wood, of Mount Pleasant, in 
that State, who says: — 

" About five years ago, Mr. Igdaliah Wood, of this vicinity, en- 
deavored to poison the fly that produces the horn- worm, by applying 
a preparation of cobalt and sweetened water to the flower of the 
tobacco-plant. - He found some difficulty in consequence of the cup 
of this flower not being in a favorable position to retain the poison. 
Mr. George Sunday next tried the bloom of the gourd-vine with bet- 
ter success. Mr. E. Johnson afterwards used the Jamestown weed, 
which answered the expectation of the most sanguine. The prepara- 
tion consists of about a pint of water, a gill of molasses or honey, and 
an ounce of cobalt. After inserting a quill through the cork of the 
bottle, he let fall a few drops of this mixture into the cup of the flower 
about sunset. As this poison will soon kill the stalk of the James- 
town weed, the best plan is to break off the blossoms, make a hole in 
the ground, and place them in it. It is thought that the flies find 
them quicker than when left upon the stalks. It is certain to destroy 
the moths, although they frequently live until ten o'clock the next 
day, notwithstanding they are disabled from flying or depositing their 
eggs soon after taking the poison. 

"I consider this discovery of immense value to tobacco planters, 
and, if it or any similar method should lead to the destruction of the 
cotton caterpillar and boll-worm, which is highly probable would be 
the case, it will be of incalculable benefit." 

From this statement, it will be seen that, if such a plan is really 
of utility when applied to the cotton-fly, there can be no reason why 
it should not answer also in regions where honey-bees are not kept, 
for all such insects as are attracted by sweet substances ; and it is to 
be hoped that experiments will be made the ensuing season, and re- 
ported for the public good. The thing to be chiefly desired now is, 
to find out the favorite food of the particular kind of insect to be 
destroyed ; then to discover and use some efficient poison for the 
accomplishment of the purpose. If, however, birds should perish 

rNSEcrs. 67 

from feeding upon these poisoned insects, it will somewhat militate 
against the advantages of the plan. 

Several experiments were made in Florida by the writer, on the 
utility of using arsenic, cobalt, and strychnine, as means of destroying 
insects, some few of which succeeded, while many failed. In several 
instances, the insects would not touch the mixture at all. 

Honey or sugar and rum, when rubbed on the bark of trees, will 
attract and intoxicate several species of insects, and might sometimes 
be advantageously used. Many planters in the Southern States re- 
commend the berries of the " China-tree," or "Pride of China," (Mdia 
azederach,) to be put around cabbage-plauts, in order to prevent the 
attack of the cut-worm ; and, as it is already known that these berries 
have an intoxicating effect upon the robins which eat so freely of 
them, they may have the same narcotic properties when applied to 
insects. It is at least worth while to make the experiment. Whale- 
oil soap, mixed with water, in proper proportions, thrown upon plants 
infested with plant-lice (aphides) is almost certain to destroy them. 
Flour of sulphur is stated to be useful when applied to grape-vines, 
©r any other plants which are infested with the red spider or are 
attacked by a fungoid growth. A mixture of a gallon of water, a 
gallon of whiskey or other spirit, and four ounces of aloes, was highly 
recommended in Florida as a certain remedy against the attacks of 
the orange scale insects ; but, with some who have tried it, although 
all the insects appeared to be destroyed, in a few weeks they 
reappeared, showing that the wash would have to be continually 
repeated until all the eggs under the scales had hatched and the 
younger broods were killed. Perhaps the same mixture might be 
successfully used for several other kinds of insects. 

But, while so many artificial modes are recommended to accomplish 
the destruction of insects, planters are very apt to overlook the great 
daily benefits derived from other agents which have been kindly pro- 
vided by Nature to check their undue increase. These agents are the 
birds, which constantly destroy them in any of their varied forms, 
larva, pupa or perfect insect. Mocking-birds and bee-martins catch 
and destroy the boll-worm moth, and many others, even on the wing, 
when the latter first appear upon the plantations, and thus materially 
diminish their numbers. If the fields are ploughed in the fall, many 
insects and chrysalides, which would otherwise come out in safety in 
the spring, are turned to the top of the furrow-slice, and either fall a 
prey to the ever-busy birds, or perish from exposure to the wintry 

The nimble and graceful lizards of the South also act beneficially 
to the planter, as they are constantly on the alert, and catching every 
insect that chances to alight in their way. Toads, also, do much 
good, as they wander principally during the morning and evening 
hours, as-well as in cloudy weather, and entrap insects by means of 
their viscid tongues. Such benefactors as these should be preserved, 
and not injured or killed as they often are. One pair of wrens 01 
blue-birds, in a Northern garden, or of mocking-birds, on a Southern 
plantation, will accomplish more m uestroying mspcts injurious to 
vegetation than can be imagined by one who has not studied their 


habits, or watched them with attention, when busily engaged in 
searching under every leaf, or in every fissure of the bark, for their 
insect prey. 


I have not been able this year (1855) to procure specimens of the 
worms which cut off the young plants early in the season, (PI. 
VI., fig. 1,) as I arrived in the region of cotton-fields after their 
ravages had ceased; but, from the authority of able and scientific 
planters, I am induced to believe that they are very similar in habits 
and appearance to many of the cut-worms of the gardens, which 
penetrate the earth close to a plant, and at night emerge from 
their retreats to gnaw it off at or near the ground. 

A gentleman in Florida, who had been troubled with this pest, in- 
formed me that a particular spot of four or five acres in his field bad 
been literally thronging with cut-worms, so that most of the plants 
were either eaten off or destroyed, and that, finally, fearing the loss 
of his whole crop, he turned into the enclosure some twenty or thirty 
young pigs, which soon discovered the worms, rooted them up in 
great numbers, and fattened on the unaccustomed diet. The cotton 
was not injured, as the pigs were too young to root deep enough to 
destroy the plants. The pigs remained where the worms were to be 
found, never troubling any other portions of the field, and their strong 
powers of scent enabled them to detect their insect prey even when 
buried in the earth. 

Should the moths of this cut-worm be like those of their congeners of 
the North, and attracted by light, it might be well to use a lantern 
like that already described, or to ascertain the favorite substance upon 
which they feed, and poison them, as suggested in the case of the to- 



(Aphis ?) 

When the cotton-plant is very young and tender, it is particularly 
subject to the attacks of the cotton-louse, (PI. VI. fig. 2,) which, 
by means of its piercer, penetrates the outer coating, or parenchyma 
of the leaf or tender shoots, and sucks the sap from the wound. The 
■ander part of the leaves or young shoots are the places mostly selected, 
and the constant punctures and consequent drainage of sap enfeebles 


the plant and causes the leaf to curl up, turn yellew, and subsequently 
fall to the ground. The young lice are extremely minute, and of a 
greenish color ; but when they become older, they are about a tenth 
of an inch in length, and often dark green ; but, in some instances 
they are almost black. It is conjectured that the color somewhat 
depends upon the health of the plant as well as that of the insect, or 
perhaps, upon their food, as I have seen green and black lice promis- 
cuously feeding upon the same plant. The female produces her young 
alive throughout the summer, when she may often be seen surrounded 
by her numerous progeny, sucking the juice from the leaves and still 
producing young. Some naturalists state that the females, late in the 
fall, produce eggs for the generation of the next spring. If so, it i& 
in order to preserve the sj)ecies, as the insects themselves are easily 
killed by frost and cold; and their increase would be incalculable 
were it not that Nature has provided many enemies among the insect, 
tribes to prevent their too rapid multiplication. Both males and 
females are said to possess wings at certain seasons ; but the females 
and young in summer appear to be wingless. Tiie end of the abdo- 
men of both sexes is provided with two slender tubes, rising like horns 
from the back, from which often exudes the " honey-dew," or sweet 
gummy substance, seen sticking to the upper sides of the leaves be- 
neath them, and which forms the favorite food of myriads of ants. 
Although young plants are mostly attacked, yet I have seen old 
"stands" in Georgia, with their young shoots, completely covered 
with this pest as late as November. 

The principal insects that destroy the aphides are the lady-bird, the 
lace-fly and the syrphus, all of which wage incessant war upon them, 
and devour all they can find. Another fly, the ichneumon, likewise 
lays an egg in the body of the louse, which, hatching into a grub, 
devours the inside of the still living insect until it eventually dies, 
clinging to the leaf even in death, and the fly makes its appearance 
from the old skin of the aphis. 

When old cotton-plants are suffering from the attacks of the louse, 
many planters cause their tops to be cut off and burned, and by so 
doing partially succeed in destroying them ; yet, when we consider 
that, by this method, many young blossoms and " forms" must like- 
wise be destroyed, it must be confessed that the remedy is almost as 
bad as the disease. In a garden or green-house, a solution of whale- 
oil soap, from a syringe, showered upon the upper and under parts of 
the foliage, has been used with much advantage ; yet, upon the ex- 
tended scale of a cotton plantation, such a remedy is altogether im- 
practicable, and, until we can collect further information upon this 
'ubject from intelligent planters, we must rest content with the in- 
tinct of our insect allies. 

(Locusta ?) 

Grasshoppers, or, more properly speaking, " locusts," occasionally 
do much damage to young cotton-plants, as they not only feed upon 


the tender leaves ; but have been caught in the very act of devouring 
the petals of the flowers in the fields of Georgia, as late as the month 
of November ; but, as at this time the gra*s on which they usually feed 
abounds between the rows, the damage done by them to the general 
crop is but slight. 

Several species of grasshoppers, or locusts, infest old cotton and 
grass-fields, some of them being of large size and possessing great 
powers of flight. (PI. VI. fig. 3.) It may, however, be observed, 
that the true locust is not the insect generally known by that name 
in the United States, which is in reality a harvest-fly, (cicada,) 
usually inhabiting trees, where it makes an incessant buzzing noise 
which may be heard at a great distance during the summer and 
autumnal evenings. The shape of the harvest-fly is much clumsier 
and broader than that of the real locust, and the under wings are not 
folded up like a fan, under a wing-case, but transparent, stiff, and 

The real locust is similar to the grasshopper in shape, but the body 
is more robust, the antennas shorter, and its flight much longer and 
more vigorous. Its under-wings, also, when at rest, are folded up in 
fan-like plaits under the outer wing-covers. Grasshoppers and locusts 
are produced from eggs as perfect insects, with legs and antenna?. 
They are able to run about and leap with great agility, but are en- 
tirely destitute of the rudiments of wings, except in the pupa state. 
It is only the perfect insects which are able to perpetuate their kind. 
They are generally furnished with ample wings which enable them 
to fly from field to field. Grasshoppers and locusts do much harm, 
when very numerous, to grass and vegetables, and even to fruit-trees, 
as well as to cotton. Turkeys, ducks, and other fowls feed upon them 
with great avidity, and are very useful in diminishing their numbers. 
In some of the Northern States, they have been destroyed by means 
of sheets spread upon poles, so as to sweep them into a bag fastened 
behind, which is drawn over the fields infested by them ; they are 
then killed by means of boiling water or fire. 


The leaves of the cotton-plant are often injured by the leaf-hopper. 
(PI. VI. fig. 4.) This small insect is found upon the plant in the 
larva, pupa and perfect state. In all these forms, it sucks the sap 
from the leaf, causing small diseased and whitish-looking spots, much 
disfiguring the foliage, and injuring the plant itself, when the insects 
are very numerous. They are also found in great numbers on grape- 
vines, in Florida, and injure the foliage to a considerable degree. 

The perfect insects are very small, measuring only from one-tenth 
to three-twentieths of an inch in length. The head is somewhat cres- 
cent-shaped, of a green color, with two red spots on the upper surface. 
The thorax is also green, with two crescent-shaped spots of red on 
each side of a small red spot in the centre. The wing-cases are green, 
with two stripes or bands of red, running parallel down each wing- 


case, from the thorax to the upper margin, where they form an acute 
angle. The legs are yellowish-green, the hinder pair being much 
longer than the others, and furnished with bristles on the tibia. In 
the larva state, they are able to leap with great agility ; but it is only 
in the perfect state that they are able to fly, the under-wings being 
hidden by the wing-cases, and not perfectly developed in the larva3 or 
pupae. There are several species of these insects found upon cotton, 
which it will not be necessary here to describe, as their natural his- 
tory and habits are nearly the same. 

In using the lantern already described, it was found that thousands 
of these small insects were attracted from some grape-vines in an ad- 
joining field. The use of fires or lights may therefore be recom- 
mended to destroy them, when they become very numerous, although, 
as regards the cotton, they are not often found on it in numbers suf- 
ficient to do much harm. 

(Noctua zylina.) 

The leaves of the plant are sometimes entirely devoured by what is 
commonly known to planters as the "cotton caterpillar," or ''cotton 
arnry-worin." (PI. VI. fig. 5.) It does not appear every year in 
immense numbers, but at uncertain intervals. This season, (1855,) 
it. first made its appearance in the vicinity of Tallahassee about 
the month of August, on the plantation of Mr. Hunter, and then 
spread gradually through the rest of the plantations in that re- 
gion. In October, it had already committed considerable ravages 
in several of the cotton-fields, not so severe, however, as had been 
anticipated, though the crops on several plantations were somewhat 

The perfect- insect, or fly, when at rest, is of a triangular shape, the 
head forming one, and the extremities of the wings the other two 
angles. The color of the upper-wings is reddish-grey, a dark spot 
with a whitish centre appearing in the middle of each. The under- 
wings are of a dark reddish-grey. The moth of this caterpillar loses 
much of its greyish cast when it becomes older, and the down 
lias been rubbed from the wings. It then assumes more of a reddish 

The perfect flies, or moths, are easily attracted by lights, and may 
be found resting in the day-time on the walls or ceilings of rooms, 
attracted there, no doubt, by the candles or lamps on the evening be- 
fore. If undisturbed, they will remain motionless during the day; 
but, as night approaches, they fly off with much vigor and strength. 
When in the open air, they may be found among and under the leaves 
of the cotton-plant, as well as those of the weeds which surround the 
plantation. The eggs are deposited principally on the under sides of 
the leaves, but often upon the outer calyx ; and I have even found 
them, when very numerous, upon the stem itself. 


Wherever these caterpillars were very abundant, I counted from 
ten to fifteen eggs on a single leaf, which are very small, and difficult 
to be distinguished from the leaves themselves, on account of their 
green color. In shape, the eggs are round and flat, and, when exam- 
ined under a microscope, they appear regularly furrowed or ribbed. 
Their color, when freshly deposited, is of a beautiful semi-transparent 
sea-green. They are closely attached to the leaf on which they are 
laid. I am thus particular to state this, because, in an able article 
published some time ago, it was alleged that "the egg is fixed upon 
the leaf by a small filament attached by a glutinous substance." 
This mistake might the more easily be made by any person who had 
not himself observed the eggs when hatching, as that of the lace-wing 
fly is held by such a filament, and, moreover, is found in similar 
situations on the leaves, but generally with or near a colony of plant 
lice, where the instinct of the parent lace-wing fly teaches it to de- 
posit its eggs, and thus provide for a supply of fresh food for the young 
larvas, which feed upon and destroy millions of the cotton-lice. There 
is a great difference also between the eggs of the caterpillar moth and 
those of the boll-worm moth, the first being, as before stated, round 
and flattened in shape, and green in color, whereas those of the boll- 
worm moth are not flat, but more of an ovoid shape, and of a dirty-yel- 
lowish tinge. I cannot state exactly what time is required to hatch the 
eggs after they have been laid by the parent fly, as I could not succeed 
in procuring any from the moths hatched and kept in confinement, 
although carefully preserved for the purpose. Dr. Capers says that 
it requires from fourteen to twenty days ; but the eggs I found in the 
fields invariably hatched within a week from the time they were 
brought into the house. However, this must depend a great deal 
upon the state of the atmosphere and the warmth of the season. The 
young caterpillars, when hatched, very soon commence feeding upon 
the parenchyma, or soft, fleshy part of the leaves, and continue to do 
so until they become sufficiently large, and strong enough to eat the 
leaf itself. They are able to suspend themselves by a silken thread 
when shaken from the plant. They change their skins several times 
before attaining their full growth, when they measure from one and a 
half to nearly two inches in length. The first brood of caterpillars, in 
August and September, were all of a green color, with narrow, longi- 
tudinal, light stripes along each side of their bodies, and two broader 
light-yellowish stripes along each side of their backs, down the centre 
of each of which was one distinct, narrow, light-colored line. Each 
of the broader bands was marked with two black spots on each seg- 
ment ; and on each segment of the sides were three or more dark dots. 
The head was yellowish-green, spotted with black. The caterpillars 
of the second and third generations are of a much darker color than 
those of the first; their under parts are more of a yellowish-green, 
and their sides sometimes of a purple cast ; their backs are black, with 
three distinct light-colored lines running down their length ; and 
their heads are also darker, and of a yellowish-brown, spotted with 

The question naturally arises, What causes this change of color in 
the latter part of the season, since the moths hatched from the lightest 


and darkest caterpillars prove to be exactly the same? Several plant- 
ers attribute it to the influence of the sun, or to the food upon which 
they subsist ; but this can scarcely be the case, as I have often ob- 
served individual caterpillars, evidently of the second or third gener- 
ation, of the lightest green color, amongst a crowd of the black worms 
on the same leaf, as late as October, and exposed to the same influ- 
ences of the sun. 

These insects appear to multiply to the greatest extent in damp, 
cloudy weather. When the older caterpillars are suddenly touched, 
they have the habit of doubling themselves up and springing to a 
distance of several times their length, but when undisturbed, and not 
feeding, they appear to rest on the leaf with the fore part of the body 
elevated and somewhat curved, whereas, sometimes they keep up a spe- 
cies of swinging or jerking motion from side to side, as if enjoying the 
heat of the sun. 

This caterpillar is furnished with six pectoral, eight ventral, and two 
anal feet, of which, however, the two anterior ventral ones are imper- 
fect, small, and apparently useless, so that its mode of progression 
somewhat resembles that of the span-worm, or looper, of the North, 
elsewhere described. 

In fifteen or twenty days after the caterpillar has attained its full 
size, it ceases to feed. It then doubles down the edge of a leaf, and 
fastens it with its own silk to the main part of the same leaf, or by 
webbing several leaves together, forming thereby a very loosely-spun 
cocoon. In this, it transforms into a chrysalis, which, at first is 
green, but in a short time after changes to a chestnut-brown, or even 
to almost black. 

The first brood I raised, were fifteen days in the chrysalis state, be- 
fore making their appearance as perfect moths ; but, as this happened in 
a cold room and screened from the sun, I am of the opinion that, when 
they are exposed to a warm sun, in the open fields, the time must 
necessarily be much shorter. I raised one caterpillar late in the fall, 
which was even thirty days before emerging from its cocoon ; but this 
I attributed entirely to the cold weather, and non-exposure to the sunl 
This fact would tend to show that the hatching of the chrysalis may 
be delayed, by peculiar circumstances, until long after the natural 

The tail of the chrysalis is furnished with several small hooks, bent 
inward, by means of which it is enabled to hold fast to the loose web 
of which the cocoon is formed, while emerging from the chrysalis 
skin, or, in case of accident, to prevent it from falling out of the co- 
coon during the prevalence of strong winds. 

There have been many speculations regarding the origin and peri- 
odical visits of this moth. In 1843, Mr. Whitemarsh B. Seabrook 
read a "Memoir on the Cotton-plant" before the State Agricultural 
Society in South Carolina, in which he says: "That the cotton-moth 
survives the winter is nearly certain ; an examination of the neigh- 
boring woods, especially after a mild winter, has been often success- 
fully made for that purpose. They were seen by the writer in May 
last, in the edge of a belt of pines, within a few yards of a cotton- 
field. In the winter of 1825, Benjamin Keynolds, of St. John's, Colle- 


ton, found them in the woods, principally on the cedar-hush, encased 
alive in their cover, impervious to water, and secured to a twig hy a 
thread. The pupae, wrapped in cotton leaves, from their hleak ex- 
posure, invariably die on the approach of cold weather." 

From what was stated to me by some of the best planters in Flori- 
da, last summer, it would seem that this caterpillar appears on their 
plantations more or less, almost, if not every year, and sometimes in 
a most unaccountable manner. Mr. E. Eichards, of Cedar Keys, 
furnishes a statement which would seem to prove that it is migratory 
in its habits, as there is no other method of accounting for its sudden 
presence, except that, having previously existed on some other plant, 
or weed, it had left it for food more congenial to its taste, although 
it has been asserted that the real caterpillar will eat nothing but 
cotton. He says : " The last of July, 1845, these caterpillars mado 
their appearance in a small field of three or four acres of Sea-Island 
cotton, planted on Way Key, as an experiment to see if cotton could 
be advantageously cultivated on the Keys, no other cotton having 
been previously planted within 80 miles of them ; but the whole crop 
was devoured. The caterpillar was at the same time destroying the 
cotton in the interior of the country." 

Jc a statement made this season by Mr. William Munroe, of Gads- 
dei* county, Florida, to the Agricultural Department of the Patent 
Office, he appears to think Sea-Island cotton not so liable to be 
attacked as the short-staple, when the two varieties are planted to- 
gether. In his letter he says: "I observed, when I had two fields of 
cotton adjoining, the one short-staple and the other Sea-Island, and 
the cotton caterpillars made their appearance, that they always 
destroyed the short-staple cotton first. Four years ago, my crop was 
destroyed by the worm, and at that time they ate every green leaf on 
the short-staple cotton before they attacked the Sea-Island. This 
year (1855) my short-staple crop was destroyed by the worm, on the 
Appalachicola river, and I observed that after the short-staple crop 
was all eaten, several Sea-Island stalks in the field, at a little dis- 
tance, seemed to be uninjured ; but, upon close examination, it was 
found that the worm had just commenced upon them. My impres- 
sion, from the above observation is, that, if we in this country were 
to confine ourselves to the production of the Sea-Island cotton, the 
attack of the caterpillar would be much less frequent, or would 
probably altogether cease." 

In regard to the periodical visitations of these caterpillars, Dr. 
Capers remarks that their first appearance, as destroyers of cotton, was 
in the year 1800, and that, in 1804, the crops were almost destroyed 
by them. A snow-storm occurred, however, and swept them away ; 
but they were found the succeeding seasons, though in smaller num- 
bers. In 1825, they were spreading, but perished again by a storm. 
In 1826, they destroyed the crops. The first notice of them in this 
year was on the first of August, at St. Helena. Soon after, they were 
found on all the seacoast, from New Orleans to North Carolina. On 
the 23d of tke same month, they had destroyed almost all the cotton 
leaves, but suddenly left the plant, though not for the purpose of 
webbing, as many of them were young. The cause of their sudden 


disappearance is stated to have been that they were too much exposed 
to the powerful effects of the sun, in consequence of the plants being 
nearly destitute of foliage, and not protecting them from its direct 

Colonel Benjamin F. Whitner, of Tallahassee, has also written an 
interesting article on the depredations of this caterpillar in that 
vicinity. "In 1835," says he, "the crops were entirely exempt 
from the ravages of the caterpillar. In 1836, it appeared by the 
first of October, but did no harm. In 1837, no mention is made 
of it. These notes were made in Madison county, Florida." 

Colonel Whitner then moved to Leon county, in the same State, 
where, in 1838, the caterpillar appeared early in August. The second 
brood stripped the plants by the 20th of September, and were so 
numerous that, after devouring the entire foliage, they barked the 
limbs and stalks, and ate out bolls nearly grown. In 1839, they were 
less numerous, and appeared late. In 1840, they came out from the 
15th to the 20th of July, and, by the 6th of September, the plants 
were stripped of their leaves and young bolls, so that the entire crop 
was less than half of the average of other years. In 1841, this cater- 
pillar was seen in Madison county from the 15th to the 20th of Au- 
gust, and in Leon county between the 20th of August and the 1st of 
September. The loss was serious, comprising probably one-fifth of 
the crop. In 1842, no damage was done. In 1843, they appeared 
near Tallahassee on the 1st of August, and plantations were stripped 
by the 15th of September. The crop was cut off from one-third to 
two-fifths by the caterpillar and storm. In 1844, the cotton-worm 
was found webbed up on the 13th of July, and by the 15th of Sep- 
tember some plantations were entirely denuded ; yet, in other parts of 
the county, the ravages were only partial. In 1845, there was no 
appearance of the caterpillar. In 1846, it was found webbed up by 
the 7th of July. The second brood began to web up on the 26th of 
that month ; and by the 20th, the parts of the field in which the worm 
was first seen were found to be eaten out, and the fly, the worms, laro-e 
and small, and the chrysalides, were discovered at the same time, a 
state of things never observed before. By the 5th of September, the 
damage amounted to a loss of more than one-half of the crop. In 
1847, although the fly was seen on the 16th of July, no injury was 
done to the crop. In 1848, it was but slightly injured ; but the year 
1849 was particularly marked by the ravages of the caterpillar, as 
well as that of 1852. 

Colonel Whitner further observes that these worms appear in suc- 
cessive broods, and accomplish the cycle of their transformations in 
from twenty-six to thirty days, which has also been corroborated by 

A caterpillar hatched from the egg, under my own inspection, how- 
ever, passed twenty days before webbing up ; but, as it had been kept 
in confinement in a cold room, most probably the growth was not so 
rapid as it would have been in the open air and exposed to the warmth 
of the sun. The skin was shed five times during the period of its 
growth, and on the twentieth day, the caterpillar began its web. 


In a very interesting communication from Mr. E. N. Fuller, of 
Edisto Island, South Carolina, he describes the depredations of the 
caterpillar in his neighborhood as follows : — 

"In 1840, I discovered their ravages, confined to the luxuriant por- 
tions of the fields, near the seacoast of this Island. The larvas were 
destroyed in the latter part of September. In 1843, they were first 
heard of by the 1st of September, when their ravages, limited as in 
1840, were quite perceptible at some distance. A frost on the 18th of 
that month probably destroyed them. In 1846, they appeared on the 
20th of July ; and, by the 10th of September, I suppose there was 
scarcely a cotton leaf or any tender portion of the plants remaining, 
and the worms not fully grown deserted the ravaged fields in millions 
in search of food, failing to find which they died from starvation. The 
crop of this Island was about 40 per cent, of an average one. In 
1849, the caterpillars made their first appearance on the 22d of Au- 
gust ; their ravages this year, being confined to the low spots, caused 
no injury of moment. In 1852, they were found on the 10th of Au- 
gust, about 40 miles to the southward, and on this Island about the 
20th of the same month. They disappeared here, however, without 
doing injury. 

"Thus they have appeared at regular intervals of three years. In 
1855, when they were again looked for, an intense drought from the 
early part of July was sufficient to prevent their increase, had they 
made their appearance. The old planters say that, in 1804 and in 
1825, they appeared as in 1846 ; that is, in periods of twenty-one 

" As near as I can judge, not having made any record, the length . 
of time from the hatching of the egg to the chrysalis is twelve days ; 
remaining four days in tins chrysalis state and six days more to the 
hatching of the egg. - This seems to be the case in a season of mois- 
ture and heat, without which, their progress would probably be more 

Among the many remedies recommended for this fty, or moth, fires 
and lights in the fields have been highly spoken of as attracting 
and destroying the miller. But even this may have its disadvantages, 
as Colonel Whitner, who has tried it, states that " it not only 
attracts the flies from other plantations, but that multitudes of moths 
perished in the flames." An article likewise appeared in some of the 
Southern papers, not long since, recommending white cotton flags, 
about a yard square, to be placed in the field, by which the moths 
are attracted, and upon which they deposit their eggs. Plates similar 
to those recommended for the boll-worni have also been used with 
partial success. But, to destroy this pest, it will be necessary to as- 
certain exactly the date of the appearance of the first moths, and then 
to exterminate them in the best manner, and as quickly as possible. 
Could not some favorite aliment be found on which the moth prefers 
to feed, as in the case of the tobacco-fly, and then poison them with 
some effective agent ? This would at once rid the fields of the first 
broods of moths, the progeny of which, in the second and third gene- 
rations, might devastate half the fertile plantations of the South. 



Another insect, (PL VI. fig. 6,) which is often found in cotton- 
fields, and mistaken for the real cotton-caterpillar, is commonly 
known by the trivial name of the " grass-worm/' or " caterpillar," 
owing to the circumstance of its most natural food consisting of grass 
and weeds, although, when pressed by hunger, it will sometimes eat 
the leaf of the cotton-plant. 

These caterpillars were very numerous in the vicinity of Colum- 
bus, in Georgia, about the end of September and the beginning 
of October, 1854. They devoured grass, young grain, and al- 
most every green thing which came in their path. Instances have 
been known in which, urged as they were by necessity and starvation, 
they actually devoured stacks of fodder that were stored away for 
winter consumption. Deep ditches cut in the earth to stop them 
were immediately filled up by the multitudes which fell in and per- 
ished, while eager millions still rushed over the trembling and half- 
living bridge, formed by the bodies of their late companions, bent on 
their mission «of destruction and devastation. 

These caterpillars do no essential injury to the cotton, especially 
when weeds abound, as they content themselves with the grass grow- 
ing between the rows; and, unless very numerous, they cannot be 
classed among those doing much harm to the general crop, and are 
mentioned here principally as having been so frequently mistaken for 
the real cotton-caterpillar. When pressed by necessity, however, as 
has already been stated, they will feed upon cotton leaves. I raised 
about thirty of them upon this food alone, merely as an experiment, 
and they grew and perfected their transformations, although appear- 
ing to prefer a grass diet if it could be obtained. When about to 
change, they formed cocoons of silk under stones or in the ground 
near the surface, interwoven with particles of earth, and came out 
perfect moths from the 24th to the 30th of October ; and, as these 
specimens were kept in a room without artificial heat, I conjectured 
that those in the open fields would appear about the same time* 

At a plantation in the vicinity of Columbus, where the cater- 
pillars were very numerous, and had already devoured all the grass 
on one side of a field, which was divided into two equal parts by 
a broad and sandy carriage-road passing through the centre of it, 
the grass on the other side having been untouched, it was interest- 
ing to observe the operations of numerous colonies of ants that had 
formed their holes or nests in the road, and were lying in wait for 
any unfortunate grass-worm, the natural desire of which for a fresh 
supply of food, should tempt it to cross this dangerous path. First, 
one ant more vigilant than the rest would rush to the attack ; then 
another, and another, until the poor caterpillar, entirely covered by 
its pigmy foes, and completely exhausted in strength by its unavail- 


ing efforts to escape, was finally obliged to succumb to superior num- 
bers and die as quietly as possible, when the carcass was immediately 
carried off by the captors to their nests, or, when too heavy to be 
dragged awa} r at once, they fed upon it as it lay in the road. This 
warfare was carried on every day as long as the grass-worms prevailed, 
and no doubt their numbers were diminished in this way to a con- 
siderable extent. 

The grass-caterpillars, when in confinement, very often kill and 
devour each other ; and, when one is maimed in the least, it stands 
a very poor chance for its life. Several intelligent planters state that, 
when the grass and weeds are entirely devoured, and no other 
vegetable food is to be found, they will attack each other and feed 
upon the still living and writhing bodies of their former companions. 
One grass-caterpillar, which was kept in confinement, although fur- 
nished with an abundance of green food, actually appeared to prefer 
to feed upon other caterpillars, no matter of what kind, so long as 
their bodies were not defended by long, bristling hairs, or spines. 

The grass-caterpillar is from an inch and a half to an inch and 
three-quarters in length. A longitudinal light-brownish line runs 
down the centre, and two yellow lines along each side of the back, 
which is somewhat veined with black lines, and is of a dark color, 
marked with black spots, from each of which grows a short bristle, 
or hair. Below these yellow stripes, the sides are of a dark color, 
almost black; beneath this, extends a light-colored line, in which the 
spiracles are placed; the lower part of the body is of a dirty green, 
spotted with black; the head is black, marked with two lines of a 
yellowish color, forming an angle on the top ; the body is somewhat 
hairy. This caterpillar has six pectoral, eight ventral, and two anal 

The above description applies only to the brightest-colored speci- 
mens of the grass-worm, as they vary much in color and markings, 
some of them being almost black, and showing indiscriminately their 
stripes. The chrysalis is brownish-black, and is formed in a cocoon of 
silk under the ground, the sand and small pebbles being so inter- 
woven with it as to cause the whole cocoon to appear like an ovoid ball 
of earth ; but it is never found webbed up in the leaves, as is the case 
with the true cotton-caterpillar, already described. The moth 
measures about an inch and one-fifth across the wings when they are 
expanded; the upper-wings are grey, slightly clouded with a darker 
color, and a lighter spot or ring is faintly seen in the centre ; the 
under-wings are of a yellowish-white, shaded with grey along the 
margin near the upper wings. 

Specimens of these caterpillars were brought to me when at Sa- 
vannah, in Georgia, and they were suspected to have injured the rice 
in that vicinity in the month of June. Colonel Whitner, of Talla- 
hassee, in his interesting communication to this Office, speaks of the 
grass-caterpillar as having stripped fields of grass, in 1845, and also 
as attacking the corn, sugar-cane and upland rice. It has likewise 
been said that an insect similar, if not identical with the grass-cater- 
pillar, destroys the leaves of the sweet potato. Thus it appears to be 
almost omnivorous, and not choice in its selection of food, like the 


true cotton-caterpillar, which is believed to confine itself to the cotton- 
plant alone. 

The grass-worm cannot be classed among those insects very inju- 
rious to cotton, although instances have been known where it has 
destroyed the foliage to some extent. It is more especially mentioned 
here as being found in cotton-fields, and often confounded with the 
true cotton-caterpillar. The difference, however, is more plainly 
described under the head of the latter. 

The same remedies are applicable to this insect as have been sug- 
gested for the boll-worm caterpillar, or any other night-flying moth. 


(Acarus ?) 

Much injury is done to the cotton-leaf by a minute red spider, 
(PI. VI. fig. 7,) which presents very much the appearance of inci- 
pient rust, except that the leaf is of a more rusty-brown in spots, 
instead of the bright-yellow of the real rust. This red spider prin- 
cipally attacks the under side of the leaf, the spots caused by its 
punctures turning brown, and finally increasing until it is completely 
stung all over, and falls from the plant. 

This insect is extremely minute, and when on the leaf, it can 
scarcely be discerned by the naked eye. Some of the young appear 
to be of a greenish cast; but, when they are advanced in age, the 
abdomen assumes a dark crimson shade, with darker maroon spots 
upon its upper surface. The legs, which are hairy, are eight in 

This family of the mites (acari) do much injury to vegetable life, 
as they are so extremely minute as to escape the notice of the super- 
ficial observer. When they infest grape-houses, or rose-bushes, 
it has been recommended to dust the leaves while moist with flour of 


The "drop-worm," as it is commonly called, (PI. VI. fig. 8,) 
is occasionally found upon the cotton-leaf, but generally infests the 
arbor-vitre, larch, and hemlock-spruce. It is also found upon many 
of the deciduous-leaved trees, such as the linden, negundo, and 
maple. Dr. Harris states that the female worm never quits her case 
but lays her eggs in the skin oLthe chrysalis, in which she herself 
also remains until the eggs are ail deposited, when she closes the end 
with down, and crawls out of the case and dies. These eggs being 
hatched, the young worms, after they are hatched, make little silken 
cocoons, open at both ends, and are covered Avith fragments of leaves 
twigs, &c, in which they conceal themselves, and drag them about 
wherever they move. These cases are enlarged as the insects increase 
in size, and are still carried about by the worms^ When they change 


their places, they protrude their heads, the first three segments of the 
body, and six legs, from one end of the case ; but, when the insects 
wish to rest, each case is fastened by a few threads to the leaf or 
branch, and they retreat within. When shaken from the tree by 
an accident or by high winds, the worms are able to suspend them- 
selves by means of small threads, and hang in the air ; hence the 
name. When young, they are often blown from tree to tree, and 
thus carried to a considerable distance from the place where they 
were hatched. 

The males and their cases are much smaller than those of the fe- 
males, the worm being only about an inch in length. The first three 
segments of the body are whitish, marked with black lines and spots; 
the segments where they join are brownish ; the head is marked with 
wavy lines of black on a white ground; the rest of the body is of a 
dirty, blackish-green. It has six pectoral feet, by means of which it 
moves from leaf to leaf, with its body and case, the latter either per- 
pendicularly suspended in the air or dragged by the worm from' be- 
hind. There are eight very small ventral, and two anal feet, by 
means of which it clings to the inside of the case. The chrysalis 
measures about three-quarters of an inch in length, and contains the 
rudiments of wings, legs, head, and antennas, like other moths, and is 
of a dark-brown. The perfect moth comes out in autumn, and mea- 
sures across the expanded wings about an inch and three-twentieths 
Its body is downy, and of a blackish-brown ; the wings are semi- 
transparent, and scantily clothed with blackish scales, which are 
blackest on the margins and veins; the antennas are covered at their 
tips, and are doubly feathered from the base to beyond the middle.' 
The female is much larger than the male, and never leaves her case, 
but changes into the perfect insect in the shell of the chrysalis, and 
only emerges from it when the eggs are laid within. The young, 
after leaving their maternal case, in the spring, immediately com- 
mence their cases, and spread over the native tree or any others that 
may happen to stand near. 

These insects are a great nuisance wherever they once get estab- 
lished, as they are exceedingly prolific. One female chrysalis case, 
which was dissected, contained seven hundred and ninety eggs, while 
others have been found to contain nearly a thousand. 

These pests are very rarely seen on the .;otton-plant, and even 
when such is the case, they may have been blown there from the ce- 
dars, maples, or other deciduous-leaved trees in the woods on the 
edges of the plantations. They are the more particularly mentioned 
here, from the fact that, if taken in time, they may easily be exter- 
minated on deciduous-leaved shade-trees ; for, as I have before stated, 
the female cases contain all the eg§||, which may be seen in winter, 
hanging on the branches when the leaves have fallen, and even are 
large enough to be distinguished when on evergreens. Tt would 
therefore require but little trouble to pull them off in the autumn and 
winter, and burn them, so that neither males nor females should 
escape. If this course were pursued two or three years in succession, 
there would not be so many complaints in our cities about the drop- 
worms destroying the foliage of the trees. 


(Saturnia io.) 

The foliage of the cotton-plant is also eaten by the caterpillar of a 
large moth, denoted on PI. VI. rig. 9. This spiny and stinging 
caterpillar is often found upon the leaf of cotton in September ; it feeds 
likewise upon the blades of Indian corn, and the leaves of the willow, 
balsam-poplar, dogwood, and many other trees. Whenever one of 
them is found in a field, the plants attacked by it may be easily dis- 
tinguished by their leafless appearance in the midst of the otherwise 
green and flourishing vegetation, as it rarely quits a plant before it is 
completely denuded. Often, however, those which have lost their 
leaves from the rust present much the same blighted appearance ; 
but, in this case, the numerous yellow, withered leaves, which are 
scattered on the ground, at once indicate the disease. 

The thorny spines with which these caterpillars are armed have a 
peculiarly poisonous property, and are capable of inflicting painful and 
severe wounds, similar to the sting of a wasp. It is therefore neces- 
sary, if the insects require to be touched, to use a stick or branch, 
when removing them from the plants on which they feed. 

These caterpillars cannot be classed among those very injurious to 
cotton, as they do not appear to be sufficiently numerous to effect much 
damage. Very few complaints have been made about them by the 
planters either of Georgia or South Carolina ; but this year, (1855,) 
the same caterpillar was found very abundant in the cotton-fields near 
Tallahassee, but the damage done by them was trifling. 

Mr. Newman, of Philadelphia, who has paid much attention to the 
breeding of caterpillars, states that this insect is found on the willow. 
Dr. Harris says, they are also found upon the balsam-poplar and elm 
in Massachusetts; and, according to Smith and Abbot, in their " In- 
sects of Georgia," it is found on the dogwood, sassafras, and Indian 
corn, which are devoured by them. 

This caterpillar is from two inches and a quarter to two inches and 
three-quarters in length ; but, as Dr. Harris has minutely described 
them, I will quote his own words: 

"The caterpillars are of a pea-green color, with a broad, brown 
stripe, edged below with white, on each side of the body, beginning 
on the fourth segment and ending at the tail. They are covered with 
spreading clusters of green prickles, tipped with black, and of a uni- 
form length. Each of these clusters consists of about thirty prickles 
branching from a common centre, and there are six clusters on each 
of the rings, except the last two, on which there are only five, and on 
the first four rings, on each of which there is an additional cluster 
low down on each side. The feet are brown, and there is a triangular 
brown spot on the under-side of each ring, beginning at the fourth." 
The brown stripe mentioned by Dr. Harris is often of a reddish-brown, 
and, in high-colored and healthy individuals, I have seen it almost 
of a carmine red. 

The caterpillars are gregarious when young ; but, when older, they 
are solitary. When fully grown, they form a brownish cocoon of W 


gummy substance among the leaves, resembling parchment. The per- 
fect moth comes out the following spring. It is said that there are 
two broods of these insects in a season, in the Southern States ; but I 
have not observed the caterpillars on cotton later than. September. 

The chrysalis is brown, and of a short, thick form, with a number 
of hooked bristles on the tail. 

The following is Dr. Harris' description of the moths: "They sit 
with their wings closed and covering the body like a low roof, the front 
edge of the under-wings extending a little beyond that of the upper- 
wings and curving upwards. The sexes differ both in color and size ; 
the male, which is the smallest, is of a deepror Indian-yellow color ; 
on its fore-wings there are two oblique, wavy lines towards the hind 
margin, a zigzag line near the base, and several spots so arranged 
on the middle as to form the letter^ a h, all of a purplish-red color. 
The hind-wings are broadly bordered with purplish-red, next to the 
body, and near the hinder margin there is a narrow curved band of the 
same color. Within this band, there is a curved, black line, and on 
the middle of the wing a large, round, blue spot, having a broad, 
black border and a central white dash. The fore-wings of the female 
are of a purplish-brown, mingled with grey; the zigzag and wavy 
lines across them are also grey, and the lettered space in the middle 
is replaced by a brown spot surrounded by an irregular grey line. 
The hind-wings resemble those of the male in color and markings ; 
the thorax and legs are purplish-brown, and the abdomen is ochrey 
yellow, with a narrow, purplish-red band on the edge of each wing. 
These moths^ expand from two inches and three-quarters to three 
inches and a half." 

The only method that can be taken to destroy these insects would 
be to kill the moths when and wherever found, and to strike the cater- 
pillars from the plants and then crush them under foot. Although they 
cannot properly be classed among the insects very injurious to cotton, 
not being sufficiently numerous to do much harm, yet, if left undis- 
turbed, they may so increase as to become a nuisance to the planter 
bath of cotton and corn. 


{Tortrix f) 

When the margins of the leaf of the cotton-plant are found rolled 
up and fastened to the main part by means of a loose web of silk, it is 
often discovered to be the work of the small tortrix, (PL VII fig. 
1 .,) which makes this shady retreat in order to shelter itself from the 
sun and rain, as likewise for a place of concealment from birds and 
■ other enemies. Sometimes, however, these leaves are similarly rolled 
.up by a spider, ,as a suitable nest or receptacle for its eggs ; but, when 
this is the case, the inside will be found to contain a silken bag in 
which the eggs either have been or are about to be deposited. 

When disturbed, this caterpillar always retires into its place of 
i shelter, and, if forcibly driven out, it is able to retreat backward from 
the open end, and to suspend itself in the air by a thread, which issues 


from its month, having previously fastened the other end of this thread 
to the leaf from which it had fallen. The leaves attacked by this moth 
can he distinguished from those that are perfect, hy their rolled-up 
and distorted appearance ; and either this insect, or one very similar 
in habits and appearance, sometimes attacks the young and tender 
ends of the cotton-shoots, which are often seen webbed up into a mass 
and partially eaten out. 

The caterpillar, when full grown, is about an inch in length, of a 
bright-green color, with a brownish or black head, and has a helmet- 
fchaped black mark on the first segment of the body. It has six pec- 
toral, eight ventral, and two anal feet ; the two anterior pair of pec- 
toral ones being dark-colored. 

The chrysalis measures from three-fifths to seven-tenths of an inch 
in length, is of a brown color, somewhat spiny, and furnished with 
four hooks at the end of the tail, by which it is enabled to hold fast to 
its web. The chrysalides were formed in semi-transparent cocoons of 
loose silk among the leaves ; and in about fourteen days, the perfect 
moths came out. The moth at rest has a somewhat bell-shaped ap- 
pearance, the upper-wings suddenly becoming quite broad a short 
distance from the thorax. They are of a chestnut-brown color, with 
an oblique dark-brown band forming an obtuse angle near the mid- 
dle ; and, on the inner margin of each wing, a rather more indistinct 
band runs near the body. The tips are also banded with dark-brown. 
The under wings are yellow, with a blackish-colored mark on their 
margins and sides, while the under-side is yellow and more or less 

I should judge, from the small numbers of these caterpillars, that 
they do comparatively little, if any injury to the main crop, and no 
doubt the moths would be attracted by lights or fires placed in the 
field at night, as recommended for the moth of the cotton-caterpillar. 
The same plan would also serve to diminish their numbers, should 
they ever increase. 


There is a yellow, hairy caterpillar found on the cotton-plant in 
September and October, which devours the leaf. The specimens ob- 
served in South Carolina and Georgia appeared to be of solitary 
habits, not congregating together, like the cotton-caterpillar and 
grass-worm, but feeding alone on the plant. 

The young of these insects are of a much lighter color than those 
nearer maturity. The ground color of the old caterpillar is yellow, 
profusely specked and shaded with small black dots ; a yellow longi- 
tudinal line runs along the side below the spiracles ; on each segment 
of the body, rise numerous small yellowish-brown excrescences, or 
warts, from which issue tufts of long brownish-black hairs. The 
head is black, with a yellow stripe running down the middle. It has 
six pectoral, eight ventral, and two anal feet. The cocoons are ovoid 
in shape, formed on or near the surface of the ground, and constructed 
of silk intermingled with gravel, particles of soil, and the hairs from 
their own bodies. These caterpillars are reputed to be capable of 


stinging ; but, as I repeatedly handled them with impunity, their 
poison, if any, cannot he very powerful. 

The chrysalides, which are dark-brown, approaching to black, 
appeared about the end of September, and were quite short and thick. 
I cannot describe the perfect moth, as, unfortunately, the chrysalides 
did not live to perfect their last transformation. These caterpillars, 
although described as infesting cotton, cannot be classed amongst those 
very injurious, as they did not appear in numbers sufficient to injure 
the general crop. 

There is a red, hairy caterpillar of like characteristics, that some- 
times eats the cotton-leaf, but which it is unnecessary to describe here. 


(Arctiaf) ' 

A species of arctia (PL VII. fig. 2 ) was also found in Talla- 
hassee, in the month of July, upon the cotton-plant ; but, most proba- 
bly, the parent moth had wandered away from its more natural food, 
as the identical kind of caterpillar was found at .the same time upon 
the brambles by the roadside near that place. The plant attacked, 
however, was in the middle of the field, and not near any brambles 
nor weeds, on which the eggs might have been laid. The bare -stem 
and branches of the cotton were covered with the unsightly web, 
and all but a few straggling caterpillars had disappeared, having 
probably webbed up preparatory to the final change. 

The full-grown caterpillar is from an inch and one-tenth to an 
inch and three-tenths in length ; the back, dark-colored, and covered 
with tufts of long, blackish-grey hairs ; the sides are of a pale-greenish 
color, with a line between the black and green distinctly marked; 
the six pectoral feet and head are black, and the eight ventral and 
two anal ones are green. 

The chrysalides were formed on the 24th of July, in cocoons or 
Loose webs, intermingled with its own hair, and spun under the 
loose leaves. They were nearly half an inch in length, short and 
thick in form, and brown in color. The moths came out in about 
twelve or fourteen days. 

The wings of the male measure, when expanded, from nine-tenths 
ef an inch to an inch across, and are white, with one or two black 
dots near the centre of the upper pair ; the eyes are black ; the an- 
tennas feathered, and the two fore-legs of an orange color. 

The female is much larger than the male, measuring about an inch 
and one-fifth across the expanded wings. She is very similar to 
the male in color, but has no black spot on the upper-wing; nor 
are the antennas feathered as in the male. 

I consider, from the circumstances under which the nest, or web, 
of caterpillars was found, that it was accident alone which caused 
their presence on the cotton, as I have never seen them before nor 
since, in any number, among the plants. Therefore, they may be 
classed among those insects which cause little or no harm to the 
general crop. 


These moths are similar to the Arctia textor, of Harris, but appear 
to differ from them in the spots on the upper-wings of the male, and 
in some o.ther slight particulars. The habit of webbing up the limbs 
is also the same. 


The insects attacking the terminal shoots of the cotton-plant are 
at present very little known ; but when their habits shall have been 
more thoroughly investigated, there is no doubt that they will be 
found to be much more destructive than is generally supposed. 

No practical planter can have passed through his cotton-fields, 
without frequently observing that the terminal leaves of many of the 
plants have been webbed up and eaten out, or that many of the 
young blossoms have suddenly turned brown, or " flared" open, and, 
on the slightest touch, fall to the ground. Some of this damage 
may no doubt be" 'caused by excessive moisture, or heat, or by an 
unhealthy state of the plant itself. But if the ends of all the shoots 
be closely examined, it will generally be found that several minute 
insects lie hidden between the folds of the leaves and buds, probably 
feeding upon the tender foliage, er extracting the sap. The aphis, 
or cotton-louse, is often found in such places. 


In the cotton-fields near Tallahassee, many of the tender leaves 
and young blossoms of vigorous and healthy plants were observed 
to be webbed together in a mass. Upon- opening one of them, a 
small caterpillar, (PI. VII. fig. 3,) between three-fifths and seven- 
tenths of an inch in length, was discovered feeding upon the interior. 
This caterpillar is of a pea-green color, with a dark longitudinal 
stripe running down the middle of the back, and a row of two dark 
spots with white centres to each on every segment of the body, except 
the first, running parallel on each side of the dark stripe. The head 
is black ; the first segment of the same color, with a dividing line of 
white between it and the head, and another light division between 
this and the second segment. The pectoral feet are black, and the 
body sparingly clothed with short bristles, or hairs. 

This caterpillar, for the most part, lives and feeds in the terminal 
shoots ; but I have found it webbed up between the outer calyx and 
boll of the cotton, or in the calyx of the flower. 

The chrysalis, which is of a light-brown color, is about two-fifths 
of an inch in length, and is formed in the same webbed-up terminal 
shoot which served the caterpillar as a shelter. It shed the cater- 
pillar-skin about the 27th of September, and the perfect moth came 
out in about ten days. 

The moth, when expanded, measures from three-fifths to seven- 
tenths of an inch across the wings ; the body and thorax are of a 


brown color; the upper-wings light-brown, with a band of darker 
brown, running obliquely across them near the centre (one specimen 
had two dark oblique lines on the upper-wing) ; a dark triangular 
mark occurs on the upper side of the wiDg; between the margin and 
band, and the margin itself is of a dark-brown ; the under-wings are 
yellowish-brown; the underside of the wings is brown, marked 
crosswise by darker lines, giving it somewhat a marbled appearance ; 
and the antennas are threadlike. The distinguishing feature of this 
small moth is the very long and dark-colored palpi, which are some- 
what curved upwards, and project from the front of the head like a 

The damage done by these small insects is not so apparent at first 
as that caused by those of a larger size, such as the boll-worm and 
others ; yet, no doubt, many of the buds and leaves on the terminal 
shoots are destroyed by them. These webbed-up leaves, however, 
must not be confounded with the webs made by numerous small 
spiders, which also select such places for their abodes, and no doubt 
do good by destroying many young caterpillars and moths. 

Young cotton-buds are frequently observed at the end of the ter- 
minal shoots, turning brown, and eventually dropping off. This has 
been attributed to the agency of the young larvaa of the " bore-worm," 
or "boll-worm," which certainly are sometimes found in the terminal 
shoots of cotton ; but, when this is the case, the buds are generally 
either eaten from the outer calyx, or the bud itself perforated and the 
former flaring open; whereas, the buds, which turn black, as before 
described, are closely enveloped in the outer calyx, and present a 
triangular form with a dry and dark-brown appearance. 


Upon close examination, a number of extremely minute larvae, 
(PL VII. fig. 4,) measuring a little over one-twentieth of an inch in 
length, were found in the injured shoots. The insects, when confined 
in a bottle with some young terminal cotton-shoots and buds, to 
ascertain if they really injured the plant, were observed immediately 
to attack each other with great animosity ; and, in a short time, one 
of the strongest larvae killed and sucked out the juices from three of 
its companions, and also from a cotton-louse which had been placed 
in the glass. The same insect, however, was afterwards plainly seen 
on several occasions, to suck sap from the terminal shoot and young 
buds; and as there were no more insects for it to feed upon, it must 
necessarily have perfected its growth and transformations afterwards 
on vegetable juices alone. Almost every terminal shoot which was 
diseased had in it one or more of these minute larvae or perfect insects. 

The pupae are of a reddish-brown, about one-twentieth of an inch 
in length, with eyes of a reddish-brown color. The perfect insect is 
rather more than one-twentieth of an inch in length, also with reddish- 
brown eyes, yellowish antenna?, and a head and thorax black ; the 
triangular space between the wings is black ; the wings are brown- 


ish-yellow, barred in the centre with two triangular black marks ; 
the ends of wings diamond-shaped, of a light color; the upper part of 
the thigh is black; and the rest of the leg yellowish. 

This insect is more especially mentioned here in order to draw 
attention to the various tribes which attack the terminal shoots of 
cotton, as at present very little appears to be known about them, and 
immense numbers of young buds dry up and fall in the manner men- 
tioned above, unobserved from their minute size. Many of them are 
no doubt cast in consequence of atmospheric and various other causes ; 
but, as this small insect has been observed sucking the juices from 
the plant, it may be found that several others do the same thing in 
different localities. The young boll-worm is, no doubt, found in 
these shoots ; but I very much doubt whether the fallen blackened 
buds are owing to injuries received from it, as will be seen in the 
article on that worm. It is true, the young boll-worm causes many 
immature forms to drop, but in such cases the bud attacked generally 
shows where the injury has been done, by a small puncture. 

As several of the reduvii or cimicidas, have the power of stinging 
man and animals in a very severe manner, with their probosces, or 
piercers, may they not in some measure possess the same .power over 
vegetable life? The question is merely asked to lead to further 
enquiries on the subject. 


Another insect, (PL VII. fig. 6,) found in the young shoots and 
newly-formed bolls, the color of which is green ; the eyes reddish 
brown ; the legs green, with the thighs red ; the antennas are four- 
jointed, and also green, with red at the end of each joint. The pupa 
is about a quarter of an inch, and the perfect insect is seven-twentieths 
of an inch in length ; the antennas are brown and green, the eye» 
brown ; the thorax somewhat triangular ; the anterior part green, 
and shaded with reddish-brown, posteriorly ; the legs, brown and 
green ; the wing-cases with a cross, shaped like the letter x, forming 
four triangles, those nearer the thorax being reddish-brown ; the side 
triangles are green. 

I observed these insects, when confined under glass, sucking the 
sap from the buds and young bolls, their only food. The young 
eventually completed their transformations into perfect insects. They 
were observed, moreover, to eject large drops of green sap from their 
abdomens, which could only have been procured from the buds them- 
selves. As it has been already seen that these insects puncture the 
bolls and extract the juices therefrom, the question arises whether 
they do any material injury, either by this extraction of the sap, or 
by a poisonous sting, like some of the reduvii. 

There is likewise another of the same species of insect, (PL 
VII. fig. 6?) which was found perforating the young flower-buds and 
bolls of the cotton, similar to the above. The head and anterior por- 
tion of the thorax are reddish-brown, the remainder of the thorax 
yellow, with a double dark mark in the middle^ the wing-cases are 
brownish-black, with two longitudinal yellow lines from the upper 


outside corner of the wing-cases to the posterior edge, forming a 
dividing mark somewhat shaped like the letter x. 


(Denoted by PL VII. fig. *I ,) about three-twentieths of an inch in 
ength, of a greyish color, with a rather long, curved rostrum, or hill, 
vas found in the terminal shoots, as well as in the blossom ; but I 
could not perceive that in any way it injured the plant. I have also 
seen very young boll-worms in the terminal shoots, but, upon exami- 
nation, I have generally found the egg deposited upon the outer calyx 
of a young bud or boll, the parenchyma, or tender succulent substance, 
of which, was mostly eaten, and the young bud pierced or its contents 
sucked or eaten out. 


The flower of the short-staple cotton is of a yellowish-white color 
the first day of its blooming ; it then gradually assumes a pinkish 
tinge towards its outer edge ; the second day, it partially closes, turns 
pink, and presents such an entirely different appearance that it can 
scarcely be recognised as the same flower. 

There are several insects which infest this flower, or " bloom," as 
it is frequently termed, some for the sake of the nectar, or honey ;, 
others for the pollen ; and a few for the corolla itself. 

(Caniharis strigosa.) 

Several blister-flies, or cantharides, found in Columbia, South Caro- 
lina, were seen to devour the petals of the cotton-flower. One of these 
insects is a little more than half an inch in length, (PI. VII. fig. 
8,) of a reddish-brown color, with the eyes and a spot on the head 
black. Two long black marks are seen on the thorax, and two longi- 
tudinal stripes, also black, on each wing-case ; the legs and antennae 
aa-e black ; and the abdomen protrudes somewhat beyond the wing- 
cases. Some of them are smaller than others, measuring not quite 
half an inch in length, and are of a rusty ash-grey white; others are 
of the same color, but with two broad, longitudinal black stripes on 
the elytraa. The two last mentioned vary so much in the distinctness 
of their stripes, some of them being the medium between the perfectly 
grey and the striped, that it is somewhat difficult to determine 
whether they are the same insect or not. The under-wings are 
clouded, and nearly black. 

These insects, although they eat holes in the petals, do but little, 
if any damage to the crop ; yet, together with the chauliognathus. 


bees, and wasps, may, perhaps, be beneficial, as serving to fecundate 
many plants by carrying the pollen from flower to flower. n 


(Chauliognathus 2 :>enns y^ van ^ cus ^) 

This insect (PI. VII. fig. 9) does not appear to attack the petals 
in the same manner as the cantharides, just described, but contents 
itself with the pollen or nectar, which is found in the flower, where 
ft may be often seen so much occupied in feeding as scarcely to take 
any notice of the approach of mankind. It is so plentiful near Colum- 
bia, in South Carolina, that four or six may be taken from one bloom 
alone. When issuing from the flower, they sometimes appear to be 
so abundantly powdered with pollen as to be perfectly yellow, and no 
doubt serve in some measure beneficially, as a medium for transport- 
ing the pollen and fertilising other blooms. 

This insect is not quite three-quarters of an inch in length ; its 
head, eyes, and antennae are black ; its thorax, orange, with a large, 
dark spot in the centre ; its wing-cases are orange-yellow, with a 
black, longitudinal, broad stripe running down each, near the inner 
margin, leaving a narrow inner and broad outer margin of yellow 
orange. This black stripe grows broader towards the abdomen, leav- 
ing a narrow stripe, also of yellow, at the end of the elytra?. Its legs 
are black. 


{Chauliognathus marginatus.) 

A small species of chauliognathus is found in Florida, (PI. VII. 
fig. 10) where it appears to take the place of the last mentioned insect, 
having the same habits, and occuring in the same places. It is nearly 
half an inch in length ; the head is orange-yellow, with a black mark 
below the eyes, which are also black ; the thorax is yellow, with a 
longitudinal black mark down the centre ; the wing-cases are black, 
edged around the outer and inner margins, and the end with orange- 
yellow ; the lower part of the thighs is also orange-yellow ; the 
upper part and rest of legs and antenna? are black. 

This insect frequents the flowers of the cotton, but, as yet, I have 
never discovered it doing any injury. ^ 


(Trichius delta.) 

A small beetle, which is a little more than two-fifths of an inch in 
length, (PL VII. fig. 11,) is also found in cotton-blooms, and some- 
times on the bolls. The head is black, including several white marks ; 
the thorax is also black, bordered with yellow, containing a singular 
triangle of yellow lines, the lower end of which appears as if broken 


off; the wing-cases are reddish -brown, with two oblique black spots 
on the upper, and two longitudinal black ones enclosing a yellowish 
mark on their lower parts ; the abdomen protrudes the twentieth part 
of an inch beyond the wing-cases, and is of a yellowish color ; the 
fore-legs are spiny and of a brown color ; the hind-legs are very long, 
brown, the ends of the tibiee and tarsi black. 

From what has been seen of the habits of this insect, and its com- 
parative scarcity, I should not regard it as injurious to the crop, and 
therefore, I would class it amongst those insects frequenting the cot- 
ton but not injurious to it. 

{Galereuca duodecimpunctata.) 

A small leaf-beetle (PI. VIII. fig. 1) is often found in the young 
flowers of the cotton, where it gnaws holes in the petals. This insect 
is about three-tenths of an inch in length ; the head is black ; the 
thorax orange-green ; the wing-cases greenish-yellow, with six black 
spots on each ; the upper part of the thighs is green, and the rest 
of the leg dark-colored, or nearly black. 

Among the remedies suggested for destroying the striped cucumber- 
beetle, (Galereuca vittaia,) Dr. B. S. Barton, of Pennsylvania, recom- 
mends "sprinkling the vines with a mixture of red pepper and to- 
bacco." Ground plaster and charcoal dust have also been recom- 
mended, as well as watering the vines with a solution of an ounce of 
glauber salts in a quart of common water, or tobacco water. An' 
infusion of hops, elder, or walnut leaves is said to be very useful ; as, 
likewise, sifting powdered soot upon the plants when they are wet 
with the morning dew. Others have advised sulphur and Scotch 
snuff to be applied in the same way. 

Dr. Barton likewise states that, " as these insects fly by night, as 
well as by day, and are attracted by lights, burning splinters of pine 
knots, or of staves of tar-barrels, stuck in the ground during the 
night, around the plants, have been found useful in destroying these 
beetles. ' ' Similar remedies might possibly apply to the twelve-spotted, 

As these insects are not sufficiently numerous to do any harm to 
the cotton-crop, these remedies are merely mentioned as applying to 
the cucumber-beetle, or any other pests of the garden or fields, of 
similar habits. 


(Geometr ce?) 

Among the numerous insects which injure the flowers of the cotton- 
plant may be found several caterpillars, many of which are of the 
kind termed "loopers," or "span-worms," from their peculiar mode 
of locomotion. 


Near Columbus, in Georgia, I found a species of caterpillar, (PI. 
VIII. fig 2,) which were quite numerous, about an inch and a half 
in length, and of a bright-green color, eating the petals of the 
cotton-flower, from the 12th of October to the 29th of November. 
They had six pectoral, four ventral, and two anal feet, and were 
obliged to loop their bodies when progressing from place to 'place, 
after the manner of the so-called span-worms, or loopers. Their 
bodies were green, and slightly hairy. The chrysalides were seven- 
tenths of an inch in length, and of a green color. The moth, with. 
wings extended, measures about an inch and three-tenths, is of a 
shaded or clouded blackish-brown, with a metallic, gold-colored semi- 
circle near the centre of each upper-wing ; a round spot of the same 
color also lies close to it, but nearer the margin ; the under-wings 
and body are of the same blackish-brown. When at rest, the upper- 
wings come together like the roof of a house; a tuft of hair projects 
from the upper part of the thorax, and a smaller tuft is found near 
or between the junction of the wings, which appear to curve up 
towards the outer margin. 


Is of the same habits, size, f^rm, and color, except that it has a white 
longitudinal line running down each side. The chrysalis, however, 
is of a dark-brown color, whereas, that of the preceding is always 
green, with dark-brown markings only on the thorax and back. 
The moth also is similar in shape and color — so much so, indeed, as to 
warrant a belief that they may be different sexes of the same species. 

Mr. Peabody, of Columbus, states that this caterpillar was very 
destructive to the leaves of turnips, in 1854. Several, which were 
placed in confinement, were attacked by a singular and fatal disease. 
However healthy they appeared at first, they gradually assumed a 
lighter color, ceased feeding, became swollen, and, suspending them- 
selves by the hind feet to any projecting twig, very soon disd and be- 
came putrid and black. 

These caterpillars were quite plentiful in the vicinity of Columbus, 
but were not found in Florida the following year. They cannot be 
classed among insects very injurious, as they were not sufficiently 
numerous to harm the cotton. 


A very small looper-caterpillar, or span-worm, (PI. VIII. fig. 3,) 
about seven-tenths of an inch in length, of a brown or greenish 
color, with five yellow and black markings or bands on the middle 
segments, and of about the thickness of a knitting-needle, was very 
numerous on the blossoms of cotton in Georgia during the month of 

These caterpillars, having six pectoral, with only two ventral, and 
two anal feet ; their mode of progression is by alternately stretching 
out and contracting the body in the form of an arch. They are thus 
enabled to advance nearly half their length every stride, or step, 


and, from this circumstance, derive their common name of " span- 
worm," or "looper." 

The favorite food of these insects appeared to consist of the petals. 
In some places, they were very numerous, as many as four having 
been taken from one bloom alone. In color, they varied much from 
green to brown ; but both were similarly banded with another color. 
The chrysalides were fixed by the tail to the leaves with a glutinous 
matter or silk, and measured about seven-twentieths of an inch in length ; 
were of a brownish-green color, and remarkable for having the upper 
part of the thorax somewhat square, flat, and furnished with two 
minute protuberances, or spines, over the head and eyes. When dis- 
turbed, they instantly drop from the leaves, and suspend themselves 
in mid-air, by means of a thread, which issues from the mouth ; and 
although exceedingly abundant in one part of the field, yet they 
were scarcely to be found out of that particular spot. 

As these insects are very small, and eat holes in the petals of the 
flowers alone they cannot injuriously affect the general crop. 


Another span-worm, or caterpillar, (PI. VIII. fig. 4,) appears in 
the Carolinas, Georgia, and Florida, early in October, and feeds upon 
the petals of the cotton-flower. It measures, when fully grown, 
from an inch and a half to an inch and three-fourths in length ; the 
color is reddish-brown, marked with faint, longitudinal darker stripes ; 
the head is somewhat angular, and divided at the top; there is a 
light spot on each side, about the middle of the body, and two short 
excrescences, or warts, on the extremity. In several specimens, there 
are white spots running down each side of the back. The chrysalis 
is a little more than half an inch in length, and is of a brownish 
color. The moth measures an inch and three-tenths across the 
expanded wings, which are of a light, clouded-grey color, with an 
irregular, dark, oblique line running across the upper-wing, and two 
others, not quite so distinct, nearer the body. There is also a dark, 
oblique line, and another fainter one, crossing the under-wing; the 
margins are scalloped with a darker color; the antennas of the spe- 
cimen figured are feathered. 

This caterpillar feeds upon the petals of the cotton-flower, and, 
when disturbed, assumes a stiff, erect attitude, in which it might 
easily be mistaken by men or birds, for a dried twig or stick. When 
about to change, in October, it descends into the earth, becomes a 
brownish chrysalis, and in about fourteen days the moth appears. 

The caterpillars are not very numerous, and therefore can do but 
little harm to the general crop. 

Another span-worm, somewhat similar to the above in shape and 
color, is very numerous in cotton-fields, but feeds upon the bind-weed 
flower, (convolvulus,) and does not disturb cotton. 



During the time that cotton is maturing its seed-vessels, there are 
several insects of the " plant-bug" species found both upon the 
young and the old bolls; but whether these insects have anything 
to do in producing the rot, is a question which cannot be easily 
answered before further information shall have been collected upon 
the subject. I will here simply give the results of some experiments 
made by me this season (1855) to determine whether any of these 
insects do or do not suck the sap from the bolls. In the month ot 
October, several plant-bugs were caught, and placed singly in glass 
bottles, containing young and middle-sized bolls, and all of those 
hereafter described were observed with their piercers penetrating the 
bolls, and busily engaged sucking out the sap. 


(Pentatoma ?) 

This insect is about seven-tenths of an inch in length, rather broad, 
and of a bright-green color ; the head is furnished with two ocelli on 
the upper part; the eyes are brown, and the scutellum, or triangular 
place between the wing-covers, is very large and also of a green color ; 
the upper part of the body, which is flattened, is margined with an 
edge of yellow, and has a black spot on the yellow edge of each seg- 
ment. The piercer, which is long and jointed, when not in use, is 
recurved under the thorax ; the antennas are five-jointed. 

An insect was described by Mr. Bailey, of Monticello, in Florida, 
(PL VIII. fig. 5,) as being very numerous in his cotton-fields ; and 
his overseer informed me that he had seen it in the very act of pierc- 
ing a boll, which he afterwards cut open and found that the puncture 
had penetrated through the outer shell, or case of the boll, to the 
ootton, and that the mark where the piercer had penetrated was dis- 
colored. Those I had in confinement certainly were frequently seen 
with their trunks inserted into bolls, and sucking the sap. 

The larva is very similar to the perfect insect in shape and color, 
but smaller in size, and is not furnished with wings. The pupa pos- 
sesses rudiments of wings, only, and it is the perfect insect alone which, 
by means of a pair of under-wings, concealed beneath the wing-cases, 
is able to fly about and propagate its kind. 


(Pentatoma ?) 

The spotted plant-bug (PL VIII. fig. 6) is very much of the same 
shape as that last described, but is not so broad. It is grey, and 
marked with black dots and lines ; it is also smaller than the former, 
being only three-fifths of an inch in length ; the outer margin of the 
thorax is somewhat pointed or angular ; the scutellum, broad and 


triangular ; and the wings, when closed, terminate with a black, dia- 
mond-shaped mark, where they overlap ; there are two ocelli ; the 
antennas are five-jointed ; and the appearance of the insect is flat, 
broad and similar to the so-called "squash-bug" of the North. This 
insect was often seen with its piercer inserted into a boll, extracting 
the sap, which was ejected from the abdomen as a bright, greenish 

These insects were found plentifully on the cotton in Georgia, in 
1854, and in Florida, in 1855. 

(Reduvius f) 

A species of reduvius (PI. VIII. fig. 7) was found in abundance 
in t t ie cotton-fields of Florida, in 1855. The female measures a little 
more than three-fifths of an inch in length, and the male about half 
an inch. The head is of a greyish-black ; the eyes prominent, black 
and brilliant ; the antennas are four-jointed ; the thorax is triangular, 
with the angle towards the head, truncated, black, with an edging 
of red ; the wing-cases are reddish, spotted with black, and edged 
with red, with their ends, where they overlap, black ; the legs are 
black from half way up the thighs, where they are red ; the under- 
wings are clouded with black veins. It so closely resembles the cele- 
brated "red-bug" of Eastern Florida that it has probably been 
mistaken for it by many planters, who have stated that the true red- 
bug is often found in Middle and Western Florida, where none are to 
be found, though I searched diligently for them. 

These insects, when confined in glasses, were not observed to feed 
upon the sap of the bolls, although it probably does some injury, like 
the much dreaded red-bug alluded to above. 

(Anisoscelis f) 

A species of amsoscelis (PI. VIII. fig. 8) was found in abundance 
in the cotton-fields both of Georgia and Florida. It appeared to be 
very active and vigilant, as, however carefully approached, it always 
flew away with a loud, humming sound. Several of these insects 
were observed on a large boll, apparently busily employed ; but when 
suddenly disturbed, they dispersed in different directions. Upon ex- 
amining the boll, the sap was seen exuding from several minute 
punctures, which was attributed to these insects having bored into 
the boll for the sake of the vegetable juices contained therein. 

The larva, when young, is of a light scarlet or crimson, with two 
black spots on the back, in which are two black, thorny excrescences, 
or points ; there are also four black, thorny excrescences on each side ; 
the legs, antenna?, and c) T es are black ; and the hind-legs thicker than 
the others. 

The pupa is brown, with its wing-cases only in an incipient state, 


and the tibire of the hind-legs have already attained a broad, flattened 

The perfect insect is about seven-tenths of an inch in length ; the 
antennas are four-jointed ; the eyes, prominent and brown ; the piercer 
four-jointed, and when at rest, re-curved under the body; the ocelli 
are two in number ; the thorax rising from the head, and somewhat 
angular on the margin ; the wing-covers are reddish-brown, with a 
distinct yellowish- white band across the middle ; the anterior and 
middle legs are reddish-brown ; the hind-legs, however, are very sin- 
gular in shape, the thighs being thick and spiny on their under side, 
and the tibia furnished with a broad "flattened enlargement on each 
side, larger on the upper one and somewhat wing-shaped, with 
two teeth, or notches, on the margin. This makes the insect appear 
to have hind-legs entirely out of proportion to its size. These insects 
are very numerous in cotton-fields, and may be seen flying from plant 
to plant during the heat of the day. 

There are several other insects found upon cotton ; but those men- 
tioned above are the most numerous. The question now arises 
whether they have anything to do with the "rot," or whether that 
disease is caused by a peculiar state of the atmosphere, or by imper- 
fections of the soil. May not the punctures made by these insects, in 
some peculiar seasons, incline the boll to the rot more readily than in 
others, though in more favorable seasons it may be made with com- 
parative impunity? A singular circumstance, however, is rather 
against the insect theory, namely, that, while some particular cotton- 
plant is observed to be much affected by the rot, the plants standing 
close to it may be comparatively free and healthy. On one diseased 
plant, I counted seventeen rotted bolls, while the very next plants 
were green, and exhibited not the least sign of disease. The query 
as to whether the rot is caused by insects or the peculiar state of the 
soil or atmosphere, is here submitted for the purpose of inciting plant- 
ers to make experiments, and to report their success, in order that 
we may soon come to a definite conclusion upon the subject. 

(Anisoscelis t) 

A very large anisoscelis, (PI. VIII. fig. 9,) about an inch and one- 
fifth in length, and of a brownish-black, I found quite numerous in 
the cotton-fields of Florida. The head of this insect is brownish- 
black, with prominent eyes ; the thorax rough, black, and somewhat 
triangular ; the antennas, four-jointed ; the legs, brown ; the thighs, 
brownish-black and spiny; the hind-legs, in appearance, entirely dis- 
proportionate in size to the insect ; with the thighs very stout, thick 
and spiny, and the tibia? with broad, flattened, wing-shaped projec- 
tions ; the trunk is recurved under the thorax. 

These insects, though somewhat numerous, were never observed to 
suck the sap from the bolls ; yet it would be well to investigate their 
habits more minutely before deciding whether they are injurious or 


Cetonia Melancholica. 

The "beetle shown on PI. VIII. fig. 9 is found on those bolls 
which have been bored into by the boll-worm, extracting the flowing 
sap from the lacerated sides of the wound. As many as five have 
been taken from the interior of a single boll, which had been pre- 
viously hollowed out by the worm, and where the sap was flowing 
very freely. Some planters accuse them of making the holes in 
wnich they are found ; but most of the bolls examined by me had 
evidently previously been hollowed out, and the beetles had only en- 
tered for the sake of the extravasated sap. Sometimes, however, 
they may so abrade the skin of a boll as to cause a flow of juice, of 
which they will avail themselves, as I have occasionally observed 
solitary individuals sucking the sap under very suspicious circum- 
stances, where no previous wound had been made by the worm. 
They can do but little harm, however, to the crop. 

This bettle is rather more than half an inch in length ; of an 
ovoid form ; greenish, with somewhat of a metallic lustre ; across 
the wing-cases, are several whitish spots and short lines ; the tail is 
obtuse, hairy, and protrudes beyond the wing-cases ; the legs are 
rather spiny, of a dark color and metallic lustre. 


• {Cetonia inda.) 

I observed another beetle, (PI. VIII. fig. 10,) but very abundant, 
in the blooms, and sometimes in the open bolls of the cotton, in Flori- 
da, in October, which apparently did no injury. This beetle is 
three-fifths of an inch in length, and of a brown color, spotted and 
marbled with a darker brown and black. It flies with a loud-hum- 
ming sound, and is apparently sluggish in its habits when not on 
the wine;. 


Much has been said about the rotted bolls of cotton, the cause of 
which has been attributed to insects ; and it has been alleged that, 
if these bolls were well examined, several of the insects causing the 
disease would always be found inside. It is true, many small 
insects are found in such rotted bolls, but they have invariably been 
previously cracked or split open by disease, or bored into by the 
boll-worm. The fact is, the insects found in such places frequent 
them merely for the sake of the sap which exudes from the wounds, 
ot for the fungoid growth that generally flourishes in such situations. 


It is very often the case that the effect is thus mistaken for the cause, 
and that insects perfectly innocent are blamed for a disease with which 
they have nothing to do, except that they resort to the already in- 
jured bolls for food or shelter. 

The insects in decaying and rotted bolls of cotton are very numer- 
ous, but most of them are quite small. 


(Carpophilus ?) 

Was found in such bolls (PI. IX. fig. 1) as were either bored 
into by the boll-worm, or had been split open by the rot, and did not 
appear upon the bolls unless they had been previously injured. I 
have counted as many as thirty of these beetles in a single diseased 
boll, and there is scarcely an injured or split boll in some fields in 
which one or more of them is not to be found. They likewise occur 
in considerable numbers in the tops of such ears of maize as have 
been eaten out by the corn-worm, (heliothes,) (see Report for 1854,) 
and have much of the sap exuding, or are covered with a fungoid 
growth. They appear to dislike light, and seek shelter in dark 
places, secure from the rays of the sun. 

This insect is about the tenth of an inch in length, and of a brown 
color ; the wing-cases are short, covering only about two-thirds of the 
abdomen. The larva is a small yellow grub, with six fore-legs, and 
two points at the end of the tail, and is often found in the rotted 
parts of the bolls. 

If this insect were to be found in the bolls before they were already 
rotted, or to be seen in the act of piercing the outer case, it might, 
perhaps, with reason, be accused of causing the disease ; but, as they 
are never found inside before the rot has commenced, it is very much 
to be doubted whether they have anything to do with it, or merely visit 
such places for the purpose of obtaining a food suitable to their taste, 
or a dark sheltered place in accordance with their habits. 


(Sylvanus quadricollis.) 

The larva and perfect insect of this minute beetle (PI. IX. fig. 2) 
has already been figured, in the Agricultural Report for 1854, where 
it is described as having been found in Indian corn. It also frequents 
diseased cotton-bolls, most probably for the sake of the seed^ which 
is generally exposed to its attacks, when the boll has been split open 
by disease. 


Was also found very numerous in some of the rotted bolls ; but as 

soon as the latter were taken from the plant and opened, the beetles 

ran off with great rapidity, and endeavored to hide themselves under 

any substance that would serve as a place of shelter. They appeared 



to dislike the open light, and were generally found in dark and ob- 
scure places. 

There were likewise several small insects found in rotted-bolls, 
such as the Colastus semitectus, and many others, which it will be 
unnecessary to enumerate here, as their habits are very much the 
same as those above mentioned, nearly all of them frequenting such 
places merely for food and shelter, and not causing the rot in any 

The hemipterous insects, heretofore mentioned, certainly do pierce 
the bolls with their beaks, or piercers, for the sake of the sap ; for 
they have been caught in the very act, and this even before any ap- 
pearance of the rot could be discovered. They might, therefore, per- 
haps, with better reason, be suspected of having something more to 
do with the disease than the small beetles already mentioned. But, 
even in this case, it would be well to investigate further before com- 
ing to a definite conclusion. 


(Ifeliothes ?) 

The caterpillar producing this small moth, (PI. IX. fig. 3,) de- 
scribed in the Agricultural Report for 1854, as injurious to the Indian 
corn in the Southern States, is likewise found in the bolls of cotton 
which have been split open by the rot, but can have nothing to do 
with producing the disease. It most probably feeds upon the seeds 
contained in the rotted bolls. 

The chrysalis is formed in a cocoon inside the boll ; it is about one- 
fifth of an inch in length, of a brown color, and formed in a cocoon 
of silk, interwoven with foeces and dust from the boll. 

The caterpillar is about three-tenths of an inch in length, of a red- 
dish or pink color, with the head and part of the first segment 
brownish. It has six pectoral, eight ventral, and two anal feet, and 
is able to suspend itself by a thread, when disturbed. The body is 
slightly covered with a few short hairs. 

The moths appear in about fourteen days, in warm weather, and, 
when expanded, measure nearly two-fifths of an inch ; the upper- 
wings are of a shaded chestnut-brown, mottled with darker brown and 
black ; the tips of the wings are marked with dark spots ; the under- 
wings are very narrow, brown and deeply fringed with fine hairs, 
presenting almost the appearance of feathers. The insect, when at 
rest, places the upper wings together, forming a ridge with the ex- 
tremity turned up. There appear to be several generations of these 
insects during the season, and, although found in rotted bolls, they 
are perfectly harmless as to the causing of disease. 

There are several other insects found in rotted bolls which it will 
be unnecessary here to describe ; for, although, as before stated, they 
are found in bolls already split open by the rot, or eaten into by the 
worm, yet they are no more the cause of the disease than the wood- 
pecker is the cause of the death of the tree out of which it extracts 
the insects which have already accomplished its destruction. 

insects. 99 

the boll-worm. 

The egg of the holl-worm moth (PI. IX. fig. 4) is generally de- 
posited on the outside of the involucel, or outer calyx of the flower, 
and I have taken it from the outer calyx even of the young holl it- 
self. It has heen stated that the egg is laid upon the stem, which 
also forms the first food of the young worm ; but, after a thorough 
and careful examination of several hundred stems, I found only one 
egg in this situation, and that, from its being upon its side instead 
of its base, had evidently been misplaced, and never hatched. 

The egg of the boll-worm is laid singly upon the involucel, about 
twilight, and is of a somewhat oval shape, rather flattened at the top 
and bottom, and is formed with ridges on the side which meet at the 
top in one common centre. The color is yellowish until nearly 
hatched, when it becomes darker, the young enclosed caterpillar 
showing through the translucent shell. A single boll-worm moth, 
dissected by Dr. John Gamble, of Tallahassee, contained at least five 
hundred eggs, which differed much from those of the cotton-caterpillar 
moth, which are round and flattened like a turnip, of a beautiful 
green color, and scarcely to be distinguished from the leaf on which 
they are deposited. The eggs of the boll-worm moth hatched in 
three or four days after being brought in from the field, and the 
young worms soon commenced feeding upon the parenchyma, or ten- 
der fleshy substance of the calyx, on the outside, near where the egg 
was laid. When they had gained strength, they pierced through the 
outer calyx, some through the petals into the enclosed flower-bud, 
while others penetrated the boll itself. Sometimes the pistil and 
stamens are found to be distorted and discolored, which is caused by 
the young worm, when inside the bud, eating the stamens and injur- 
ing the pistil, so that it is drawn over to one side. When this is the 
case, the young worm bores through the bottom of the flower, into 
the young boll, before the old corolla, pistil, and stamens fall off, 
leaving the young boll, inner calyx, and outer calyx_, or involucel, 
still adhering to the foot-stalk, with the young worm safe in the 
growing boll. 

The number of buds destroyed by this worm is very great, as they 
fall off when quite young, and are scarcely observed as they lie, 
brown and withering, on the ground. The instinct of the caterpillar, 
however, teaches it to forsake a bud or boll about to fall, and either 
to seek another, or to fasten itself to a leaf, on which it remains until 
the skin is shed ; it then attacks another bud or boll in a similar man- 
ner, until, at length, it acquires size and strength sufficient to enable 
it to bore into the nearly-matured bolls, which are entirely destroyed 
by its punctures; for, if the interior is not devoured, the rain pene- 
trates the boll, and the cotton soon becomes rotten and of no value. 

The rotted bolls serve also for food and shelter to numerous small 
insects, such as those already mentioned, and which have been errone- 
ously accused of causing the rot. Whenever a young boll or bud is 
seen with the involucre, or outer calyx, called by some the " ruffle," 


spread open, it may be safely concluded that it has been attacked by 
the worm, and will soon fall to the ground and perish. The older 
bolls, however, remain on the plant; and, if many of the fallen buds 
or bolls be closely examined, the greater portion of them will be 
found to have been previously pierced by the worm, the lew excep- 
tions being caused either by the minute punctures of some of the 
plant-bugs, from rain, or other atmospheric influences. Those injured 
by the worm can be distinguished by a small hole on the outside 
where it entered, and which, when cut open, will generally be found 
partially filled with small fragments of fceces. 

When very young, the boll-worm is able to suspend itself by a 
thread, if blown or brushed from the boll' or leaf on which it rested. 
After changing its skin several times, and attaining its full size, the 
caterpillar descends into the ground, where it makes a silky cocoon, 
interwoven with particles of gravel and earth, in which it changes 
into a bright chestnut-brown chrysalis. The worms, which entered 
the ground in September and October, appeared as perfect moths 
about the end of November. 

A boll-worm, which was bred from an egg found upon the involu- 
cel, or ruffle of the flower-bud, grew to rather more than a twentieth 
of an inch in length by the third day, when it shed its skin, having 
eaten in the meantime nothing but the parenchyma, or tender, fleshy 
substance from the outside. On the fifth clay, it bored or pierced 
through the outer calyx, and commenced feeding upon the inner ; and, 
on the sixth day, it again shed its skin, and had increased to about 
the tenth of an inch in length. On the tenth day, it again shed its 
skin, ate the interior of the young flower-bud, and had grown much 
larger. On the fourteenth day, it, for the fifth time, shed its skin, at- 
tacked and ate into a young boll, and had increased to thirteen- 
twentieths of an inch in length. From this time, it ate nothing but 
the inside of the boll, and on the twentieth day the skin was again 
shed, and it had grown to the length of an inch and one-tenth, but 
unfortunately died before completing its final change. 

These moths probably lay their eggs on some other plants when the 
cotton is inaccessible, as a young boll-worm was found this season in 
the corolla of the flower of a squash, devouring the pistils and sta- 
mens ; and, as there is a striking similarity between the boll-worm and 
the corn-worm moth, described in the Agricultural Eeport for 1854, 
in the appearance, food and habits, alike in the caterpillar, chrysalis, 
and perfect state, it will perhaps prove that the boll-worm may be 
the young of the corn-worm moth, and that the eggs are deposited 
on the young boll, as the nearest substitute for green corn, and 
placed upon them only when the corn has become too old and hard 
for their food. 

Colonel B. A. Sorsby, of Columbus, in Georgia, has bred both 
these insects, and declares them to be the same ; and, moreover, when, 
according to his advice, the corn was carefully wormed on two or 
three plantations, the boll-worms did not make their appearance 
that season on the) cotton, notwithstanding that, on neighboring 
plantations, they comlnitted great ravages. 

The worms, or caterpillars, have six pectoral, eight, ventral and 


two anal feet, and creep along with a gradual motion, quite unlike the 
looping gait of the true cotton-caterpillar, and vary much in color and 
markings, some heing brown, while others are almost green. All are 
more or less spotted with black, and slightly covered with short hairs. 
These variations of color may perhaps be caused by the food of the 
caterpillar. Some planters assert that, in the earlier part of the sea- 
son, the green worms are found in the greatest number, while the 
dark brown are seen later in the fall, as we know is the case with the 

The upper-wings of the moth are yellowish, in some specimens 
having a shade of green, but in others of red. There is an irregular 
dark band running across the wing, about an eighth of an inch from 
the margin, and a crescent-shaped dark spot near the centre; several 
dark spots, each enclosing a white mark, are also discovered on the 
margin ; the under-wings are lighter colored, with a broad, black 
border on the margin, and are also veined distinctly with the same 
color. In the black border, however, there is a brownish-yellow spot, 
of the*same color as the rest of the under-wings, which is more dis- 
tinct in some specimens than in others, but may always be plainly 
perceived ; there is also, in most specimens, a black mark or line in 
the middle of the under-wings, on the nervure ; but, in some, it is very 

These moths multiply very rapidly ", for, as I have before observed, 
one female moth sometimes contains five hundred eggs, which, if 
hatched in safety, would rapidly infest a whole field, three genera- 
tions being produced in the course of a year. 

In an interesting communication from Colonel Benjamin F. Whit- 
ner, of Tallahassee, he states that the boll-worm was scarcely known 
in his neighborhood before the year 1841 ; and yet, in the short period 
of fourteen years, it had increased to such a degree as to have be- 
come one of the greatest enemies to the cotton on several plantations 
in that vicinity. 

It has been recommended to light fires in various parts of the plan- 
tations, at the season when the first moths of this insect make their 
appearance, as they are attracted by light, and perish in great num- 
bers in the flames ; and, if the first brood of females be thus de- 
stroyed, their numbers must necessarily be reduced, as it is highly 
probable that it is the second and third generations which do the 
principle damage to the crops. Some successful experiments in kill- 
ing these moths with molasses and vinegar were made by Captain 
Sorsby, a year or two ago, which I here describe in his own words: 

"We procured eighteen common-sized dinner-plates, into each ot 
which we put about half a gill of vinegar and molasses, previously 
prepared in the proportion of four parts of the former to one of the 
latter. These plates were set on small stakes, or poles, driven into the 
ground in the cotton-fields, one to about each three acres, and reach- 
ing a little above the cotton-plant, with a six-inch-square board tacked 
on the top, to receive the plate. These arrangements were made in 
the evening, soon after the flies had made their appearance. The 
next morning we found from eighteen to thirty-five moths to each 
plate. The experiment was continued for five or six days, distribut- 


ing the plates over the entire field, each day's success decreasing until 
the number was reduced to two or three to each plate, when it was 
abandoned as being no longer worthy of the trouble. The crop that 
year was but very little injured by the boll-worm. The flies were 
caught, in their eagerness to feed upon the mixture, by alighting into 
it, and being unable to make their escape. They were doubtless at- 
tracted by the odor of the preparation, the vinegar probably being an 
important agent in the matter. As flies feed only at night, the plates 
should be visited late every evening, the insects taken out, and the 
vessels replenished, as circumstances may require. I have tried the 
experiment with results equally satisfactory, and shall continue it 
until a better one is adopted." It might be well also to try the lan- 
tern-trap before mentioned, as another means of destruction, and, like- 
wise, the method of poisoning recommended in the general remarks 
on insects. As it appears from Colonel Sorsby's communication that 
the moth is attracted by, and feeds with avidity upon molasses and 
vinegar, could not some tasteless and effective poison be mixed with 
this liquid, so that all the early moths which might partake of it 
would be destroyed before laying their eggs? 

A long caterpillar, (PI. IX. fig. 5,) measuring from an inch and 
three-fifths to an inch and nine-tenths in length, and with a thick 
body, is sometimes found in bolls of cotton in similar situations as 
the boll-worm. It feeds likewise upon the leaf, and some s])ecimens, 
which were confined in a box, devoured green corn from the ear. 
These insects vary much in color, some being of a beautiful velvet- 
black, while others arc considerably lighter. The head of the cater- 
pillar appears small for the bulky size of the body, and is black, with 
two stripes of yellow, forming an angle on the front. On each side 
of the back runs a longitudinal line, and below the spiracles is seen 
another line of a reddish or ruddy color. The under part is of a 
light-brown. It has six pectoral, eight ventral, and two anal lege, 
and its mode of progression is by a gradual creeping, the same as the 

The chrysalides were formed under ground, in cocoons of earth, 
aerfiflutinated with silk, and were about four-fifths of an inch in 
length, and of a brownish color. 

The moth measured an inch and three-tenths across the expanded 
wings ; the upper pair were of a brownish color, marked on the mar- 
gin with an irregular band of dirty cream-color, marked with black 
spots on the extreme outer edge. In the centre of each wing was an 
oblique line of the same color ; the body was brown ; the under-wings 
of a dirty, yellowish-white, with a dark shade near where they touch 
the upper-wings ; the antennas were threadlike. 

The eggs producing these worms were found deposited in clusters in 
September, and not singly, like those of the boll-worm. The old 
caterpillars are subject to a disease which often proves fatal ; and 
hence it is difficult to raise them in confinement. When attacked, 
they appear to bloat or swell very much, become full of a watery 
pulp, suddenly cease to feed, and soon perish, when the outer skiu 
turns black, and the inside is found to be full of a liquid, putrid mat- 
ter. Perhaps, if they were not subject to this disease, these cater- 


pillars might do as much damage to the cotton as the boll-worm; 
but, being generally not very numerous, they cannot do much injury. 
The same remedies will do for these worms, or caterpillars, that 
have been recommended for the boll-worm. 


There was another caterpillar (PI. IX. fig. 6) found feeding upon 
the leaves of the cotton-plant, near Columbus, in Georgia, which 
sometimes buried itself in the bolls, in the same manner as the boll- 
worm. It was about an inch and a half in length, of a pale-green 
color, with wavy, longitudinal stripes of a lighter color on the back, 
and with a longitudinal black line running down each side, thicker 
and darker on the fore part of the head. Under this was a broader 
line, nearly white, tinged with light-red or reddish-brown. On each 
side of every segment was a small black spot. It had six pectoral, 
eight ventral, and two anal feet. 

Most of these caterpillars were found about the 20th of October, 
but, unfortunately, died before completing their final change. They 
were not numerous on the plantations, and therefore could do but lit- 
tle damage. 


(Lygceus f) 

This destructive insect is found by millions in East Florida, on the 
cotton plantations, where it does immense damage by staining the 
fibre of the cotton in the bolls, and rendering it unfit for use where 
pure-white fabrics are required. The specimens figured (PL IX. fig. 
7) were found near Jacksonville, in October, on the open bolls, under 
the dried calyx, and congregating together on the dead leaves under 
the plants, or on rotten logs, or decayed wood. Several of the open 
bolls were actually red with these insects, exhibiting every stage of 
growth, from the larva to the perfect bug, all clustered together in 
such masses as almost to hide the white of the cotton itself. The 
beak, or rostrum, is four-jointed, with the end blackish, and, when not 
in use, is re-curved under the thorax, which is somewhat triangular 
in shape, with the anterior part red ; a narrow, distinct band of whitish- 
yellow divides the thorax from the head ; the posterior part is black, 
edged between the thorax and wing-cases with whitish-yellow ; the 
scutellum is triangular, red, and edged with a distinct line of whitish- 
yellow on each side, and partly down the centre of the wing-case ; 
the elytrae, or wing-cases, are flat, brownish-black, and containing 
two distinct x-shaped whitish-yellow lines on them, intersecting each 
other near the centre; the wing-cases are also edged with a distinct 
yellowish-line, as far as the x. The body is flattened, and, in the 
female, projects on each side beyond the wing-cases, showing the 
bright-red of the abdomen, and contrasting with the dark color of the 
wing-cases. The under-wings, are hidden under the upper wing- 
eases, and are transparent, veined, and of a yellowish color, clouded 


with, black. The thighs of the fore-legs are somewhat spiny near 
the tibias, and of a red color. The tibia? and tarsi are black ; the 
under part of the body is bright-red, with rings of yellowish-white 
running around it, on the edge of each segment. 

The female produces about one hundred eggs ; the young larva is 
completely red, almost scarlet, with distinct whitish-yellow bands 
around the body, on the edge of each segment. The thighs are red, 
with the tibias, tarsi, and antennas blackish. 

The pupa differs only in size, and in having the unformed wing- 
cases very small and black, contrasting strongly with the vivid red 
of the body. 

The perfect male is about three-fifths of an inch in length, and the 
female about seven-tenths of an inch, from the head to the end of the 
abdomen. They are similar in shape and color, differing only in 
size. The head and eyes are red, the antennas black, with four long 

The following communication on the subject of this insect was re- 
ceived from Mr. B. Hopkins, of Jacksonville, a practical Sea-Island 
planter, of nearly thirty years experience: — 

"The 'red-bugs,' or, as they are sometimes properly denominated, 
the 'cotton-stainers,' generally make their appearance about August, 
or late in July, which is near the usual season for cotton to begin to 
open. They can readily be distinguished from other bugs, harmless 
in their nature, by their being of a red color, and more sluggish in 
their movements. The nearer the fruit advances towards maturity, 
the more injury they do to the cotton. The pod, or boll, is perforated 
by this bug. Whether the staining matter is imparted to the fibre 
of the cotton during the perforation directly, or by a slow process dif- 
fusing itself with the sap abounding at that time in the pod, is not 
yet ascertained. I am of the latter opinion, from the fact that almost 
the entire product of the boll is discolored when it opens, which does 
not seem at all to cause a premature development. As winter ap- 
proaches, they gradually retire, and take refuge among the logs, or 
burrow into the soil at the root of the cotton-plant, where they hyber- 
nate. After a wet season, in winter, they may be found in hundreds 
on the sunny side of the stalks, enjoying the genial atmosphere, until 
towards evening, when they again retire. They can be kept down very 
easily, when there are not more than five acres planted to the hand. 

" I have been in the habit of offering a reward every night to the 
negro that brings in the greatest quantity, each of whom is furnished 
with a pint bottle suspended across the shoulders, into which, as they 
pass along picking the cotton, they deposit all they can discover. In 
many instances, I have seen the bottle filled by one negro in a day. 
They may also be greatly reduced, by destroying them when they 
come out in winter, in their half-torpid state ; a torch of fire in that 
case is best. They may be buried a foot under ground, and most 
of them will still escape from their inhumation. If there should be 
stumps or trees in the fields, they should be burned, and that will 
generally reduce the quantity for a year or more. In fact, when they 
receive timely and proper attention, they need not be dreaded. 

" No process that I know of can extract the stain produced in the 

INSECTS. 1 05 

bolls ; it is indelible, and considerably reduces trie price of the cotton 
in the market. These insects have been much on the increase for the 
last ten years, which I attribute to the excess in planting, as well as 
the want of proper efforts for their destruction." 

It has been stated by other planters, that the fceces of the insect 
produces the reddish or greenish stain, and that the red-bugs will col- 
lect where there are splinters or fragments of sugar-cane. Advantage 
has already been taken of this habit to collect them by means of small 
chips of sugar-cane, when they may be destroyed by boiling water ; 
and as they also collect around piles of cotton-seed, they may thus be 
easily decoyed, and then killed, either by fire or hot water, when con- 
gregated. All stumps and dead trees standing in the field should be 
well burnt out. The experiment of destroying them by means of the 
crushed sugar-cane and poison, has been tried ; but, as no report of 
the experiment has been received, it remains doubtful whether it can 
be recommended or not. 



(Zanthidia niceppe.) 

There are many other insects found in cotton-fields, which are per- 
fectly harmless to the plant, although the larvae of many of them 
subsist upon the weeds which grow between the rows or around the 
edges of the plantation. 

Among these insects, we find butterflies, in general, one species 
of which is frequently seen hanging over the ground by hundreds, 
around moist and damp places. The caterpillar of this fly (PI. IX. 
fig. 8) is of a deep-green, velvety appearance, with a yellowish lon- 
gitudinal line running down each side. It was found upon the Cassia 
marylandica, and measured an inch and one-fifth in length. The 
chrysalis is greenish, with a very pointed head, and fastened to the 
branch or leaf by the tail, and by a thread fastened at each side and 
passed over its back. 

This butterfly is about an inch and four-fifths across the expanded 
wings, which are of an orange-color, with a broad, black border 
around the edges. 


The caterpillar of another butterfly (PI. IX. fig. 9) is often found 
on cotton-plants, where it has wandered from its natural food, which 
consists of the wild passion-flower, so often found growing as a weed 
amongst the crops. It is about an inch and two-fifths in length, of 
a bright-chesnut color, with two longitudinal black stripes along the 
sides, and a broken line of yellowish-white inside of each black 
stripe ; it has also two long, projecting, black horns, or protuberances, 


on the first segment of the body. When about to change, it selects 
a place under a leaf, branch, or fence, where it spins a small spot of 
silk, to which it suspends itself by its hind-legs ; the skin of the fore 
part of the body then splits open, and the chrysalis makes its appear- 
ance, also hanging suspended by means of several small hooks, with 
which the end of the tail is furnished, and which, during the disen- 
gagement of the skin, becomes entangled in the silk. 

The chrysalis is about seven-tenths of an inch in length, of a pale, 
whitish-green, containing black marks and brilliant metallic, golden 
spots. These chrysalides, however, together with those of the great 
American frittellary butterfly, are often destroyed by the larva of a 
small fly. 

The butterfly makes its appearance in summer in a few days, and 
measures from two inches and a half to three inches across the 
expanded wings. It is of a bright chesnut-brown, barred and 
spotted with black. 


(Agraulis vanillce.) 

The caterpillar (PI. IX. fig. 10) of this butterfly is of a light chest- 
nut-brown color, with a dark, longitudinal stripe down each side, 
and is shaded with black below the spiracles. It measures about an 
inch and a half in length, and is covered with sharp, thorny spines; 
two spines are also found upon the top of its somewhat square-shaped 

The chrysalis, which is shaded with brown and drab, is about an 
inch and a tenth in length, and hangs suspended by the tail from' 
trees, shrubs, and fences. 

The butterfly measures from two inches and three-fourths to three 

inches and a fourth across the wings ; the upper sides of which are of 

a bright rich chesnut-brown, spotted and marked on the veins with 

black. The under-side is beautifully marked with large, metallic, 

silver spots. 


Whenever the plants are infested with cotton-lice, (aphides,) 
myriads of small ants may be seen running hurriedly up and down 
the stems and leaves, or leisurely moving amongst the lice, quietly 
tapping first one and then another with their antennae, or feelers, and 
occasionally making a dead halt where they find a sufficiency of this 
insect food. Many planters suppose that these ants are the parents 
of the lice ; others again suspect them of destroying the aphis ; 
neither of which, however, is the case, as the ants merely visit the 
colonies of lice to devour the sweet, gummy substance that exudes 
from the tubercles on the bodies of the aphides, and which is com- 
monly called "honey-dew," from the erroneous impression that it is 
formed in the atmosphere, and then deposited in the form of dew 
upon the upper surface of leaves. This honey-dew, however, is a 
sweet liquid, ejected from the anal tubercles of the cotton-louse, and 
elaborated in its own body, from the sap which had previously been 


extracted from leaves or young shoots, and which, if not immediately 
devoured by the ants, is ejected by the plant-louse, and falls in drops 
upon the upper portions of the leaves that are beneath, making them 
appear as if varnished, or, if old, causing the places thus denied to 
be black and rusty, as if affected with a black mildew, or rust. 

The ants feed voraciously upon this honey-clew, when fresh, and 
cause the aphides to eject the substance at will, by merely tapping 
their abdomens with their antenna?; the drop ejected is immediately 
devoured by the ants, and other aphides are visited and subjected to 
the same treatment, until the appetites of the ants are satisfied, when 
they either loiter about the leaves or descend to their nests in the 
ground. Ants are of utility in devouring any weak or disabled 
insects they may encounter in their path, or in consuming any animal 
substances which might otherwise contaminate the air. 

Ants are generally divided into "males," "females," and "neuters." 
The males and females, at one stage of their growth, are furnished 
with wings, which the female gnaws or casts off when about to form a 
colony. The neuters afterwards form the general mass. There are 
several varieties of the ant found in the cotton-fields, of very different 
habits and appearance. The most numerous make a hole in the 
earth, and form a sort of hillock around it, of the grains of earth or 
sand brought up from below the surface of the ground, and from this 
nest they make excursions in every direction in search of food. 

There is also another species: "red ants," so called, but in reality 
belonging to the family mutillidse. They are found singly upon the 
ground in plantations, and sometimes measure half an inch in length. 
Their color is a vivid, velvety-red and black. They are able to inflict 
painful and severe wounds with a long sting with which they are 
provided. There are also three or four species of small ants, exceed- 
ingly troublesome in some of the Southern houses, where they find 
their way into pantries, closets, boxes or trunks, however closed, and 
devour any eatable article which may fall in their way. The only 
means of preventing the ravages of these insects is to isolate the 
article to be preserved in a vessel of water, or to put all four of the 
legs of the table, on which the articles may be placed, into vessels 
rilled with water. 

The smaller ante, however, have a formidable enemy, the ant-lion, 
which, in the larva state, forms a funnel-shaped hole in the sand, 
near the ants' nests, in the bottom of which it lies concealed, all 
except its jaws, and waits with patience in this den for any ant that 
may chance to pass along the treacherous path. The ant, suspecting 
no harm, reaches the edge of the pit-fall, and, the loose sand giving 
way, it is precipitated to the bottom, where the larva of the ant-lion 
immediately seizes it with its jaws, and, after sucking out its juice, 
casts the empty skin away. Should the unfortunate ant, however, 
elude the first assault of the ant-lion, and endeavor to escape by 
climbing up the steep sides of the funnel-shaped hole, the ant-lion 
throws repeated showers of sand with such precision upon the unfor- 
tunate victim that it very seldom fails to overwhelm and bring it 
within reach of its jaws, when it is seized and its juices extracted as 
above described. 


The perfect insect of the ant-lion much resembles the dragon-fly in 
form and general appearance ; it is also furnished with four veined 
wings, by means of which it is enabled to transport itself from place 
to place. The antenna?, however, are much longer, and the larvae of 
the dragon-fly are decidedly aquatic, instead of living upon the land, 
like those of the ant-lion. 



Spiders, in cotton or grain-fields, are decidedly beneficial, inasmuch 
as they wage perpetual war against other insects, and are incessantly 
on the watch to catch and destroy all which, in their erratic flights, 
happen to become entangled in their webs. 

One spider makes a very singular nest for her young, of fine silk, 
webbed up and closely woven together in the shape of a basket with 
a round bottom, and most generally placed on or near the top of the 
cotton-plant. This basket is furnished with a cover fitting closely to 
the top, and is filled with eggs. When the young spiders are hatch- 
ed, they creep from under this cover, and eventually disperse over the 
web, which is comparatively large and strong, and stretched from 
plant to plant. The old female spider appears to brood over this 
nest, displaying much maternal solicitude for the safety of her infant 
progeny ; for, if forced away, she immediately returns, and will suf- 
fer herself almost to be torn limb from limb, rather than desert her 
precious charge. 

The habits of the different species of spiders are very dissimilar ; 
for, while some are almost entirely stationary all their life-time, 
others are continually moving about, roaming from leaf to leaf, and 
living entirely by hunting. Many spin their nets from plant to 
plant, to entrap unwary insects, and generally stay quietly at home 
in comfortable webs, securely sheltered from the sun and rain, under 
or between the leaves, waiting patiently for every stray moth that is 
so unfortunate as to fly into their nets. With the fore-feet carefully 
placed on a line leading to the radiating net-work, in order to feel the 
tremulous motion imparted to it by the unavailing efforts of any cap- 
tive insect to escape, the ant remains perfectly motionless until 
some straggling fly happens to become entangled, when it imme- 
diately rushes down the central line, and, after tying the limbs of its 
unfortunate victim with a loose web of silk, in order to arrest its 
struggles for life, deliberately gives it the death-wound, drags the 
carcass to its den, and devours it at leisure. Other spiders hunt for 
and capture their insect prey in a manner similar to that practised 
by the cat. One of them at first approaches an unconscious victim 
so gently as not to awaken its suspicion, at the same time taking ad- 
vantage of every inequality of stem or leaf, in order to conceal itself, 
until within springing distance, and then, jumping suddenly upon 
its back, killing it with its powerful hooked fangs. It then sucks out 


the whole of its, leaving only the empty skin, to be blown 
away by the wind. 

Another description of a small spider, about the tenth of an inch 
in length, of a light-drab color, with two or more dark spots on its 
back, was found very numerous inside of the involucre, or ruffle, of 
the cotton-bloom, bud, and boll, where it is said to be useful to the 
planter in destroying very young boll-worms. In many cases, where 
the eggs of the boll- worm moth had been deposited and hatched out, 
and the young worms had eaten through the outer calyx, and already 
partially pierced a hole in the young bud, or boll, it was frequently 
observed that no worm could be discovered inside ; but upon opening 
such a ruffle, this small spider was almost invariably found snugly en- 
sconced in its web ; hence it was surmised that the young worm had 
entered between the ruffle and the boll, or bud, and had been de- 
stroyed by the spider, the nest of which was found in such situations. 

As all spiders are in the habit of destroying small, noxious insects, 
they may be regarded as beneficial, especially when the crops are 
preyed upon by the larvae of very small flies, such as the wheat 
midge, the Hessian-fly, and many others. These insects, being con- 
stantly on the wing, flying about from plant to plant, to deposit their 
eggs, are very apt to become entangled in the webs, and to be there 
destroyed . 

The spider itself, however, has enemies, one of which is the u mud- 
wasp," so called. This insect builds cells of clay in out-houses, and 
under beams, or in other sheltered places. Their nests resemble 
small pieces of mud thrown up against a roof or wall, when wet, and 
afterwards dried by exposure to the air. 

(Ifegacephela Carolina.) 

This beetle (PI. X. fig. 1) belongs to the family, cicindeladse, 
otherwise called "tiger-beetles," from their savage propensities, and 
the beautiful spots and stripes with which their metallic wing-cases 
are adorned. These beetles are always hunting about the ground in 
search of insect food. A smaller and darker species especially de- 
lights in the glare and heat of the mid-day sun ; and, when disturb- 
ed, flies only a short distance, alighting with its head directed towards 
the object which has excited its alarm. 

The larva? of the tiger-beetle inhabits cylindrical holes in the 
earth, and, in these burrows, they wait patiently for any passing in- 
sect that may be crawling about on the ground, which, when within 
reach, is seized, dragged to the bottom of its subterranean den, and 
there devoured at leisure. They are of a dirty-yellowish-white, and 
are furnished with two hooks on the back. In the Southern States, 
they are often taken by the boys, by means of a piece of grass or 
straw, which being inserted into their dens, is seized by the insect in 
its crooked jaws, and held with such tenacity that it will not let go 
until, by means of a sudden jerk, it is brought to the surface of the 
ground and secured. 


The Carolina tiger-beetle is about seven-tenths of an inch in length, 
of a most beautiful metallic blue, violet, and green ; and, when placed 
in certain positions, it assumes the lustre of bronze or gold. It may 
also be known by a yellowish curved spot on the extremity of each 
wing-case. It appears not to be so partial to the light of the sun as 
some other species, but often conceals itself under stones. It is also 
seen much more frequently in the cotton-fields during cloudy wea- 
ther, or toward evening, than in a fervid mid-day sun. 


{Harpalus f) 

A beetle (PI. X. fig. 2,) belonging to the genus harpalus, is very 
beneficial to the cotton-planter, inasmuch as its food consists princi- 
pally of other insects, and of dead putrescent substances. Numbers 
of them may be seen running about the surface of the ground in 
search of food, and when disturbed, hide themselves under grass, 
roots, or stones. The formation of their jaws is peculiarly adapted to 
a predatory life. As they are very strong, and hooked at the ex- 
tremity, they are enabled to seize and hold fast any soft-bodied in- 
sect, which they generally kill and devour. 

It should here be mentioned, however, that the larva? of an insect 
of this species has been accused in Europe of feeding upon the pith 
and stems of grasses and succulent roots, but at the same time it is 
stated to feed also upon the larva? of other insects. 

Another very similar insect, (Zabrus gibbus,) both in the larva and 
pupa state, is said to be injurious to wheat in Europe ; and although 
the two last mentioned may be injurious to vegetation, yet, as a general 
rule, the carabidas are carniverous, and destroy multitudes of insects, 
in the larva, pupa, and perfect state. 


(Reduvius novenarius.) 

This insect abounds (PI. X. fig. 3) in the city of Washington, 
during the summer and autumnal months, and is very useful in de- 
stroying the disgusting caterpillars which swarm on the shade-trees. 
The eggs are deposited in autumn upon branches, and are hatched in 
May or June. When young, the insects have abdomens of a bright- 
red color, with some dark or black spots on their backs. The 
head and thorax are black. When they shed their skins, they are 
greyish in color, and display only the rudiments of wings. It is only 
in the last stage that they acquire perfect wings, when they are capa- 
ble of flying with great vigor. 

The perfect insect measures about an inch and a quarter in length. 
It destroys multitudes of noxious insects, in every stage of their 
growth, and is therefore highly beneficial ; but, at the same time, it 
is dangerous to man, if handled incautiously, as the punctures 
made by its piercer are often followed by severe consequences. When 
about to attack another insect, it advances towards its prey with a 


most cautious and stealthy gait, lifting up and putting down its feet 
apparently in the same careful manner as a pointer when approaching 
his game. When near enough to make the fatal dart, it plunges its 
piercer into the unfortunate caterpillar, and deliberately sucks out its 
juices. A small specimen experimented with, was placed in a box 
with ten caterpillars, all of which it destroyed in the space of five 



An ichneumon-fly (PI. X. fig. 4) was found in the cotton-fields 
near Columbus, in Georgia, busily employed in search of some cater- 
pillar in the body of which to deposit its eggs, as is generally the 
habit of this class of flies. The eggs being hatched within the cater- 
pillar, the larvaB devour the fatty substance, carefully avoiding all 
the vital parts, until they are fully grown, when the caterpillar, 
having in the mean time changed into a chrysalis, with the devour- 
ing larvas in its interior, the life of its unresisting victim is destroyed, 
and the grubs change into pupa?, and eventually emerge from the 
chrysalis skin, perfect ichneumon-flies, to deposit their eggs in other 

These insects are generally seen running about plants infested with 
caterpillars or worms, continually jerking their wings, and anxiously 
searching in every cranny and crevice in quest of a subject, in which 
to form the nest and provide food for their young. 

The circumstance of this fly's coming from the skin, or case of 
the moth, or butterfly, is the cause of the mistakes so often made by 
persons not well versed in natural history ; for, when a caterpillar is 
confined in a glass, and after the change to a chrysalis has taken 
place, when the real moth is expected to come out, and this fly makes 
its appearance, the young naturalist concludes, of course, that the fly 
is produced by the caterpillar; whereas, the rightful tenant of the 
chrysalis-case had been previously displaced and devoured by the 
larva of the ichneumon-fly, which was produced from an egg placed 
by the parent fly in the body of the caterpillar. This fact is here 
noticed in consequence of some drawings of insects injurious to cotton 
having been sent to the Patent Office, among which an ichneumon- 
fly was figured as proceeding from the chrysalis of a caterpillar. This 
was correct, inasmuch as it was the parasite which had devoured the 
chrysalis, but not true, when intended to represent the perfect insect 
as naturally proceeding from the caterpillar itself. 

Some chrysalides of the cotton-caterpillar, which had been pre- 
served during the autumn of 1855, as an experiment to try whether 
they would live until the following spring, having been hatched out 
prematurely by the heat of the room in which they were kept, two 
ichneumon-flies were produced of a slender shape, and about half an 
inch in length; the abdomen, or body, of the female, was black, and 
marked with seven light-colored, yellowish, narrow rings around it ; 
the head was black; with the eyes brown, the antenna? long, jointed, 


and nearly black ; on the head were three ocelli ; the thorax was 
black ; the wings transparent, of a rather yellowish tinge, veined 
with black, and having a distinct black mark on the outer margin 
of the upper pair ; the first joint of the hind-leg was comparatively 
large, thick, and of a brownish color; the thighs were also brown; 
the tibiae, black, with a broad white band in the middle; the tarsi 
were white, tipped with black ; and the ovipositor protruded more 
than the tenth of an inch. The male presented much the same ap- 
pearance as the female, but was more slender in form. 


{Ichneumon f) 

The ichneumon-fly, which destroys the aphis, or louse, so very 
injurious to the cotton-plant, is a minute insect, not quite the twen- 
tieth of an inch in length. The head and thorax are black, and the 
legs and abdomen of a yellowish color. Although so extremely 
small as to be unobserved, it is constantly engaged in exterminating 
the cotton-lice, myriads of which it destroys by preying upon their 
vitals. The female fly lays a single egg in the body of each louse, 
which, when hatched, becomes a grub. This grub devours the inte- 
rior substance of the aphis, leaving only the grey and bloated skin 
clinging to the leaf. This skin serves the young larva for a shelter, 
where it remains until it changes into the perfect fly, when it emerges 
from a hole gnawed through the back, and issues forth furnished 
with four transparent wings, to recommence the beneficial labor of 
depositing more eggs in the surrounding colonies of lice on the neigh- 
boring plants. 

The number of lice destroyed in this way can be more fully appre- 
ciated byobserving the multitude of empty grey and bloated skins, 
more or less scattered over the cotton-plants infested, each skin hav- 
ing-a hole in the back through which the perfect fly has escaped. 


The larvas of this syrphus (PI. X. fig. 5) are found wherever 
aphides, or plant-lice, abound, and present the appearance of small, 
yellowish-white naked maggots, or grubs, of about a fifth of an inch 
in length. Their color is brown, with six distinct yellow spots on the 
first three segments of the body, and the sides are also marked on 
the margin with yellow ; the body is somewhat hairy. The head is 
armed with powerful jaws, and gradually tapers to a point, while the 
tail terminates abruptly as if cut off. 

The parent fly deposits her eggs amongst the lice, in order to 
insure an adequate supply of food to each grub. These eggs are 
soon hatched by the heat of the sun, and the young grub immedi- 
ately commences crawling about the leaf; and, being blind, inces- 
santly gropes and feels around on either side in search of cotton or 
plant-lice, its natural food, one of which, being found by the touch, 
is instantly seized, elevated above the surface of the leaf on which it 


is quietly feeding, in order to prevent the struggling victim from 
using its feet, or clinging to the leaf when endeavoring to escape 
from its voracious destroyer. After piercing the living insect, the 
grub leisurely sucks out the juices, throws away the empty skin, 
and recommences feeling about in search of another, which, when 
found, is treated in the same way. When ready to change, the 
syrphus maggot fastens itself to a leaf or stalk, by means of a gluti- 
nous secretion from its own body, and, the outer skin contracting into 
a pear-shaped case, soon hardens by exposure to the air, and the 
pupa is formed inside. 

After a few days, during the heat of summer, the perfect fly 
emerges from a hole, at the blunt end of the case, to lay eggs 
amongst the colonies of lice on the neighboring plants. The perfect 
fly is about seven-tenths of an inch across the wings, which are two 
in number, and transparent. The body is generally more or less 
banded with brown, or black and yellow, and appears like that of a 
diminutive wasp. This fly has a peculiar habit of hovering on the 
wing, apparently without motion or exertion, during the heat of the 
day, near or over flowers, and when disturbed it darts away with great 
swiftness ; but, if the object that alarmed it is removed, it immediately 
resumes the same attitude and spot, only darting off every now and 
then to chase some other intruding fly from its own peculiar domain, 
over which it appears to imagine it possesses absolute sway. 

These insects are of essential aid to the farmers and planters, as 
their larva? materially diminish the numbers of lice which infest 


The lady-bird (PI. X. fig. 6) is a most valuable auxiliary to the 
cotton-planter, as it destroys the cotton-louse, or aphis, by thousands, , 
and is most plentiful where they abound, always being busy at the 
work of destroying them ; and, as such, I consider it one of the most 
beneficial of insects to the planter. 

The larva is a small, bluish-black, alligator-looking insect, of 
about the fourth of an inch in length, spotted with a few orange 
marks on the sides and back. Whenever one of them is seen among 
a colony of the aphides, the planter may safely calculate that in a few 
days the number of the lice will be greatly diminished. The larva, 
when hungry, seizes an aphis, and immediately commences eating 
him alive. This savory repast being finished, it eagerly hunts about 
until it has secured another victim, and thus completely destroys all 
the others upon the leaf. When about to change into the pupa, it 
fastens itself by the tail to a leaf; the skin of the back splitting open, 
a small hump-backed, black and orange-colored pupa makes its ap- 
pearance, which, although furnished with the rudiments of wings and 
legs, is incapable of locomotion or feeding, but remains adhering to. 
the leaf, with the dried-up skin of the larva still sticking to the end 
of the pupa. After remaining in this state for a few days, this skin 


again splits, and the perfect lady-bird emerges, furnished at first with 
soft wings, but which afterwards harden, and serve to transport it to 
the distant colonies of cotton-lice, in the midst of which the eggs are 
again deposited, to form new broods for the destruction of the plant- 
ers' greatest pest. The perfect lady-bird also devours aphides, but 
not in such numbers as their larvas, in which state it also destroys the 
chrysalis of the butterfly, {Argynnis columbina,) seen so often in the 
cotton-fields. I have repeatedly observed them in Georgia killing the 
chrysalides of this butterfly, which hung suspended from the fence- 
rails, and on the under side of the boughs of trees and shrubs. It 
appears to attack the chrysalis chiefly when soft, and just emerged 
from the caterpillar-skin. It is in this state that these wandering 
larvaa attack it, and, biting a hole in the skin, feed greedily upon the 
green juice which exudes from the wound. Sometimes, however, it 
becomes a victim to its own rapacity; for the juice of the chrysalis, 
drying up by the heat of the sun, quickly forms an adhesive sub- 
stance, in which the larva is caught, and thus detained until it per- 
ishes. Indeed, so very voracious are these larvse, that they will even 
devour the defenceless pupas of their own species, when found adher- 
ing to fences or walls. 

Many planters imagine that these lady-birds are in some mysterious 
manner connected with the appearance of the cotton-louse, or even 
that they are the progenitors of the aphis itself. This erroneous im- 
pression is formed in consequence of these insects being always found 
in similar situations at the same time, and abounding on plants al- 
ready weakened by the attacks of the cotton-louse. Their sudden 
disappearance is also accounted for, as, with the decrease bf their 
natural food, the lady-birds also disappear and migrate to neighboring- 
plantations, in search of a fresh supply of nutriment. I have actually 
known several planters who have caused them to be destroyed by their 
field hands, when and wherever found, and who complained that their 
plants were still destroyed by the aphis, or cotton-louse. This was 
only to be expected, as they had destroyed the natural enemy of the 
louse, and suffered the pests themselves to breed in peace and safety. 
I have seen the larva? of the lady-bird as late as the 18th of Novem- 
ber, in Georgia, still busy exterminating the aphis. The yellow, 
oleaginous fluid, which is emitted by this insect when handled, has a 
powerful and disagreeable odor, and is mentioned by Westwood, in 
his "Modern Classification of Insects," as having been recommended 
as a specific for the tooth-ache. 

It may be remarked, however, that there is a much larger species 
of this insect which does considerable damage to the leaves of cucum- 
bers, melons, squashes, &c., as both larvee and perfect insects devour 
the leaves and eat holes in them, so as sometimes totally to disfigure 
and destroy the plants. 

The perfect insect measures nearly half an inch in length, and is 
of a yellow color, with twelve large and small black spots on the 
wing-cases, and four small black spots on the thorax; it can be very 
easily distinguished, however, from its beneficial congener, both by 
size and color, the useful lady-bird being only about the sixth or the 
seventh of an inch in length, and of a bright-red, or almost scarlet 


color, with black spots, while the injurious insect is much larger, 
measuring nearly half an inch in length, and being of a light-yellow 
color, spotted with black. 

(Hemerobius ?) 

The larva of the lace-wing fly (PL X. fig. 7) is furnished with 
two long and sharp jaws, by means of which it seizes the cotton-louse, 
and in a few minutes sucks out the juices, leaving merely the white, 
dried skins, to show where it once commits its ravages. The eggs 
are very singularly placed at the end of a thread-like filament, fast- 
ened to the under side of the leaf, and are generally deposited near a 
colony of lice, in clusters of a dozen or more together, causing them 
to appear to the casual observer like a bunch of fungi. The eggs 
being hatched in the midst of the cotton-lice, the young larva? com- 
mence their work of extermination, seizing the younger lice in their 
jaws, and holding them in the air, and in despite of their struggles, 
■sucking out the juices, and finally throwing away the empty skins. 

The larva? of this insect are not quite a fifth of an inch in length, 
and are furnished with a sort of apparatus at the extremity of their 
tails by means of which they are capable of adhering to a leaf, even 
when all their feet are detached, thus being guarded against accidental 
falls during high winds, that might otherwise destroy them. When 
ready to change, a thread is spun from the tail, and, often forming a 
rough sort of cob-web, the insect spins a semi-transparent, ovoid co- 
coon, from which it emerges as a beautiful, bright-green fly, with two 
brilliant eyes, which sparkle like gold, and four transparent wings, 
of a greenish cast, delicately veined, and netted with nerves resem- 
bling the most beautiful lace-work; and hence the common name. 
This splendid insect, however, emits a most nauseous and fetid odor 
when held in the hand. 




The insect which has been so destructive to the once flourishing 
orange-groves of Florida presents the appearance of a minute, nar- 
row, elongated scale, (PI. X. fig. 8,) with a narrow, semi-transparent, 
whitish margin. That of the female resembles one of the valves of 
a long muscle-shell, in shape, and adheres closely to the leaf or branch 
on which it is fixed, and is apparently formed by successive semi-cir- 
cular layers added from time to time. When fully grown, it mea- 
sures about the tenth of an inch in length, by about the fortieth par' 
of an inch in breadth, at the broadest part. 


The young insects are produced from eggs deposited by the female 
under the broader end of the outer case, or shell ; and, when first 
hatched, are furnished with six legs, by means of which they escape 
from under the maternal shelter, which is somewhat elevated from the 
leaf, at the hinder part, to allow the egress of the young, which are 
extremely small, and appear in numbers, like minute, yellowish specks 
upon the leaf; but, if magnified, the six legs, two antenna?, and two 
short bristles, at the end of the abdomen, can be plainly distinguished. 
The body is of a pale-yellowish color, and divided into segments. 

When tired of rambling, and having arrived at a suitable place 
for feeding, the cocci fix themselves to the leaf, or branch, for life. 
A light-colored, semi-transparent film, or case, with two projecting 
points at the narrow end, is soon formed over the young insect, and 
under this thin scale, it may at first be plainly perceived. The scale 
gradually increases in size, and becomes more opaque and brown, 
until the shell of the female attains its full growth, at which time it 
measures about the tenth of an inch in length. If the large scales 
are taken from the leaf, the female larva, or worm, may be seen in the 
concavity of the scale, in the same manner as an oyster or muscle, 
rather in the concave valve of its shell. This grub is of a yellowish, 
or sometimes pink color. The case itself, when turned upside down, 
appears to have a narrow margin of a whitish, or semi-transparent 
substance, where it had adhered to the leaf; a flat flap, or wing, 
extends on each side from the head, or narrowest end, at least two- 
thirds down the shell. This appears also to have adhered to the leaf. 
A longitudinal opening is left between the two projecting pieces, 
where the naked body of the grub may be seen. The end, towards 
the thicker extremity, is often vacant until filled with eggs, which, 
in color, are yellowish or pink. The head of the grub is placed 
towards the narrow part of the scale, and a piercer, or thread-like 
filament, proceeds from the under part of the breast, by means of 
which it sucks the juices from the plant. If the scale is gently re- 
moved from the leaf, it will often be found to hang to it by means of 
this thread-like piercer. 

When the female commences to lay her eggs, under the shelter of 
the scale, they appear to be deposited in parallel rows on each side ; 
but it is difficult to ascertain their number correctly. As many as 
twenty or thirty, however, have been counted in one female scale. The 
female decreases in size in proportion to the number of eggs laid, and 
finally, after having deposited all under the scale, she dies and dries 
away in the smaller end, with the case still adhering to the leaf. 
The scale of the male is much smaller than that of the female. The 
grub inside, after changing into a pupa, of a yellow color, with rudi- 
ments of wings, legs, and antennee, eventually emerges from the case 
a perfect two-winged fly, so extremely minute as to be scarcely per- 
ceptible to the naked eye. 

The head of the perfect fly is small, rounded, and furnished with 
two comparatively long, jointed, and somewhat hairy or bristly an- 
tennas ; the thorax is very large; it has six short legs, and two large, 
transparent wings, in which are two nervure. The body is short, 
in comparison with the thorax, and has a long point, curved down- 


wards at the extremity of the abdomen, which is somewhat hairy. It 
is said of some of the coccus tribe that the males escape backwards 
from the shell, or case, with the wings extended flatly over t-he head. 

Mr. Browne, in his work on the " Trees of America," states that 
''this insect first made its appearance in Florida, in Robinson's 
Grove, at Mandarin, on the St. John's, in 1838, on some trees of the 
Mandarin orange, which had been procured in New York. In the 
course of three or four years, they spread to the neighboring planta- 
tions, to the distance of ten miles, and were the most rapid in their 
migrations in the direction of the prevailing winds, which evidently 
aided them in their movements. In 1840, Mr. P. S. Smith, of St. 
Augustine, obtained some orange trees from Mandarin, and had them 
planted in his front yard. From these trees, the insects went to 
others in the same enclosure, and rapidly extended themselves to the 
trees and plantations to the northerly and westerly parts of that city 
and its vicinity, obviously aided in their migration by the south-east 
trade-winds, which blow there almost daily during summer ; and, 
what is remarkable, these insects were occupied nearly three years 
in reaching trees in the south-east side of the city, only about 
half a mile from their original point of attack. They have since, 
however, extended themselves to all the trees in and about the city, 
but have not yet travelled in any direction beyond ten miles. Being 
aided in their dispersion by birds, and other natural causes, impossi- 
ble to guard against, they must eventually attack most if not all the 
trees in Florida ; for the wild-orange groves suffer equally with those 
which have been cultivated, and no difference can be perceived in 
their ravages between old and young trees, nor between vigorous and 
decayed ones. Various remedies have been tried to arrest their pro- 
gress, such as fumigating the trees with tobacco-smoke, covering 
them with soap, lime, potash, sulphur, shellac, glue, and other viscid 
and tenacious substances, mixed with clay, quick-lime, salt, etc. ; but 
all have failed, partially or entirely, and it appears not to be in the 
power of man to prevent the ravages of these insignificant and insidi- 
ous destroyers." 

The above remarks were first published in 1846, and at the present 
time, (1855,) the disease appears to have spread over the greater part 
of Florida, as was anticipated. Several other remedies have been 
proposed, one of which was earnestly recommended the past season. 
This consisted of a wash, composed of a gallon of water, a gallon of 
whiskey, and four ounces of aloes. Many contradictory reports as to 
the efficacy of this mixture have been received, some stating that it 
completely succeeded, while others contend that it was an entire fail- 
ure, or merely destroying the first brood of insects already on the 
tree. If the latter should be the case, it might perhaps prove more 
effectual if the tree were well washed and syringed, every two or three 
weeks, as long as no perfect eggs remained upon the dried-up skin or 
shells of the dead female, to produce new generations, as, perhaps, 
these eggs might not be affected by the wash which was strong enough 
to destroy the life of the perfect insect. It would also be advisable to 
syringe the trees from time to time, even when very few insects can 


be discovered on the branches or leaves, as the young cocci are so 
minute as to be almost invisible to the naked eye. 

The plan of highly cultivating and enriching the soil has also been 
much recommended, as promoting a healthy, vigorous growth, and 
strengthening the constitution of the tree, so that it is better enabled 
to withstand the attacks of these foes. Grease from fat bacon, rubbed 
on the trunk and main branches, or the rind or outside thick skin, 
placed in the fork of the branches, where the fat and salt may run 
down the main stem, is said by one person to have been of much 
benefit ; but others, who tried this plan, assert that the trees were 
killed in consequence of the application. In fact, so many different 
remedies have been recommended, and so many contradictory reports 
given of the results, that it will not be prudent to place reliance upon 
any of them, until a regular series of experiments shall have been 
instituted with the various mixtures, upon trees of the same age and 
strength, in different soils and localities, and a faithful report given 
as to the success or failure — bearing always in mind, however, that 
although the old scale insect may be destroyed, yet millions of eggs 
may remain unhatched under the sheltering scales, waiting only for a 
few days' genial sunshine to hatch and spread over the tree, which, 
perhaps, may have been washed in the meantime by heavy rains, so 
as not to leave a vestige of the mixture remaining to prevent the 
young from fixing themselves, ad libitum, when they first emerge 
from the sheltering scale. 

Another kind of scale insect (coccus) is also found upon the 
orange-trees, which measures about the tenth of an inch when fully 
grown, and is of a much more oval form than that already described. 
The young cocci were of a yellowish-white color, and had the head 
and thorax somewhat defined by indentations on the sides, and marks 
on the scale itself. They are furnished with two antennas, and had 
six legs, by means of which they moved about the leaf until they 
found a place suited to their taste, when they immediately fixed their 
piercers in a leaf or branch, and became coated with a scale-like cov- 
ering, which appeared to adhere to the surface of the place where it 
was fixed ; and here they remained motionless the remainder of their 

This description applies to the female coccus alone, as the males 
were not discovered ; but doubtless they resemble the species already 
described, in being provided with wings, as well as in general habits. 
As the female scale becomes older, it gradually assumes a brownish- 
black appearance, having a somewhat lighter colored margin. This 
coccus appears to be peculiarly subject to the attacks of parasitical 
insects, which serve materially to check its increase. Many of the 
scales were observed in September to be punctured with small holes 
in their backs, made no doubt by small parasitical flies, which had 
devoured the original tenant of the scale. One of the flies which 
came out of these scales measured about the twentieth of an inch in 
length ; the body and thorax were of a metallic green color ; the eyes 
black, and the legs of a brownish color ; the four wings were trans- 
parent, and the antennas jointed and hairy. 


Another hymenopterous fly came out of the dead scales, which also 
measured about the twentieth part of an inch in length, the thorax 
and first segment of the body being light-brown, with the rest of the 
abdomen blackish and hairy ; the head was furnished with three ocelli ; 
the four wings were transparent, and the antennas long, jointed, and 
hairy. These parasitical flies no doubt do much good in lessening 
the numbers of this kind of coccus ; as, although breeding in similar 
situations, and with apparently as good a chance to multiply as the 
others, it was not found to be nearly so numerous as the scale insect 
first mentioned. This may perhaps be attributed to the attacks of 
these flies, as hundreds of dried-up scales were seen with large holes 
in their backs, and the contents eaten out as above described. 

While on the subject of the orange-scale insect, it may be as 
well to mention that some time last year (1855) another coccus 
was imported into Jacksonville, Florida, on some lemons sent from 
Bermuda ; and, as they may perhaps spread in the vicinity, it would 
be well to draw attention to the insect, and describe it as far as known. 
The length of the full-grown female scale is rather more than the 
twentieth of an inch ; it is somewhat pear-shaped, and of a brown 
color ; the grub is of a reddish-yellow, and furnished with a piercer 
from its breast, like the coccus first described ; the young have two 
antenna?, six legs, and two long hairs, or bristles, at the end of the 
body. The male scale is not so large as the female, and is formed of 
a white, cottony or parchment-looking substance, constituting a case, 
with an elevated and rounded ridge in the centre, in which a reddish 
pupa was found. The mouth of this case was stopped up with a dark- 
looking substance, apparently the cast-skin of the larva. The male 
larva is reddish in color, and measures not more than the fortieth of 
an inch in length. The perfect fly is also red, and is furnished with 
two hairy antennas, six legs, and has the thorax very large. The 
two wings are transparent, and the end of the body is furnished with 
a curved, hard projection. As it is very probable that this insect 
will increase, it would be well to note any progress it may make dur- 
ing the ensuing year, and to use the remedies suggested in the first 
article on the coccus of the orange. 

There are also found on the orange-trees numbers of small mites, 
which have frequently been mistaken for the young cocci ; but they 
may be very easily distinguished, by their activity from the young 
scale insects, which crawl about very slowly. The mites have eight 
hairy legs, somewhat like those of minute spiders, and are mostly of 
a yellowish color, although some are also found of a delicate pink 
hue. They are generally seen briskly running among the stationary 
cocci, and may often be found concealed under the old scales ; but, 
whether they do any harm to the tree, or merely feed upon the dead 
or dying cocci, has not yet been satisfactorily ascertained. 

The pupa of a parasitical fly was found under the scale of one of 
the cocci ; the head, wings, antennas, and legs were perfectly formed 
as in the ichneumon-flies ; the eyes were comparatively large and 
brown, and the rest of the body of a whitish-yellow. The perfect 
fly could not be recognised, however, as the pupa died without 




The rearing of bees is extensively carried on in the several parts 
of European Russia, particularly in the central and southern gov- 
ernments, as well as in the Polish and in the trans-Caucasian pro- 
vinces. This insect acclimatises up to a very high latitude, even in Si- 
beria. It was long thought that the climate of the latter country 
was utterly unsuitable for the rearing of bees ; but experiments made 
at the commencement of the present century in the governments of 
Tomsk, Omsk, and Jenisseisk have proved the contrary. It has 
oreatly suffered, however, in some provinces, from the destruction of 
the forests ; for the bee prefers well wooded districts, where it is pro- 
tected from the wind. The honey procured from the linden tree 
(Tilia europcea) is only obtained at the little town of Kowno, on the 
river Niemen, in Lithuania, which is surrounded by an extensive for- 
est of these trees, and where the rearing occupies the principal at- 
tention of the inhabitants. The Jews of Poland furnish a close imi- 
tation of this honey, by bleaching the common kinds in the open air 
during frosty weather. 

The ceremonies of the Greek church, requiring a large consump- 
tion of wax candles, greatly favor this branch of rural economy in 
Russia, and preserve it from the decline to which it is exposed in 
other countries, from the increasing use of stearine, oil, gas, and other 
fluids for illuminating purposes. The peasants produce wax so 
cheaply that, notwithstanding the consumption of this article has 
greatly diminished abroad, it still continues to form an important 
item of the commerce of the country ; but the exportation of honey 
has considerably increased in consequence of the extended use of potato 
syrup, which has also injured the honey trade in the interior. 

The rearing of bees is now almost exclusively dependent on the 
manufacture of candles for religious ceremonies, and on the consump- 
tion of honey during Lent, it being then used instead of sugar, by the 
strict observers of the fasts. The government encourages this branch 
of rural industry, as affording to the peasant an extra source of in- 
come and has adopted various measures for the accomplishment of 
this end. With the view of diffusing the requisite knowledge among 
the people of the public domains, bee-hives, and a course of practical 
instruction upon the subject of bee-culture, have been established at 
several of the crown farms, and pupils are sent every year, at the ex- 
pense of the government, to the special school in Tschernigow, 
founded for the purpose, in 1828. After having finished their studies, 
the pupils, quitting this establishment, may become teachers in the 
schools dependent on the Ministry of Domains, or carry on the busi- 
ness of teaching on their own account. They enjoy a temporary ex- 
emption from military service ; and such of them as wish to establish 
hives for themselves obtain loans for the purpose from the Depart- 
ment of Rural Economy. By way of further encouragement, the 


Ministry of Domains has granted permission to the peasants to estab- 
lish hives in the crown forests, under the precautions necessary to 
prevent the occurrence of conflagrations. 

The total production of wax in Russia is estimated at 5,412,000 
pounds per annum ; and, as the usual calculation is three pounds of 
honey to one of wax, this supposes a production of 16,236,000 pounds 
of honey, the whole being valved at $2,250,000. d. j. b. 


Statement of Henry Eddy, of North Bridgewater, Plymouth county, 


I have had much experience in the production of " artificial colo- 
nies," and also in what is termed the "non-swarming" system of 
bees. But I have abandoned both, and am satisfied that the bees 
know the best time and mode of conducting their colonisation. I do 
not feed my bees with the expectation of obtaining thereby surplus 
honey for market ; for no one receives back the amount he thus feeds, 
and what he does receive, is not much changed nor improved. I 
adopt the natural system of swarming, -destroy no bees, but keep 
them alive and at work ; and, if I have any advantage over others, it 
consists in placing them in circumstances under which full scope is 
given to their instincts. My profits from bee culture seldom fail 
from the loss of colonies in winter, or by depredations of the bee- 
moth at other seasons. By the mode I pursue, certain swarms are 
made to pay, in the increase of stock and honey, a profit of 100 per 
cent., while others give from 500 to 600 per cent. The average profit 
upon my entire stock, for several years, has been 327 per cent, per 
annum. I accomplish this by the use of a hive of my own 

My surplus honey sells readily in market for 25 cents a pound. 




Thrift and plenty are the ideas we ever associate with the name of 
the Netherlands. Placed in a situation in which the exercise of in- 
dustry, perseverance, prudence, and economy is essential to their very 
existence, the people of the "Low Countries" cheerfully obey the 
beneficient command to labor ; and such are the fruits of their will- 
ingness to toil, that the rest of the world behold them with wonder 
and admiration. 

From the middle of Belgium, a few miles north of Brussels, the 
country north-eastwardly becomes almost entirely a dead level, ex- 
tending in monotonous sandy and peaty flats through Hanover, Jut- 
land, Holstein, and, with little interruption, through Prussia into 
Russia. But the lowest part of this immense region, and that Avhich 
has most recently emerged from the sea, is undoubtedly the country 
lying between the mouths of the Scheldt and the Ems ; within this dis- 
tance the Rhine, joined by the Meuse, Yssel, and other rivers, enters 
the sea, through a number of arms, and sluggish winding channels, 
which by no means represent the magnitude of their main streams as 
they appear higher up. The delta of the Rhine may be conceived to 
have been in early ages subject to perpetual changes of form, as new 
mud-banks were deposited, blocking up the old channels, and lead- 
ing to the formation of new ones. Besides, it is obvious that the 
river, in forming a domain of alluvial deposits had to contend with 
the sea, which washed away the accumulations of mud, or covered 
them witli sand, according to the vicissitudes of the seasons. The 
soil of the Netherlands shows everywhere the proofs of this struggle 
between the billows of the ocean and the river floods, in the alterna- 
tion of salt and fresh water deposits. It also bears evidence to the 
fact, that these changes, effected by the inundations of the Rhine, or 
by encroachments of the sea, occurred frequently, long after the 
country had become inhabited. Remains of forests now lie buried 
under the waves of the German ocean ; paved roads and traces of 
villages and of cultivation are found beneath the morasses on the 
banks of the Ems, and many similar proofs exist of great physical 
changes, respecting which history is silent. 

For the purpose of securing the permanence of their territorial pos- 
sessions, the early occupants of this country had recourse to dikes, 
or embankments, high and strong enough to protect them under or- 
dinary circumstances from the tides ; and, placing wind-mills on these 


dikes, exposed to the sea-breeze, they worked the pumps which 
drained the enclosed lands. 

The Netherlands now present to our view an artificially constructed 
country, some portions of which are many feet below the surface of the 
sea, and nearly all too low for natural drainage. How this land has 
been rescued from the floods and waves, and how it is preserved from 
their attempted inroads, it is the purpose of this paper to explain. 

The recovery of land from the water, in Holland, is the most import- 
ant branch of engineering, insomuch that a Government Board has 
existed for centuries, the duties of which are confined to the admin- 
istration of the hydraulic works of the kingdom. This Board is de- 
nominated the " Waterstaat," or Board of Marine Engineers ; and 
in matters affecting the protection of the country from the waters of 
either the rivers or the sea, its powers are very great, if not absolute. 
A school of instruction in this particular branch has also long been 
maintained by the government. 

" Polder" is a term applied in the Netherlands to a tract of coun- 
try the surface of which is lower than the waters adjacent to it, and 
which, therefore, requires to be protected from them. Such tracts 
are abundant throughout the country here described, exceeding a 
thousand in Middle Holland alone. They are of various sizes, and 
of various degrees of depth, some of them indeed being 20 feet below 
the level of the sea. 

These polders are formed in four different ways, namely, first, of 
ground reclaimed from the sea by the skill of the engineer; second, 
of ground protected from the rivers by circumscribing, and conse- 
quently diverting and deepening their currents ; third, by the drain- 
ing of lakes ; fourth, by the digging of turf for fuel, in such quan- 
tities as to make extensive depressions of this character. In Rhine- 
land, there is of Nature's formation of dry land (more than one-third 
of which is "downs," or formations caused by deposits of sand upon 
the margin of the sea,) but 76,000 acres, while there is of polder 
land 173,000, and of land still redeemable as polder land, 56,000. 
But one-fourth of the land of Rhineland, therefore, is above the level 
of the sea ; and a system of drainage adapted to its recovery and pre- 
servation, requires, not only the construction of sluices, ditches, canals, 
and embankments, but a resort to extraordinary mechanical agencies 
in elevating the water above the surface of the contiguous rivers or 
seas, in order that it may flow into them. To illustrate the method 
which experience has proved to be the best for the accomplishment 
of this object, a single great and successful instance will here be 

Haarlem Lake, or Haarlemmer Meer, (PI. XI.) was two miles 
south of the city of Haarlem, in the province of North Holland, a city 
that has been described as "very well built, very clean, and very 
dull," yet which is, to all who esteem intelligence, industry, moral 
worth and integrity, one of the most interesting cities of the world. 
This lake was formerly an inlet of the Zuyder Zee, (a gulf of the 
German ocean,) of an irregular, oblong form, 33 miles in circumfer- 
ence, and enclosing an area of about 40,000 acres. It communicated 
in the north with the river Y, and in the south with the Old Bhine. 


Its average depth was a little more than 13 feet below the lowest 
tides in the Zuyder Zee. The recovery of the land for the pur- 
poses of agriculture was not the primary object leading to its recla- 
mation, the danger of its extension and encroachment upon the soft 
alluvial soil of the surrounding country being constantly regarded as 
imminent. Indeed, by the overflow of its banks during a hurricane, 
in November, 1836, the city of Amsterdam, four miles northeast of 
it, sustained considerable injury; and in the succeeding month, the 
storm coming from a different quarter, the city of Leyden, four and 
a half miles southwardly, experienced a like calamity. Thus ad- 
monished, the government determined upon the great undertaking 
it has since so successfully accomplished. 

The attention of the people had been directed to this enterprise as 
early as the year 1617, and, from that period to the year 1839, many 
projects were submitted to the government for the purpose. Allusion 
to any of these plans will not be here made, except so far as to do 
honor to a millwright whose success in reclaiming submerged lands 
obtained for him the appellation of "Leegh water," which maybe 
interpreted "Water-drainer." Such was the skill and sagacity of 
this person, that at that early period he proposed a plan that differed 
but little from that which was finally adopted, except that lie con- 
templated a reliance upon windmills for the power necessary to ele- 
vate the water from the lake. 

In 1839, after a series of careful investigations, and various modifi- 
cations and amendments of the plans previously arranged, the com- 
missioners, destined finally to superintend the work, proceeded to 
enclose the entire lake, including Spiering Meer, and Kager Meer, 
the whole comprising an area of 44,520 acres, which was to be 
drained to a mean depth of about 13-|- feet, besides the accessions by 
leakage from the surrounding lands, and the fall of rain during the 

The first object to be accomplished was the construction of a dike 
and canal around the entire area, in order, first, to intercept the 
water from the adjoining lands on a higher level; second, to provide 
a navigation in lieu of that previously afforded by the lake ; and 
third, to form a channel, for the flow of the water pumped from the 
lake into the sea. This canal is some 40 miles long ; in its northern 
portion, it is 147^ feet wide, at the level of the tow-path, which is the 
level of the datum at Amsterdam; on the west and south, the width 
at this point is a little over 131 feet; and, on the east, it is a little 
over 124^ feet wide. Its depth throughout is 9f feet. The dike 
between the canal and the lake is 13£ feet on the crown. 

The flow of water out of the canal was found not always to be de- 
pended upon; as, when the wind was strong and adverse, it was 
repelled to such a degree as to render further agencies necessary. 

From an examination of PI. XI. it will be seen that the passage 
of the water from the canal is provided for at three points : first, to 
the North Sea, or German Ocean, by the great cut and sluices at 
Katwyk ; second, by the sluices at Halfwege, or Halfway, between 
Amsterdam and Haarlem; third, by the Spaarne, through the 
sluices at Spaarndam, by both of which outlets the waters are dis- 


charged into the arm of the Zuyder Zee, called the Y. At the first- 
named of these places, the only remedy applied is an arrangement 
of gates which remain open when the flow of water is outward, but 
closed when the pressure of the tide is reversed. At the second, the 
resistance has not proved so frequent nor serious as to require the 
application of a remedy ; but at Spaarndam, where the canal empties 
into the sea, a steam-engine and machinery adapted to raise a great 
quantity of water to a limited height, of from a few inches to two 
and a half feet, have been provided, and are used whenever the wind 
blows strong from the north or northeast. 

The commissioners were in the beginning empowered to borrow 
8,000,000 florins, or $3,200,000, to provide for the defence of Amster- 
dam from inundation; to purchase all lands required; to divide 
the soil when drained ; to supply the new polder with water in time 
of drought ; and to arrange a system of canals, channels, or ditches, 
roads, and bridges. 

The work was commenced by the construction of the dike and 
canal around the lake. This was not generally difficult, the excava- 
tions being through firm peaty soil, impervious to water, which was 
thrown up to form the body of the dike, a layer of turf being used to 
finish it off; but, in some situations, it was otherwise, as, for instance, 
on the narrow neck of land between the lake of Haarlem and the 
Turf-pit lakes near Aalsmeer, which is of a soft and spongy nature, 
the surface consisting chiefly of reeds and aquatic plants, and soft 
peat forming the substratum. This land rose and fell with the water 
in the lake. Ingenious, yet tedious, laborious and expensive means 
of overcoming these obstacles had therefore to be resorted to ; such as 
the exposure of layer after layer of the peaty soil to the sun and wind, 
and sinking them gradually by the weight of additional layers, until 
the whole mass sank through the soft peat to the solid ground be- 
neath, when some firmer soil from old dikes was added, and the 
proper form given to the embankments, by the removal of the super- 
fluous portions. At other points, the bases of the embankments wero 
protected by sheet-piling. In crossing canals and creeks, successive 
layers of fascine, or faggot-work, formed into oblong masses, were 
floated to their destined positions, and then loaded with sand or 
gravel until they sank, in layers, crossing each other at right angles. 
They were then secured in position by stakes driven through them. 
Over the wall thus formed, earth was thrown to form the slopes of the 
dike and canal. 

Not only was it necessary to construct dikes between the canal and 
the lake, or polder, but between the canal and the Turf-pit lakes 
also. For this purpose, fascine, or wicker-work, was resorted to, upon 
the exterior of which was thrown sand, obtained at great expense. 
This, mingling with the soft soil, rendered it impervious to water. 

So well did this work prosper, that, in 1843, it was regarded as 
nearly completed ; but, in consequence of delays in obtaining the requi- 
site steam-engines and pumps, the lake was not closed until May, 1848. 

Pumping a very large quantity of water to an inconsiderable height 
was a purpose to which no great engine had been previously adapted ; 
and, as this height was to be gradually increased, provision had to be 


made for varying die capacity and action of the machines. No ex- 
tensive pumping apparatus in any part of the world was therefore 
suited for imitation ; but recourse was wisely had to England for the 
light of experience in the matter, which resulted in the employment 
of Messrs. Joseph Gibbs and Arthur Dean, of that country, to furnish 
drawings and specifications, according to which three engines were 
constructed and applied to the work, one of them being completed 
and tested, however, before the others were commenced. This first 
was called the " Leegh water," in honor of the worthy engineer al- 
ready named. It was erected near Kaag, which is not far from 
Leyden. The "Cruquius" and the "Lynden," called after two 
personages distinguished in the promotion of the great enterprise, 
were erected, the former near Haarlem, and the latter near Amster- 
dam. The engine-houses are massive circular towers, and the boiler- 
houses square buildings attached to their sides. Preparatory to lay- 
ing in the foundations of these structures, coffer-dams were thrown 
around their sites. The water having been pumped out, the areas 
were dug to a depth of about 23 feet below the mean surface of the 
lake. Piles were then driven to a depth of about 40 feet below 
that level, and over them a strong platform was laid to receive the 

The peculiar engine placed at Spaarndam, to coerce the water 
from the canal to the sea, is of course additional to the three here 
spoken of. It is of 360 horse-power, and gives motion to ten water- 
wheels. Each of the other three engines named has been stated to 
be of 400 horse-power, and to have cost half a million of florins, or 
$200,000. During the thirty-nine months consumed in draining the 
lake, ending on the first of July, 1852, they worked nineteen months 
and a seventh, and raised 831,839,501 cubic metres of water, equal 
to about 219,771,996,000 wine gallons. The engines rested during 
that dry summer, and, in the following winter, the water accumulated 
upon the moist polder, which would not absorb it, to a considerable 
height ; but this was exhausted by June, 1853, when the sale of the 
recovered lands was commenced. In the following winter, however, 
accumulated waters again arose from rains and leakage ; but the sys- 
tem of interior canals and ditches being then regarded as perfected, 
including a basin for the reception of the waters, the work appeared 
to be nearly completed in the summer of 1854 ; yet, although the 
winter had been very remarkable for its copious rains, it was to the 
general disappointment that the central and lower portion of the 
great polder was found to have accumulated much water in the win- 
ter of 1854-5. There were two causes for this apparent failure : 
first, the engine boilers were not supplied with filtered water in suffi- 
cient quantities, and the earthy deposits impaired their efficiency ; 
and, secondly and chiefly, in the system of interior drainage adopted, 
too much dependence had been placed upon the efforts of the proprie- 
tor of each tract of 20 hectares, or nearly 49| acres, in draining 
his own land. In many instances, this was deferred by these indi- 
viduals ; and, in the less favorable situations, the lands had not been 
taken up at all. The annual amount of rain, a depth of about 27 
inches, which had fallen at that period, could neither sink into the 


earth nor flow from its surface ; neither was the process of evaporation 
equal to its removal. 

In the month of October, 1855, when the writer visited the scene, 
not only was the work of drainage found to he perfected, hut what 
had been, so short a time before, the bed of a great lake, was then a 
region of exceedingly fertile land in a fine state of cultivation. (PI. 
XII.) It was dry, comfortable and healthy, or the only indications 
of diseases from local causes appeared to have been among persons 
whose severe and exposed employments would in almost any locality 
produce similar effects. Numerous neat, quaint and conveniently- 
constructed cottages were seen in various directions ; a population of 
about two thousand dwelt within the polder ; fields of verdure ex- 
tended far and wide, enlivened by cattle, horses, and sheep, grazing 
on the fruitful meadows ; and everything the eye could look upon 
indicated the triumphant achievement of the vast and benificent de- 
sign, with the exception of some limited patches of soil, charged with 
vegetable acids and salts of iron, uj)on which vegetation would not 
then grow, but which may be restored through the agency of lime. 

The cost of the works herein described, and all their accessories, 
including their preservation and repairs to the end of 1855, and in- 
terest on loans made for the general purpose, is stated to have been 
$3,592,537, but $250,537 more than the original estimate. The num- 
ber of acres recovered being 44,520 ; the cost per acre was therefore 
$80 69. 

The engines used in draining the lake will continue to be kept in 
working order, and will at some seasons be applied daily in expelling 
the accumulating waters ; not that they will all be often required in 
service at the same time, but because such an emergency is possible ; 
and, should it come but once in ten or twenty years, the motives of 
economy leading to the setting aside of any of the engines will be 
regretted. Thus an inconsiderable annual expense must be perma- 
nently sustained by the holders of the land in Haarlem Polder, in con- 
junction with the government. 

It is believed that the particularity with which this subject has 
been treated will not be regretted by the intelligent reader. What 
can be achieved by patient industry, guided by enlightened judgment, 
is happily exemplified in this remarkable instance. A small king- 
dom, with an overflowing population, has thus added to its area many 
thousands of acres of the richest soil, in the most desired position, 
providing homes for a numerous agricultural population, productions 
for the subsistence of many more, and adding to the wealth, strength, 
and influence of the nation. The two provinces of Holland comprise 
2,146 square miles, or 1,983,440 acres. The population of these pro- 
vinces is 1,106,248. There is, therefore, one person to every acre 
and a quarter, and, at this ratio, the area of Haarlem lake, rendered 
cultivable and habitable, is adapted to the maintenance and occupancy 
of 35,616 people. But when it is remembered that there is of course 
much waste and inferior land taken into the great aggregate, and 
that this polder is all equal to the best land of the provinces, its 
capacity may be stated as equal to the support of 70,000 persons, or 
twice the number indicated by the general apportionment. 


In the United States, land is fortunately to be had at very low 
prices, and the government has at present no need to resort to such 
measures as have been here described, either for protection of its do- 
mains from the inroads of the sea, or for the acquisition of territory ; 
yet may the example of Holland still be profitable to agricultur- 
ists or capitalists in many sections of our country. Land in the far- 
off West, at only $1 25 per acre, is sometimes, practically, almost 
as remote and inaccessible to citizens of the United States as to 
the good people of Amsterdam or Haarlem themselves ; and rich 
alluvial soil, at the very margins of great navigable waters, and near 
the accustomed homes and markets of our people, is often as desirable 
to them as to the people of those countries. Immense regions of the 
most fertile soil ever trodden by man, lying adjacent to the Delta and 
current of the Mississippi river, through hundreds of miles of its course, 
as well as extensive salt-marshes along our seaboard, require for their 
complete restoration nothing more than an imitation, upon a limited 
scale, of the works herein described. Polders of three miles square, 
near the levees of the Mississippi, surrounded by canals upon which 
their products might be conveyed to the river's edge, could be diked 
and drained at a small cost compared with their subsequent value. 
It is indeed only in the prairies that land can be tilled without its 
previous recovery from swamps, or the subjugation of its forests. 
That the labor expended in the performance of these tasks is greater, 
in proportion to the value of the lands obtained, than would be re- 
quired to drain the submerged tracks alluded to, should not be too 
confidently assumed. That the work may be conducted upon a 
more limited scale, and consequently with less means, is certain ; but 
capitalists are seldom timid in essaying the most formidable enter- 
prises, when large profits are demonstrated by even the most compli- 
cated calculations. 

Should an examination of this subject and a series of successful 
experiments induce their continued prosecution, great public benefits 
would doubtless also proceed from the narrowing, and consequently 
the deepening of the courses of rivers upon the margins of which such 
polders may be established, and from the removal of a great source 
of miasmatic infection proceeding from organic deposits upon these 
miry, tracts often so prolific of devastation and disease. d. j. b. 


Statement of C. Snivelt, of Penn Township, Alleghany county, Penn- 

Farmers here are turning their attention to draining their wet 
lands, and they find that nothing they can do will pay better. For 
instance, a field of 10 acres is sown with wheat, one half of which is 
so dry that the yield is 25 or 30 bushels to the acre. The other half 


being wet, the wheat is winter-killed ; weeds take the place of wheat, 
and the crop does not exceed 5 bushels to the acre, and that of inferior 
quality. Whereas, if it had been properly drained, it would have 
produced at least as much as the dry part of the field, and probably 
more. Would not the increase of crop in one year go far towards 
paying the expense of draining? 

The mode of draining here is to stake off the ditches in such a 
manner as will carry all the water to the lowest ground, and finally 
to some stream or ravine. We dig the drains from 2^ to 3 feet deep ; 
then fill up with cobble-stones, which abound on most farms, to within 
12 or 15 inches of the surface. We then put a layer of any kind of 
straw over the stones, and cover and fill up with the excavated clay. 
The stones should be broken so that no pieces should exceed 2 or 3 
pounds in weight. 



The enrichment of the soil, or its preservation from impoverish- 
ment, is the great object of desire in every portion of the world in 
which man derives his sustenance from the earth ; and the means of 
effecting this object are wisely sought with corresponding earnestness 
and at vast expense, insomuch that the excrement of birds, under 
the name of "guano," is brought in large quantities from distant 
seas, and profitably sold in Europe and in the cities of the Atlantic 
of this country at 3 cents a pound, or $9 for a quantity sufficient to 
renovate a single acre of grass land, equaling a sum within a frac- 
tion of the price of the land itself. Against the wisdom of enriching 
the soil, even at this enormous cost, it is not here proposed to urge 
any objection. The experience of every cultivator will teach him 
whether he can afford to do so or not ; and the question he has to 
decide, is simply whether the excess of production with the use of 
guano, when judiciously applied, over the ordinary yield of his land 
without it, is equal to the cost of this manure. Guano, however, 
cannot be expected to supersede all other fertilisers, nor even to 
diminish their consumption. It has not been brought into use with 
this expectation, but for the gratification of an increased demand — a 
demand for a powerful quickening agent, of easy transportation, to 
be applied chiefly in the recuperation of depleted or impoverished 
soils, for which it is well adapted, but to which it cannot be univer- 
sally applied, because of the insufficient quantity imported, and the 
enormous price at which it is sold. It is reasonable, therefore, thai 


inquiries should be made for other fertilisers adapted to this purpose, 
and. that farmers should ask how it is that Nature has, in this in- 
stance, so far deviated from the law that has placed the ore of iron 
and the coal to he used in its manufacture in close proximity to each 
other, and in all other particulars manifested the most perfect design 
of adaptation, and yet requires us to search thousands of miles from 
the soil we cultivate for the nutriment that is to replace the substances 
we take from it in the various cropa it produces for the sustenance of 
animals as well as of men. The reply that naturally presents itself 
to every reflecting mind is, that this cannot be so ; and the proof is 
by no means wanting to sustain this opinion. It may indeed be al- 
most pronounced an axiom, that the best means to restore the soil 
is by the return to it, in their changed conditions, of those substances 
by the abstraction of which it has been impaired. There has been 
no period since the fall of man in which this truth has not been un- 
derstood, nor in which it has not, in general, been acted upon, by the 
application of the excrements of animals and decomposed vegetable 
substances as manure to the soil. But an important omission in this 
respect has been wilfully made, and it is in consequence of this omis- 
sion that we are now subjected to the trouble and expense of seeking 
in other climes for an agent capable of sustaining the soil from which 
we derive our food. The most nutritious articles of aliment obtained 
from the soil are consumed by man, and by those animals which form 
his food. Compared with the highly-condensed aliment that he thus 
eonsumes, the hay, straw, grass, and various vegetable substances, 
eaten by domestic animals, may be regarded almost as nothing ; and, 
when compared with the value of human excreta, the manure obtained 
from all other sources becomes perfectly insignificant. In the fact 
that these substances are not returned to the soil for its enrichment, 
we have perhaps one of the strongest illustrations of the bountifulness 
of the earth, if not of its exhaustlessness ; yet the necessity of the 
extraordinary efforts, to which allusion has been made, is evidence of 
the truth that we may not continue to violate with impunity this 
clearly-indicated law. 

Many persons, I am aware, will at first reject these suggestions, or 
contemplate the subject proposed with aversion ; but it will be found 
that those who, from a want of an acquaintance with the beautiful 
and purifying economy of nature, are disgusted with the thought of 
the reproduction of vegetation by means of this particular agency, and 
are yet reconciled by habit to the use of every other element, however 
offensive — and all are so — are scarcely known to murmur at breathing 
constantly, in its volatile effluvia, without the medium of any purify- 
ing process, the very substance which shocks their nature to have thus 
deposited upon the earth in corruption, to be raised in incorruption by 
an absolute chemical change. What this unworthy prejudice has 
done, to the injury of agriculture, may be most accurately estimated 
by an examination of the variety and magnitude of the evils it has 
inflicted upon the family of man in his home wherever it is found, 
but especially in the populous cities and towns, where malaria, or 
bad air, as the word imports, is the imperceptible origin of so many 


It has often been pronounced wonderful, that in the most beautiful 
regions of the earth, where every sense is gratified, and where the air 
we breathe is even delightfully fragrant, there should be contained 
within it the most pernicious poisons, under the influence of which 
man sickens and dies, while in otheir regions, where every object 
of sight and every inhalation of the air are revoltingly offensive, 
there is often comparative security. But when it is known that poi- 
sons may be taken into the body in the food we eat and in the 
liquids we drink, and that food and drink containing such poisons 
may be most pleasant to the taste, it should not be deemed a marvel 
that Nature has acted in accordance with the same law with respect 
to another essential element of our nature, and required that we should 
be guided by reason and experience in making choice of the localities 
in which our homes are to be placed, in the purification and ventila- 
tion of those homes, and in the removal of all noxious influences sur- 
rounding or adjacent to them. Though the agency of disease, in 
either case, may be inappreciable, the origin of that agency is gene- 
rally susceptible of detection, and often of correction. 

But the manner in which impure air injuriously affects the system 
is not understood by all, though susceptible of the simplest explica- 
tion. Man, in common with all other warm-blooded animals, requires 
that the blood in his system should be continually exposed to fresh 
currents of pure air. So constantly are the lungs required to labor, 
in the fulfilment of this function, that their cessation even for a few 
minutes, would result in asphyxia or death. By one action of respi- 
ration, that of inspiration, pure air is carried into the system ; by 
another, that of expiration, impure air is carried out of the system. 
When this function of respiration is performed in a calm and natural 
manner, there are eighteen respirations every minute, in each of 
which efforts, about a pint of air is received into and discharged from 
the lungs of a person of ordinary capacity, and all the blood in the 
system performs a complete circuit, and is thus exposed to the puri- 
fying influence of the atmosphere, once in every two minutes and two- 
thirds. It is the condition of health and life, therefore, that the 
atmosphere we breathe should be adapted to this purifying process ; 
or, in other words, that it should be pure. If poisoned, or even con- 
taminated by the effluvia from the decomposition either of animal or 
vegetable substances, instead of purifying the blood, it must neces- 
sarily produce, whether rapid or slow, a progressive deterioration and 
corruption of the whole mass of the blood, a consequent disorgani- 
sation of the solid structures, and the excitement of those violent 
commotions which constitute fevers, cholera, and other morbid con- 
ditions of the human frame. The only just cause of wonder, then, is, 
that the same amount of accurate knowledge, and the same degree of 
practical attention, are not given to this element of vitality, that are 
so uniformly applied to the subjects of food and drink ; or, indeed, 
that the very instinct of our nature, which causes us to turn with dis- 
gust from food and drinks of unpleasant odor and taste, is resisted 
with respect to air, and that we reject the guidance of the wise and 
salutary admonition of the senses, and persist in breathing an atmos- 


phere that the decay of organic matter has corrupted, or that, confined 
within limited apartments, which has already performed its officeof 
purifying the blood of our systems and measurably lost its capacity 
for that service. 

That this subject may be rendered more certainly comprehensible 
to every intelligent mind, a few plain facts respecting the blood and 
its mode of purification will here be stated: The functions of the 
animal economy cannot be discharged without the preservation of a 
certain temperature of the body. This temperature varies in differ- 
ent domestic animals, and in different climates, from 96f ° to 106° F. 
In man, it ranges from 96j° to 98f °. By the process of respiration, 
the carbon in the blood is brought into contact with the oxygen in 
the atmosphere; a species of combustion takes place, and carbonic 
acid gas, a substance deleterious to life, is thrown off. Whether, 
therefore, noxious elements in the air, thus brought into contact with 
the blood, are imparted to it, or the oxygen it contains is insufficient 
for this process of combustion, in either case, it is manifestly preju- 
dicial to life as well as to health. To illustrate, therefore, the perni- 
cious influences of the very prevalent evil of small or crowded apart- 
ments and inadequate ventilation, it may here be stated that the 
average respiration of a pint of air occurs about eighteen times in a 
minute, equaling 21$ cubic feet per hour, or nearly 520 cubic feet in 
twenty-four hours. An apartment 14 feet long, 13 feet wide, and 8£ 
feet hip-h, which are harge proportions in ordinary dwellings, would, 
therefore, not contain air enough to supply three persons during 
twenty-four hours for the purpose of breathing, without making any 
allowance for the influence of the insensible perspiration in deterio- 
rating the confined atmosphere, or for the fact that the carbonic acid 
gas that it contains renders the air exhaled from the lungs heavier 
than the pure atmosphere ; and hence causes it to form chiefly the lower 
stratum which, in an apartment of the dimensions given,. it would 
require less than ten hours, (the period during which many persons 
remain within their chambers,) or an aggregate of 647 cubic feet, to 
overflow the occupants, whether in a lying or a sitting posture, say at 
an altitude of 3^ feet from the floor. The elimination of this gas, 
when produced by the combustion of charcoal, is so rapid that the 
usual crevices of doors and windows do not perceptibly affect it, and 
many persons have perished from suffocation in consequence, just as 
they would have perished from drowning by the opening of a sluice 
of water into the room, adequate to overflow them in the same time, 
with the single exception that their senses do not generally admonish 
them of the presence of the former evil until it has deprived them of 
the ability to escape. Or, if the pure and unbreathed air, about 
7T V7yth part of which is carbonic acid, is not kept wholly separate 
from that which has been surcharged with this life-destroying prin- 
ciple, to that extent is the whole volume of air in a room gradually 
becomino- impaired, as we breathe it over and over; and fortunate is 
it that it is so, since its sickening effects, so promptly experienced by 
persons of feeble organisation or ill-health, serve to warn us of the 
presence of evil before its power has become adequate to prostrate us 
at once. 


It must hence be manifest to every one, that, even where pure dry air 
prevails, copious ventilation is always essential; and that, in winter, 
when the combustion of the fuel that warms us is cooperating with 
our own vital organs in impoverishing the air of its oxygen, and 
when the desire for warmth within our dwellings tempts us to exclude 
the atmosphere from without, our danger is always greatest. This, 
indeed, is often apparent in the prevalence, in the winter season, of 
such diseases as small-pox, varioloid, measels, scarlet fever, &c, as 
well as of the catarrhal affections to which we are rendered liable by 
the debility consequent upon a protracted abstinence from a pure and 
unimpaired atmosphere. 

From what has thus been stated, it is obvious that the preservation 
of the habitations of the human family from noxious and impure air 
is one of the first duties each person owes to himself and to his neigh- 
bors, and which the municipal authorities owe to those for whom they 
enact and administer laws; but it will doubtless be as generally 
acknowledged that this duty is almost everywhere either partially or 
totally disregarded. 

Malaria has been described as of two kinds : The first, or common 
malaria, is that inappreciable influence which arises from the vicinity 
of marshes, rivers, or other waters, and overflowed lands, where the 
decomposition of vegetable substances progresses, often without in the 
least offending the senses, though the exhalations are of the most 
deadly character. Ague and fever, billious fe^er, congestive billious 
fever* and sometimes typhoid and yellow fevers, are products of this 
insidious poison, of which, perhaps, the best known phenomenon is 
the fact that a humid atmosphere is highly conducive, if not essential, 
to its dissemination. Thus it is that, in most situations, during a 
rainy season, or in the dewy hours of morning or evening, it is gen- 
erally known to be received. The chilliness of the air at such times 
is often supposed to be the origin of disease ; and it may be true in 
man}- cases, that this has proved the exciting or developing cause of 
an attack ; but that the disease does not originate in this cause is 
abundantly proved by the fact that no person sickens at once with 
suck a disease, who has not been previously exposed to malarious 

The second kind of malaria is that which is incident to certain lo- 
calities, and known to proceed from peculiar causes. It is contained 
in the noxious effluvia often generated on ship-board, in filthy and 
overpeopled houses, in slaughter-houses, in grave-yards, in the 
putrified offal from dwellings, in the sewers of cities, and especially 
m the depositories of human excrement. This variety of malaria is 
the source of so many diseases that it would be almost impossible to 
enumerate them. Those already spoken of as being occasioned by 
the bad air of confined apartments are of course among them; but 
there are probably few diseases known to medical practice that do not 
more or less proceed from it ; and many of them, unlike those which 
emanate from common malaria, are, in turn, self-propagative and 
almost perpetual in their succession. 

Of the variety of malaria herein first named, it is not the purpose 
of this article to treat ; but on the second, a few practical remarks will 


be offered: The removal of everything offensive from the habita- 
tions of man, and from their proximity, is demanded by every con- 
sideration of health, comfort, delicacy, and true economy, even were 
it not useful for the purpose of enriching the soil. Notwithstanding 
the apparent apathy of the world to this truth, there is little room 
to doubt that, could the prejudice herein alluded to be dissipated, and 
means of promptly removing such nuisances without the spread of 
unpleasant exhalations, provided there are no persons worthy of the 
least consideration to be found in any community who would not 
cheerfully and promptly acquiesce in the arrangement, at any reason- 
able cost. What is it that is proposed to be removed? Almost every- 
thing that renders a city either uncomfortable or unhealthy ; as the 
fecal matter from privies, which, sinking into the earth, contaminates 
the water of every well, and the effluvia of which so impregnates 
the atmosphere that the sense of smell, is forever offended by vicious 
odors, instead of being gratified by agreeable perfumes; and the vege- 
table and animal offal, as well as the liquids from the kitchen, which 
now decompose in the vicinity of dwellings, becoming putrid in gut- 
ters, sinks, and sewers, send forth exhalations scarcely less offensive 
than those proceeding from the depositories of human excrement. In 
all these substances, there is a great predominance of serous fluid, or 
water — three-fourths, indeed, in much of it. So long as a particle 
of this water is retained in it, so long is progressing the exhalation 
of ammonia, carbonic* acid, and sulphuretted and phosphuretted 
hydrogen gases, which both offend the sense and impair the physical 
condition of man. No system of purification is therefore adequate to 
the purposes held in view that does not remove the liquid as well as 
the solid portions of these offensive matters. It is the liquid portions, 
only, which flow into the sewers of cities and pass thence into canals, 
rivers, &c, to render noisome and pestiferous the very waters that 
were intended to lave and purify the shore. The current of the pol- 
luted Thames may be discerned in the ocean many miles from its 
mouth. The turbid filth that current bears along sluggishly towards 
the sea is again and again thrown backward by the resisting tides, 
until its accumulation shocks every sense, while, through hundreds 
of sewers, its slime is still flowing into that receptaclo of unendurable 
stench, and yet of wasted manure, more valuable every year than all 
the guano England annually imports. 

Almost every town and village in the world is a miniature of 
London, except that its most elegant and luxurious homesteads 
often stand, even in closer proximity to the nuisances created by squalid 
neighbors, and that in many, even the sewage system of London 
has not been introduced, and the putrid drainings from everything 
foul sink into the earth to pollute the water, and anon the air, instead 
of flowing off to a river or canal, where the evil of its influence is only 
different in degree. 

An intelligent and accurate scientific gentleman, of London, (Pro- 
fessor Griiy, of Russell Institution,) made a publication a few years 
a^o, which has since received very general sanction, on the subject 
of the health of towns as influenced by "defective cleansing and 
draining," in which it is stated that, while the annual mortality of 


England is equal to about 2 per cent, of the population, the annual 
excess of deaths in thirty-seven of the largest towns in an average of 
the years 1841 and 1842 was 28,505. ' In the larger towns of Bri- 
tain and Ireland, he estimated the excess to equal GO, 000 deaths an- 
nually. This is the excess over the average of the whole, and of course 
much less than that of the towns over the country ; and it it is al- 
leged to he caused, not by the omission of drainage, but by the 
neglect to drain well, or by defective drainage. 

In the contemplation of this subject, humanity might suggest other 
liases of comment, but political economy and arithmetic will of them- 
selves guide us to startling conclusions. Thus, it is assumed by the 
writer named, for each "unnecessary death due to defective drainage," 
&c, we may assume the cases of "unnecessary sickness" occasioned 
in like manner at twenty-eight; and further, "the loss and cost of 
all the preventable sickness and death annually occurring in the 
United Kingdom may be fairly estimated at £20,000,000," or 

About the same period, a paper "On the Physical Causes of the High 
Rate of Mortality in Liverpool," was read before the Literary and 
Philosophical Society of that city, by Dr. W. H. Dungan, the state- 
ments in which were subsequently well approved by the press of that 
cit}".. In reviewing this paper a learned scientific journal of London 
expresses the pleasure of its editors in being able to say that "all 
the towns of England are not open to the same amount of censure." 
This remark may also be made of the cities of the United States ; yet 
in the account given may be found a portraiture, though highly 
colored, of every city and large town of this country, as well as of 

From this paper, we learn that Liverpool is the most unhealthy town 
in England, one death occurring annually for every 28 T 7 /o persons, 
while in London there is one in 37 T 3 oV> in Birmingham one in 36 T y 7 ; in 
Leeds one in 36 T W ; in Sheffield one in 32 T W; in Bristol one in 23 T W, 
and in Manchester one in 29 T y 3 -. These ratios are computed upon 
the estimates for 1838, 1839, and 1840. The average duration of life, 
in London, is nine and a half years, while in Liverpool it is but seven 
years and three-tenths. Could the sanatory condition of Liverpool 
be brought up to that of Birmingham, it would prove a saving of 
1,250 lives annually, and yet the sanatory condition of Birmingham 
was far from being good, and the poor and destitute were not par- 
ticularly well cared for. 

This condition of things in Liverpool was chiefly attributed, first, 
to close, ill-ventilated habitations ; second, to an overcrowded popu- 
lation (but for whom there is plenty of room and plenty- of light 
and air between earth and heaven) ; third, to the omission to remove 
refuse animal matter ; and fourth, to the deficient drainage. Of the 
223,000 inhabitants of that city, about 160,000 belong to the work- 
ing classes, a large proportion of whom dwell within courts and 
cellars. These courts are alleys from 9 to 15 feet wide, running lat- 
terally from the streets, through archways, under the large street 
buildings. There is no other way of ingress nor egress, and all tho 


air or light they receive is from above, though the two rows of houses 
thus facing one another are generally three stories high ; and, as 
they hack against the houses of other courts, there can of course be 
no current of air through them. The rooms of these'houses are gen- 
erally 10 or 11 feet square. The cellar rooms, in which these people 
also dwell, are 10 or 12 feet square, and sometimes less than 6 feet 
high, and though usually paved, are not unfrequently without even 
this comfort. The door, the top of which is seldom higher than the 
foot-walk without, is very often the only aperture for the admission of 
light or air ; and sometimes a back cellar is used as a sleeping apart- 
ment, frequently receiving all its air and light through the door first 
described. Darkness and dampness, of course, prevail in these cel- 
lars. The streets in which the more favored portions of the laboring 
people live are sometimes but 5 yards, and seldom more than 10 wide. 
And yet in all these streets and courts, and in the cellars, wherever 
they are, families are crowded together in a manner incredible to 
those who have never witnessed such scenes. 

Even if the most perfect system of cleanliness were observed by the 
people so confined, they could hardly be expected to realise good 
health, because of the want of ventilation. Efforts to provide more 
comfortable dwellings for the working classes in London and Liver- 
pool, have, of late years, been made, and in these efforts his royal high- 
ness Prince Albert has earnestly participated. In constructing model 
dwellings for a comparatively small number, the success has been 
very good ; but a general imitation of these dwellings for the use of 
others will of course progress no faster than the interest of landlords 
may induce them to rebuild the now existing houses, or to convert, 
them to other uses and provide dwellings for the poor in other locali- 
ties ; and experience would indicate at least a century as necessary 
for the performance of this work. Wisdom and benevolence, there- 
fore, point to the purification of the present abodes as the paramount 
duty to be performed. The first step towards the accomplishment of 
'this purpose should of course be the introduction of pure fresh air 
into every apartment occupied by any portion of the human race. 
The light of the sun's rays may not be thus transmitted at present, 
though recent experiments with reflectors give some hope even of this ; 
but the atmosphere, as pure at least as it passes over the roofs of the 
houses of Liverpool or any other crowded city, may, at very small 
expense, be conducted in any desired quantity to every room in any 
dwelling, even to the deepest subterranean vault. All that is neces- 
sary for this purpose is, the construction of small wind-sails upon 
the roofs of houses in such a manner as to 

" arrest the gentle breeze 

And bend before the blast." 

Descending from these into all the apartments of* each house, there 
may be tubes of wood, tin, or even canvas, susceptible of contraction 
and expansion at the lower extremities, at the option of those whose 
comfort and health they are designed to promote. This would be but 
a simple modification of the means used, time out of mind, on ship- 
board, for the ventilation of the lower decks and holds. That means 


so feasible, so cheap, and so salutary, are not in general use, wherever 
currents of air cannot be otherwise obtained through houses of any 
description, can only be accounted for upon the hypothesis that the 
importance of ventilation has not been sufficiently understood, or that 
the regard for human life has' nowhere been such as should be che- 
rished in a Christian land. The former is of course the cause to 
which may be chiefly attributed this apparent neglect. 

But the most perfect system of cleanliness is not observed, either 
in Liverpool or in any other city of which I have any knowledge ; 
and the most important movement that has been of late years made 
towards approaching it is in the institution of an exceedingly expen- 
sive system of drainage, which is the best that can be done under the 
present order of things, but would be almost totally unnecessary were 
rational views on fertilisation to prevail. In spite of this system, 
from 1,700 or 1,800 persons die annually, in Liverpool Parish, alone, 
of contagious diseases, and the mortality among children by convul- 
sions, known to proceed from deficient ventilation and foul air, is enor- 
mous. That Liverpool is a great mart of commerce, that vast fortunes 
are being constantly accumulated there, that thousands upon thou- 
sands of the people live in the most affluent luxury, is all true ; but 
it only serves to show how the happiness of a people is often disre- 
garded in the desire to promote some great interest, which ministers 
to the pride or cupidity of the ambitious few, even though, as is gene- 
rally the case, that few, in obedience to the law of Nature which coerces 
a sympathy among all men, irrespective of condition, subjects them 
to the very evils their avarice has inflicted upon others. Thus we 
find, that, while the average age at death of " the gentry and profes- 
sional men" of London is forty-four years, of Bath fifty-five, of Leeds 
forty-four, and of Manchester thirty-eight, in Liverpool it is but thir- 
ty-five years — the just penalty of the violation of Nature's plainly- 
revealed law. 

In the enumeration already quoted, of the four presumed causes of 
the mortality of Liverpool, it has been made sufficiently apparent to 
every reflecting mind that imperfect ventilation and overcrowding are 
evils that may be measurably, and indeed very considerably corrected, 
at any moment in which the will is formed to do it. The landlords 
and tenants may cooperate to effect the needed reform ; or, what would 
prove still more efficient, municipal laws adequate to the object might 
readily be enacted and enforced. The subject of efficient drainage is 
of course everywhere entitled to the closest attention, whether in coun- 
try or town. Without this, no home can be comfortable nor healthy, 
and no soil preserved in its integrity. But it is to a due attention to 
"the removal of refuse animal matter," and of refuse organic matter 
of all kinds, that we are to look chiefly for protection from nuisances 
and disease ; not its removal by deposition and infiltration into the 
earth , nor by the exhalation of its volatile particles into the surround- 
ing air by means of exposure to the sun ; nor by the flow of its putrid 
solutions through offensive and disgusting gutters and sewers in the 
pursuit of some great colon, whence to pour into and corrupt the ad- 
jacent waters, that would otherwise be well adapted to enhance the 
health and beauty, as well as to facilitate the commerce of the place. 


The removal of all offensive matter from our dwellings or premises, 
and especially of the urine and foeces of men and animals, must be 
effected by other means. This duty must be executed frequently and 
thoroughly ; first, because our health and comfort require it, and, 
secondly, because a wise economy demands it. Upon the former rea- 
son nothing more need here be said ; but the latter presents conside- 
rations of paramount importance. 

The desire of the times, whether wisely or not, appears to be for 
concentrated manures, and as inodorous as possible. Up to this mo- 
ment, no other fertiliser that has been discovered is regarded as so 
valuable in these particulars as the better qualities of guano, consist- 
ing principally of the excrement of sea-fowls, their carcasses, feathers, 
eggs, &c, which is found on or near the coasts of South America 
and Africa. The most approved, and that generally used is the 
"Peruvian," and of this the most recently deposited is preferred. 
That the materials of which it is composed are superior to like 
substances found in other portions of the globe is not presumed ; 
but, from the uniform temperature, and exemption from rain, of 
that region, the vast deposits are preserved from decomposition, and 
the consequent loss of their fertilising projDerties, which have become 
diffused throughout the whole, assimilate with all its particles, and 
exist in their nascent or evolving condition when the guano is depos- 
ited in the soil it is intended to enrich. 

Analyses of the best Peruvian guano have shown its constituent 
elements to be about as follows: — 


Organic matter and ammonical salts, 
Phosphates, ..... 
Alkaline salts, .... 

Sand, . . . .' 



The ammonia, which is equal to about IT per cent., and the phos- 
phates, impart to guano nearly all its fertilising value, the small 
portion of alkaline salts comprising the only other virtues it possesses ; 
and it has been correctly assumed that the value of guano may be esti- 
mated by a knowledge of the quantities of ammonia and phosphates it 
contains in their nascent state. Professor Way, of the Royal Agri- 
cultural Society of England, after a careful examination of the sub- 
ject, has decided the value of ammonia to be 6d. sterling, or 12^ 
cents per pound, and of phosphates 3 farthings, or 1^ cents per 
pound. Therefore, in a ton of 2,000 pounds of guano, 

17 per cent, of ammonia is equivalent to 340 pounds, 

at 12£ cents, $42.50 

23.48 per cent, of phosphates is equal to 470 pounds, 
at \\ cents, ... ..... 7.05 

Value of alkaline salts, say, . . . . .4.45 

Making the value per ton, . . . .54.00 



This is somewhat below the present market price of the article, 
.and may possibly vary as much from the value of its constituent 
parts as procurable in other forms at this moment ; but it will afford 
a basis of calculation in any stage of the guano market. 

Having, then, ascertained by the standard adopted, the value of 
this richest of applied fertilisers, let us learn by a similar standard 
the value of one that, instead of enriching our lands, is not now 
applied, but is permitted to run to waste near our houses, and to pro- 
duce disease and death in the manner already described. 

Human ordure, in its natural state, contains about three-fourths of 
its weight of water, which, holding in solution a very large portion 
of volatile matter, consisting of ammonia, carbonic acid, and sulphu- 
retted and phosphuretted hydrogen gases, occasions in its escape, 
caused by evaporation or otherwise, the loss of these valuable 
elements. The experiments which have been made to concentrate 
this manure by evaporation and the condensation of its residuum, by 
the production of "poudrette," or- by whatever name it may be 
called, have hence been generally attended with the defeat of both 
purposes aimed at, namely, the suppression of noxious odors, and the 
retention of the most fertilising properties of the material. 

The solid portion of "night-soil," after desiccation, with the 
retention of its gases, is indeed an exceedingly fertilising and stimu- 
lating agent, and has been pronounced by Boussingault equal in 
value to ten times its weight of farmyard manure; or, with the 
water it contains, it is equal to about two and a half times its weight 
of such manure. 

The analysis of human fceces by Berzelius shows the constituenl 
elements in their natural state to consist of 

Water, .... 


Insoluble animal and vegetable remains, 


Mucus, fatty and other animal products, 


Bile, . . . . 




Peculiar extractive matter, . 

2. TOO 

Chloride of sodium, . 


Sulphate of soda, 


Carbonate of soda, . 


Phosphate of magnesia, 


Phosphate of lime, . 



Per-centage of ash, . 

, , 


But this matter always contains a very large quantity of hum»^i 
urine, one of the most powerful of all fertilisers, as the followi^ 
analysis, also by Berzelius, will serve to show: — 

Water, . . . . . .93.30 

Urea, ...... 3.01 

Uric acid, ...... 0.10 

Laotic acid, lactate of potash, and ammonia, . 1.71 

Mucus, . . . . . .0.03 



Sulphate of potash, 


. 0.37 

Sulphate of soda, 


. 0.32 

Phosphate of soda,. 


. 0.29 

Phosphate of ammonia, 


. 0.16 

Chloride of sodium, 


. 0.45 

Chloride of ammonia, 


. 0.15 

Phosphate of lime and magnesia, 


. 0.11 


Rich as the foeces are, then, the wealth of their depository consists 
chiefly in the accompanying urine, the removal of which is as essen- 
tial for the promotion of health and comfort, as that of the former 
substance. It is true that, for convenience in transporting it to any 
distance, condensation is desirable ; but, when it is remembered, first, 
that the contemplated sanatory purpose would thereby be defeated, 
and, secondly, that even greater dilution is necessary before placing 
this matter upon the soil, it must be manifest that, if it be jjossible 
to convey the whole bulk to the region it is desired to enrich, without 
the labor and expense of its desiccation, it should by all means be 

Not only are the sweepings of every stable promptly removed from 
every city to the fields of the surrounding country, but a price vary- 
ing from one to two cents per bushel is cheerfully paid for them by 
the thrifty farmer. Can it then be regarded as a thing impossible 
that matter so condensed as to be worth many times this price cannot 
be conveyed to an equal distance to be applied to the same purpose? 
The reply to this interrogatory will doubtless be, that the parallel 
between the cases is lost in the fact that the fetid nature of this 
matter, which renders it offensive and infectious in cities, renders it 
almost equally exceptionable upon the gardens and fields of the adja- 
cent country. To meet this objection in a satisfactory manner, and 
to dissipate the prejudice existing on the minds of many with respect 
to the measure proposed, are the purposes here held in view. 

As has been remarked, dilution, instead of condensation, is a neces- 
saiT" preliminary to the spreading of this fertiliser upon the soil ; and 
this may be done to the extent of converting it all into a liquid before 
so applying it. There will then be nothing either visible or tangible 
to offend the senses after it has been applied ; or its dilution may be 
absorbed by coal-ashes, charred corn-cobs, peat-soil, or other manures, 
and afterwards applied in a solid form. In either case, however, the 
first thing that should be done, even before disturbing it in its 
original place of deposit, is to fix its volatile particles and render it 
'perfectly inodorous, a task than which nothing is more simple, and 
for the performance of which selection may be made among many 

In Belgium, this matter is simply diluted with water, and strewn 
upon the soil, the very powerful affinity of the earth for ammonia 
being alone depended on for the retention of its fertilising qualities ; 
and the market gardeners near London also pursue to some extent the 
same practice. Saw-dust, and even sand, have been mixed with it 


to absorb its moisture and render it portable, but certainly at the cost 
of a very unnecessary increase of its bulk. Ground gypsum lias also 
been used, but, though valuable in itself, it is too slow in its action 
to be directly useful as a deodoriser. Powdered charcoal, the refuse 
bone-black of sugar refineries, half-charred peat, and even peat 
mould, and burnt clay alone, have all proved useful for this purpose. 
Quicklime has also been used, but it is injurious, inasmuch as it im- 
mediately liberates the ammonia and causes it to be lost. Sulphate 
of iron, or green copperas, readily fixes the volatile ammonia, and 
has been earnestly recommended, upon very high authorities, but it 
is by no means a fitting agent for the purpose, from the fact that, 
combining with the phosphoric acid, one of the most valuable ele- 
ments of manure, it forms an insoluble salt of iron. In opposition 
to this view, and in defence of the use of this sulphate, it has 
been earnestly argued that iron, forming an exception to all other 
metallic substances, is found in wheat, trees, and in plants generally, 
as well as in the blood and excreta of animals, and therefore can- 
not be injurious to vegetation, when introduced into the manure 
designed to support its growth ; but, while all the facts here adduced 
are admitted, the inference is not, and for the reason that, used in 
the manner proposed, it not only does not enter into the composition 
of vegetables, but also withholds the phosphoric acid from their 
nourishment. It may also be stated, that so minute is the quantity 
of iron entering into the composition of plants, that it is indeed very 
rare that a soil has to be replenished with it at all. 

Muriatic acid is perhaps one of the most economical, expeditious, 
and powerful deodorisers, costing not more than 2\ cents a pound, 
and instantly depriving the most offensive substances of all apprecia- 
ble unpleasant exhalations, uniting at the same time with the ammo- 
nia, and forming a most fertilising salt. 

The charcoal of bones, in consequence of its porosity, and of corn- 
cobs, from the same reason, is of great value for this purpose, and, 
like most other substances named, may be used with great economical 
advantage in all kinds of manure, serving, as it does, to retain such 
excess of ammonia as the soil may not be capable of receiving at the 
moment of its escape. 

Either with or without resort to any mode of deodorisation, the 
matter here treated of is in many localities dried and manufactured 
into fertilisers of various names : At Paris, Vienna, and Frankfort, 
it is made into portable manure, under the names of "humus," 
"poudrette," &c; but, in the drying process, the noxious effluvia is 
always eliminated, and, as has been before stated, the most valua- 
ble constituents are lost. In China, earth saturated with this mat- 
ter, is formed into cakes, called "taffo," and sold in large quantities 
for the purposes of manure. The process of drying by evaporation 
in the sun and air is slow, tedious, and exceedingly disgusting ; when 
done by artificial heat, the time consumed is less, but the offensive- 
ness is scarcely to be endured. 

From the great variety of modes resorted to in preparing this ma- 
nure for the soil, it is manifest that there has long been a want of 
some cheap, expeditious and efficient means for rendering it fit for the 


purpose. Few. however, have seemed to be aware of the fact that 
the sulphuretted hydrogen, which escapes in such large quantities, is 
not only so deleterious as to suffocate a bird when the air is infecteci 
with it to the extent of t? Vtj- th part, a dog when t^^ th part, and a 
man when jfa th part of its hulk, but that this gas, when elimi- 
nated in undue quantities, also exercises the same baneful effects on 
vegetation, the leaves of which, being the respiratory organs, wither 
and turn yellow under its influence. It is obvious, therefore, that a 
due regard for the health of man, as well as of vegetables, alike de- 
mand its confinement to the soil, in which it subserves, by assimila- 
tion, a useful purpose as a manure. 

At Paris, night-soil is rendered inodorous by gradually pouring 
into the box or vessel containing it a solution of the sulphate of zinc 
and chloride of calcium, until it ceases to exhale an unpleasant smell 
upon being stirred. It is then conveyed just beyond the gates of the 
city, and converted into a valuable fertiliser, by admixture and dry- 
ing with other substances. * The same remedy may be applied from 
time to time, if necessary, for the purpose of keeping down such 
odors when the matter is deposited in gardens or fields. 

As it has thus been shown that the health of cities and the wealth 
of the country may both be essentially promoted by the suppression 
of all offensive exhalations from the depositories of human excrement, 
but little need be added in the way of counsel, either to the intelli- 
gent and practical farmer of the country, or to the equally interested 
denizen of the town. The frequent, say at least weekly, if not daily, 
removal of fecal matter from its place of deposit, the provision of 
suitable receptacles for it, as well. as of proper vehicles in which to 
transport it — the manner of its application to the land, whether dilu- 
ted or comminuted in the form of a compost with other manures, loam, 
peat, &c, and the mode of administering it to the plants, are subjects 
to be well considered and determined, and to which, in connexion, 
with what has been communicated in this paper, the attention of the 
country is earnestly invoked. D. J. B. 



As far as my knowledge extends, there is no great agricultural 
country but ours where common boiled salt, either from sea or spring 
water, is generally or even considerably used for culinary purposes. 
In Holland, they re-dissolve two or more kinds of solar-evaporated 
salt, one of which is " French bay salt," in sea-water ; and this in- 
corporated pickle is carefully purified in various ways, and then re- 
erystalised, before it is considered fit for use. From the use of this 


salt, numerous writers ascribe the superiority of Dutch herring, over 
those of their neighbors. Even in Poland, which has the most exten- 
sive salt mines in the world, French bay salt is generally employed, 
not only in preserving provisions, but, what appears more singular, 
as a manure for their wheat lands. 

In all countries where the French bay salt is known, its superior 
quality is acknowledged. Some years ago, the commissioners of sup- 
plies of the army and navy of Great Britain employed Dr. Henry, of 
Oxford, to examine different kinds of salt, with the view of improving 
their own domestic article, so that it could be safely used for saltin Ci- 
pro visions for those services ; but, in an essay which he wrote on the 
subject, he failed to suggest any remedy, ascribing the superiority of 
solar evaporated salt principally to the greater hardness of its crys- 
tals made in that way, over those made by boiling. There is without 
doubt much truth in this ; but Dr. Watson, of England, who wrote 
about the same time, probably discovered tiie chief cause of the supe- 
riority of solar salt. His idea was that, by the slow process of evap- 
orating brines by the heat of the sun, the chemical affinities of each 
particular kind of salt, which might be contained in those brines, had 
time to act; and they re-deposit themselves distinctly and separately, 
one kind of salt not being compelled, as it were, to mix with another 
as it must necessarily do in the rapid process of boiling down brines 
and crystalising the salt in kettles. So far was he convinced of this 
that he urged the use of coarse canvas on an extensive scale, which 
was to be dipped in the brine, and then exposed to the sun and wind 
to hasten the evaporation. Yet, as far as I can obtain information 
nothing has been done in England to improve the salt made there so 
as to invalidate the truth of some remarks made in Bee's Cyclopedia 
just after the close of the general war in Europe, in 1815, on the sub- 
ject of French bay salt. This writer says : " The English and Dutch 
have often striven hard, in time of war, to do without the French 
salt, and to that end have endeavored to take salt from the Spaniards 
and Portuguese ; but there is a disagreeable sharpness and acidness 
natural to this salt, which renders it very unfit for salting flesh fish 
&c. To remove this, they boil it with sea-water, and a little French 
salt, which they procure by the aid of neutral nations, and which not 
only softens it, but increases its quantity by one-third. But it would 
seem that their refining does not succeed to their wish, by the eager- 
ness with which they return to the salt of Brittany as soon as any 
treaty has opened the commerce." The same writer goes on to say 
'that the French government makes enormous sums out of the salt- 
works of that country. Nearly all European nations, in a great 
measure, strive to be independent of others for their salt. Great 
Britain exports much more than she imports, besides making the 
great quantity which is there consumed yearly in the arts and for 
manure. Salt is manufactured at various places in that country • but 
the great bulk of it is made near Liverpool, on the opposite side of 
the river Mersey, by dissolving the impure rock-salt from the mines 
of Cheshire, in sea-water, which brine is boiled down and crystalised 
by a very rapid process, that leaves the salt both impure and very 
light, only weighing 52 pounds to the bushel ; while good solar salt 



weighs from 70 to 75 pounds, a difference of more than 20 pounds. 
This Liverpool salt we import to an enormous amount ; yet no other 
people than ours use it for salting provisions, except those living in 
Canada, or perhaps Australia. There is also a kind of salt made in 
England and Scotland, which is tolerably pure, and is frequently used 
for domestic culinary purposes. This is the " cat salt." It is crys- 
talised on stakes placed perpendicularly below the baskets in which 
the salt is put to drain when drawn from the boilers, or kettles. Thus 
do they make a small quantity of salt, rather purer than the great 
bulk of it ; and every one who is acquainted with chemistry can see 
why this "cat salt" is much better and purer than that drawn from 
the kettles. Common salt crystalises much more rapidly than any 
other contained in the brine, when it is at the proper strength ; 
consequently, alone, it would be apt to crystalise on the stakes, the 
impurities of every kind having a chance to flow off, which is not the 
case when the salt is rapidly crystalised in boilers, as in the latter 
case it is necessarily incorporated, more or less, with the crystals of 
chloride of soda, or common salt. In fact, the crystalisation can be by 
no means perfect, nor the crystals pure, where the progress is so much 
hurried, as is the case where salt is boiled. 

Ail the salt made in the United States, with few exceptions, is lia- 
ble to the same objections, in a greater or less degree, to that which 
is made in Great Britain, as it is almost the universal practice to 
evaporate the brine by boiling. But I am informed that solar heat 
is used to a limited extent for evaporating the brines at the salt-works 
in the State of New York, and likewise in many of the works in the 
great Salt basin of the Kanawha river. To effect this, shallow wooden 
pans, or tanks, are erected, well above the earth, in long lines, but 
of limited width, so that covers can be rolled on or off to protect the 
pickle froia rains. It will be seen, when we come to the French, 
method of making salt, that even this degree of tardiness in evapora- 
tion is of great use in purifying the brine, wherever it is practised. 

The French method of salt-making varies, in many particulars, in 
different parts of that country ; but one principle is observed in all 
places : That is, to keep the brine, or pickle, moving slowly from one 
reservoir, or basin, to another, from the commencement of the opera- 
tion till it nearly reaches the point of saturation. This is effected on 
the salt-marshes near the mouth of the Loire, by letting sea-water 
into large reservoirs, built for the purpose, at the time of high tides, 
by the means of swing-gates which close when the tide recedes. From 
these reservoirs the water in them, being of sufficient height, is let • 
into a series of smaller reservoirs and pans, to a depth of a foot, down 
as low as 4 inches, the latter being the usual depth ©f pickle when 
crystalised in pans. "When these pans are "set," as they say, sea- 
water is let out of a large reservoir, whence it finds its way slowly 
into the whole series of smaller reservoirs and pans, care being taken 
that only a very shallow "charge" is let into the crystalising pans, 
while the pickle is weaker than about 18°, Baume's hydrometer. To 
get brine into these pans, from a great reservoir, in many works, it has 
to traverse from 3 to 10 miles, which is effected by its widening 
from reservoir to reservoir, and from pan to pan ; the distance being 


likewise increased by long narrow passages. After the first charge, 
no water is let into the crystalising pans weaker than 18°, and even 
the first charge, by the management indicated, is nearly up to that. 
The crystalising pans are last in the series, and from the fact that, as 
the brine flows forward, that behind " pushes," as it were, that which 
is before it, forward, without mixing with it. As the sun evaporates 
the water from the whole works, the water which is daily let in from 
the sea to supply its loss, instead of mixing with the strengthened 
brine, forces it forward from reservoir to reservoir, until a part of it 
arrives at the last crystalising pan in the series ; by which time, if 
the passages be of sufficient length, the pickle will be up to satura- 
tion, ready to deposit crystals of common salt. Great ingenuity is 
frequently shown by arranging even small works so that the pickle 
will flow a great distance before it arrives where it is to be crystalised. 
The principle can be extended to suit the size and form of the 
works, from the fact stated that in feeding ^them from the great reser- 
voir, the incoming water pushes the brine before it without mixing to 
much extent, so that the brine can be evaporated to the point of sat- 
uration, in the crystalising pans, in a much shorter time than if the 
water were let in directly to all parts of the works to supply the dai- 
ly loss by evaporation. For instance, take a series of twelve small 
reservoirs: Let it be supposed that the water is let into all of them 
to the depth of 6 inches. In one day, a quarter, of an inch is evapo- 
rated out of each. Now, instead of letting the water into each one 
separately, to supply this loss, we will suppose that the whole twelve 
quarters (3 inches) be let into No. 1 ; it does not mix, but pushes 
forward 2f inches of water into No. 2, which has had the advantage 
of one day's evaporation. From No. 2, there is 2^ inches of brine 
of like strength pushed forward into No. 3; and, so on, till we ar- 
rive at No. 12, into which only a quarter of an inch of brine has 
been pushed of the same strength. Again, there is a quarter of an 
inch evaporated out of each, on the second day; and again, on the 
morning of the third day, we will say, there is another 3 inches of 
water let into No. 1, and the loss supplied to each as on the day be- 
fore ; but it will be seen from what has been said that, except No. 1 
and No. 2., perhaps all the rest have had their loss supplied by brine 
which has had the advantage of two days' evaporation. On the fourth 
day, all except some two or three of the first would have their loss 
supplied by brine which has had three days' evaporation. This same 
system being preserved, on the twenty-second clay, No. 12 would be up 
to the point of saturation, and in six days more would be ready to rake; 
and before the end of forty days, even in so short a series as this, full 
half of these reservoirs, or pans, could be raked, which makes this 
French plan of vast importance in a climate so variable as this ; for, 
frequently, a very good yield of salt can in this manner be secured, 
when not a crystal would be found if the Spanish and Portuguese 
method were adopted. To feed each pan directly from sea-water, it 
would take full ninety days to perfect the deposit, ready for raking, 
when it might then all be lost by rains, because they all oome a,t 
once, and if a large one, it might take three more months to rake it. 
By the French plan, the whole deposit does not take place at once; 


but, at the end of ninety days, quite a large quantity would be saved. 
Furthermore, this plan is of still more value, by its depositing all 
impurities by themselves. Sea-water, by Baume's hydrometer, is 
from 4° to 5° ; and as soon as it is strengthened up to 6°, it begins to 
deposit lime, which finally assumes the form of marl, and afterwards, 
under certain circumstances, soldifies into rock. After the water gets 
stronger, if it be kept in slow motion, these deposits gradually become 
much greater, to which are now added sulphurated hydrogen, bro- 
mine, and probably iodine. When it gets as high as 12°, it begins 
to deposit sulphate of lime in crystals, and the quantity of sulphura- 
ted hydrogen is increased, and the bromine is so freely deposited that 
every substance in contact with the brine is stained a deep-red ; but, 
after the pickle is evaporated up to 18° or 20°, it appears to deposit 
nothing more till it gets up to 25°, when the brine is in a state of 
saturation with chloride of soda, (common salt,) and it then begins to 
crystalise, and in about six days more, in good weather, it deposits a 
layer of crystals, which a*re sufficiently hard, or, as it is termed, 
"ripe," to rake. The "sharpness or ferocity" of the Spanish and 
Portuguese salt (Cadiz and St. Ubes) is easily accounted for by the 
manner in which it is made. The sea-water is let directly into the 
large pans, where the salt is ultimately crystalised ; and, before the 
brine is evaporated to 25°, the bottoms of the pans are covered 2 or 
3 inches deep with impurities, and in this bed of filth the common 
salt crystalises. But when it is raked, instead of the transparent 
white crystals of pure salt, we see them stained a reddish-brown, and 
the taste alone indicates that they are highly charged with both bro- 
mine and iodine, besides other impurities. Much of this salt cannot be 
used in less than a year after it has been raked ; but it never loses 
that disagreeable "sharpness and ferocity." The same remarks ap- 
ply to the salt made in the Azores, or Western Islands. 

So valuable is French salt considered, that the same principle of 
manufacture is applied in the south of Germany, as near as their cli- 
mate will admit. In connection with an extended surface, arranged 
after the manner above described, they have enormous tanks with 
moveable covers, into which they gather the strengthened pickle 
when they fear rain, and there secure it until good weather, when it 
is spread again till it is up to the point of saturation, or nearly so, 
when it is secured in these tanks to await being crystalised, which, 
instead of being done in ground pans, is usually performed in large 
lead boilers ; or more frequently, what is much better, they pump up 
the hot saturated pickle into small tanks placed around the top of a 
frame some 20 to 30 feet high, and of convenient dimensions, on 
the ground. From this hang ropes perpendicularly, some 6 inches 
apart, on which small streams of this brine are conducted from the 
small tanks, and the crystals form rapidly on them — in fact, so rapidly, 
as stated by Dr. Ure, that the same work, in proper weather, can be 
done in this way in twenty-four hours which would take three or four 
days by boiling in kettles, besides making the salt much purer. 
When these ropes are sufficiently loaded with salt, it is knocked off to 
fall on the floor beneath, when it is ready to store or for market. 
One might think this a wasteful mode of crystalising salt; but, 


from some experiments I have made, I am satisfied that, with proper 
care, as little is lost as by any other process. Furthermore, I believe 
that in this climate, (Key West,) it will not he necessary to heat the 
saturated pickle at all to crystalise salt in great perfection. Hence 
there can be no doubt that salt can be made principally, if not wholly, 
by solar heat, anywhere in the United States south of New Jersey, 
in suitable places On the sea-board. In the south of Germany and 
in many parts of France, they do not depend entirely on. evapo- 
rating the pickle by the system above described, on the ground, but 
increase it, especially while the brine is yet weak, by arranging bun- 
dles of faggots perpendicularly in frames which are frequently from 
20 to 30 feet high, and 50 by 100 or more feet on the ground. The 
brine is repeatedly pumped up to the top of this frame, and let down in 
showers through the faggots. Any one must see that evaporation is 
very much increased by presenting so great a surface to the wind and 

I have been thus minute in setting forth the high value placed on 
solar-evaporated salt, manufactured after a particular manner on the 
continent of Europe, and, likewise, for the purpose of showing the 
great difficulties and expense many nations there seem to think it to 
their interest to encounter in order to obtain an article of this sort. 

I will now add some of my own personal experience in the way of 
salt-making in this region : In 1836, there was a salt company formed 
on this island. Wooden pans, like those formerly used at Cape Cod 
and New Bedford, were erected to a considerable extent. I believe 
there were put up at that time, about 3,000 feet, linear measure, of 
these works, which were 16 feet wide, and had covers to roll on and 
off, to protect the pickle from the rain. Of the natural ponds on the 
island only very small portions were improved, and this solely for the 
purpose of strengthening the sea-water before it was pumped into the 
wooden works ; but no attempt was made to make salt in ground 
pans. Although they made four or five times as much salt in these 
wooden tanks, in a given time, as could be made in a like amount of 
works, in New Bedford or Cape Cod, from the fact that they could 
generally evaporate the pickle to saturation before pumping it up ; 
yet they could hardly be said to be successful. The salt which they 
made was very pure, as they adopted the plan of having the pickle 
traverse a considerable distance before pumping it into the works 
where it was crystalised ; and it acquired a very high reputation for 
galting beef and fish ; but the crystals were too fine for pork. In 
1846, these wooden works were nearly all destroyed by the great hur- 
ricane of that year, after which this company sold out to a private 
individual, who re-erected some part of the works in wood, out of the 
debris of the storm, and turned his attention to making ground pans 
for the purpose of crystalising salt in them. He did but little 
in this way; yet he was quite successful, in 1847-48, making over 
70,000 bushels per annum with four or five hands on the place. In 
1849-50, he made less; but, considering the limited amount of im- 
provements, he had a fair yield; having raked about 50,000 bushels 
in these two years. In 1851, the works came into my possession, but 
as I had only commenced the business, and the season being very 


short, I raked only about 20,000 bushels out of the ground pans, 
besides some 15,000 bushels produced in the covered works. This 
was done with the average labor of only six hands. The year 1852 
was very wet, and the crop small ; and, in 1853, more rain fell than 
was ever before recorded. In the mean time, I gave my chief atten- 
tion to improvements, and last year, (1854), I made full 70,000 bushels, 
although about 20 inches more rain fell than the recorded average for 
nineteen years. Each month of the salt season had its due share of 
this excess, which was from February to August, inclusive. To 
make that quantity, required the average labor of eight hands for the 
year, to perform everything connected with it, in the way of securing 
and delivering for market. The present year, 1855, has been a very 
singular one for this climate, there having been scarcely a week, from 
February to the end of September, without some rain ; and, in addi- 
tion, the winds have been continually both cold and damp yet, from 
the nature of my improvements, on these occasions, in the course of 
the season, there was on the works almost an unlimited amount of 
pickle up to saturation, or nearly so. This pickle I could have 
saved, and afterwards crystalised on ropes, after the German plan, 
had I had the tanks finished, which are now well advanced. I 
should here state, that there has been a very singular increase of rain 
on this island for the last five years, including 1850 up to the present 
time. In this period, the average has been something over 50 inches 
of rain per annum, while the record of the preceding nineteen 
years gives an average of only 31^ inches. The Patent Office Report 
for 1853 gives the average of fourteen of those years at 31 f inches. 
From this, the expectation is but reasonable that the yearly average ■ 
must hereafter agree, or nearly so, with the record of the longest 
period ; for it is known that those who made this record are noted for 
their accuracy. Yet, it is proved that salt can be made here in 
ground pans without the aid of covered tanks, during the years of 
the heaviest fall of rain to which the island is ever subject, provided 
the weather is otherwise favorable. In 1854, about 52 inches of rain 
fell, and, as before stated, a full proportion in the salt season; and 
the weather was otherwise hot and dry. I am informed that there 
has been a like increase in the fall of rain for the five years in Turk 
Island, and in the Bahamas, which I presume accounts partially, at 
least, for the scarcity of salt in those islands for the last two years, 
notwithstanding the great accumulation of the article there in former 
years. This scarcity makes it a part of wisdom and economy, in this 
country, to increase in every possible way the supply of the better 
kinds of salt. 

To aid in this purpose, I will give a brief description of the plans 
which I have adopted here to make the most of these local advan- 
tages ; and, when these plans are all perfected, I have no doubt that 
the business will be rendered reasonably safe and successful, even 
during the wettest seasons which we have on these Keys ; and when 
such years happen as I am informed 1842-43 were, and again, those 
of 1847-48, the only limit to the yield of salt would be in the limit of 
the labor at command to rake and secure it. There are other Keys 
on this reef, which I presume have like advantages with this, and 


when we consider the mildness and healthfullness of the climate, espe- 
cially for a certain class of invalids, it would seem that these advan- 
tages are worthy of being appreciated. 

Key West is almost four miles long, and nearly one broad ; and 
from the north-eastern end, through the centre of it, for some two and 
a half miles, there are a series of natural ponds which are from one 
to two feet lower than medium high tides. These ponds were con- 
nected together, originally, but separated from the sea by a ridge, over 
which the water never flowed, except in times of very high tides. 
From this situation, even before the ponds were improved, salt was 
frequently made, naturally, by the high tides of early winter flowing 
into them, the water in them being sufficiently evaporated, before the 
return of the next high tides in the following July and August. 
Thus, as I have been informed, were many cargoes raked by the crews 
of vessels, and taken away. Outside of this low ridge, which shuts 
out the low tides from the ponds, I have inclosed a large bay with 
very shallow water, which contains some 100 or 150 acres ; by con- 
necting two points of land by a substantial dam. In this is fixed a 
swing-gate, such as is used in Turks Island and the Bahamas, which 
enables me to shut in the sea-water from the Gulf stream, at high 
tide. This arrangement is such that, by a short canal through the 
ridge, I can convey water at pleasure to every part of the natural 
ponds, which, by means of more than 20 miles of embankments, are 
made into a series of reservoirs that contain in full the principles 
herein laid down. Out of the bay, at a point furthest from the 
swing-gate, where the evaporation is sure to be the greatest, the canal 
is dug which lets the salt-water into the highest part, whence it flows 
from one into another, forward and backward, till it arrives at the 
last and lowest one in the series, by which time the pickle has tra- 
versed about 14 miles. In good weather, the water is not only puri- 
fied, but is up to the point of saturation, or nearly so. At any rate, 
it is in a fit state to be pumped up by wind-mills into the crystalising 
pans, which in this case are built on a level from 12 inches to 3 feet 
higher than the reservoirs. These have bottoms prepared with sand 
and marl, which become quite hard, enabling us to keep the salt clean 
while raking it. These pans are also enclosed with stone and marl 
walls, and vary in size from 50 feet square to an acre or more. They 
are likewise arranged so that the pickle flows from the highest to the 
lowest, through the whole series, which still further purifies the water 
and hastens the crystalising atom. It is really astonishing to witness 
the amount of impurities which are thus deposited from the sea-water. 
In some of the reservoirs, at the end of the season, there are nearly 6 
inches of the half-floating deposits of one summer. 

I do not pump any but perfectly saturated pickle into the covered 
wooden pans, of which I have some 2,500 feet in length. The salt 
from these is very heavy and pure, being invaluable for salting beef 
and fish, but the coarse salt from the ground pans is better for salting 
pork. Fishermen, here, and in the vicinity, will use for their purpose 
none but the finer kind of salt made in covered works ; and I have 
been informed that fish in the Havana market salted with it, even 


when they are only "dry salted," command a higher price than those 
cured with any other kind. 

I have from 300 to 400 acres of surface now in the series of reser- 
voirs, and, by further improvements, I can more than double that 
amount. Of crystalising pans, I have from 50 to 60 acres, amply 
sufficient for the present surface of reservoirs ; and I have room to 
increase to any necessary extent. The tanks which I am building 
are 50 by 100 feet on the ground, and 10 feet deep, 5 feet of which is 
dug down into the solid rock, but even this part of them will be lined 
with concrete, made of hydraulic cement, sand, and broken stone. 
They are to be covered by movable roofs, 20 by 25 feet, so constructed 
as to roll on and off from each side to the centre. These tanks, with 
ropes arranged as before described, to crystalise the pickle on, will 
render a fair yield certain, even in a wet season ; and I think salt, 
crystalised in this manner, out of brine previously purified in the 
reservoirs, will be even better than that made wholly in the pans. 

From personal observations of the use of Key West salt, I am con- 
vinced that no other, except, perhaps, the very best Turk Island, is 
so well fitted for salting provisions of all kinds. I say the very best 
Turk Island, for in a great number of the works there, and in the 
Bahamas, the salt is sold under the same general name, and where 
they have applied the purifying system, too, but to a very limited ex- 
tent ; and at many of the works salt is made after the plan adopted 
in Spain. It would seem that many brines have a disagreeable taste, 
which no practical method can remedy, and that on the whole, that 
made from sea-water is usually better than that which is made from 
springs. Furthermore, it is very probable that there is a great dif- 
ference in sea-water from divers localities. This supposition is in a 
measure confirmed by the salt made everywhere from the Gulf stream, 
as it is better than that made in Spain, Portugal, the Azores, &c, 
all of which produce an article that has a sharpness of taste, which is 
never present in the other kind, made from the great ocean current ; 
but even this kind varies much in quality by the pains taken in puri- 
fying the pickle. 

It is only during the time of raking salt from ground pans, and 
sometimes for a month or more, when the demand is brisk, to deliver 
it, that many hands can be profitably employed at the salt-works 
here. Even in favorable years, a full force is not needed, after all 
improvements are made, for more than six to eight months. Conse- 
quently, some other business should be connected with salt-making 
on these Keys, the culture of Sisal hemp, for instance, in order to 
render it more profitable. During the rest of the year, only a few 
hands are required. 



Statement o/T). Barnes, of Middletoivn, Middlesex county , Connecticut. 

Our principal reliance for manure is upon the barn-yard and the 
pig-stye ; although wood-ashes, shell-lime, gypsum, guano, super- 
phosphate of lime, especially the latter, are extensively used, and 
meet with favor. The quantity applied to the acre of the two last 
named is about 250 pounds. 

The majority of our farmers plough under their home-made ma- 
nures ; and heavy crops of Indian corn are produced therefrom, par- 
ticularly when the ploughing is much deeper than usual. Guano is 
applied by mixing it with gypsum and sowing broadcast. It is some- 
times harrowed in, or used as a top-dressing on grass lands. It is 
also put in the hills of Indian corn and other hoed crops. 

Statement of George P. Norris, of Neiocastle, Newcastle county, 


Our farmers are yearly becoming more convinced of the great im- 
portance of manures, and much more care is taken to preserve them 
than formerly. Many depend entirely on their barn-yards, and that 
which was formerly allowed to waste and wash out on the highways, 
is now carefully saved in well-built cellars, or covered sheds. 

Guano is much used by us. On neglected lands, it has produced 
almost miraculous effects. The usual mode of application is to 
plough under 300 pounds to the acre in a damp still day. I prefer to 
use it for my wheat and oat crops, and reserve my stable manure for 
top-dressing grass-lands and for corn. Great care should be taken to 
have the guano finely pulverised, as much of that purchased in the 
Wilmington market is intermixed with lumps, which require consid- 
erable labor to reduce them. I found the operation of breaking these 
lumps much facilitated by pouring water on them and suffering them 
to stand in a damp condition over night. 

Statement of C. W. Babbit, of Metamora, Woodford county, Illinois. 

No manure is used on our naturally rich soils, except when the far- 
mers are compelled to remove the accumulations from around their 
barns and yards. These, however, are highly beneficial to gardens, 
and apple-trees which have commenced bearing, as well as to grass, 
potatoes, and grain, on the lightest prairies, and for that class of 
soils termed by us the "barrens." 

It would seem that the prairies here might be continued in their 
virgin richness simply by annually plowing under the stubble of our 
grain fields, and the stalks of Indian corn, never allowing them to be 
consumed by fire. A short distance south of this, resided two farm- 


ers, one of whom every year gathered up his corn-stalks and burnt 
them, and also burnt over his stubble fields before ploughing. The 
other never allowed a stalk nor a straw to be burnt on his land, but 
always plowed them under. After some fifteen years had elapsed, 
the farm of the former yielded on an average some 15 bushels of corn 
less to the acre than when he commenced cultivating it, while that of 
the latter produced as abundantly as at first. 

Statement of Alexander Heron, near Connersville, Fayette county, 


The most common method of improving and renovating the soil in 
this county is by ploughing under a crop of clover, or by a rotation 
of crops of clover, wheat, and corn. This has proved to be the cheap- 
est, easiest and best method, as the land continually becomes im- 
proved, and this to a very high degree. 

Another good method is to turn the hogs into a field of standing 
corn, and allow them to fatten by feeding themselves. In this way, 
much of the substance extracted by the crop is returned again to the 
soil, which leaves the ground in fine condition for ploughing the suc- 
ceeding spring. A field treated in this manner, has come under my 
immediate notice, which has been planted in corn and fed in the fields 
to hogs for twenty-five consecutive years, and the present season has 
produced the largest yield ever known before. 

Statement of H. Gr. Stone, of West Boscaiven, Merrimack county, 
New Hampshire. 

Guano and artificial manure, such as super-phosphate, plaster, 
&c, have been used here, in some instances with advantage, but in 
others with injury to the crops. But the experiments in general have 
been too indefinite to ascertain correctly whether such manures are 
profitable to the farmer or not. 

The effects of guano upon crops are generally the most apparent 
on old, poor, worn-out lands, rather than upon rich soils, or those 
which have been well manured. I have used it successfully upon 
corn and potatoes, applied at the rate of a table-spoonful to a hill, 
mixed with two or three spoonfuls of dried muck, covering it about 
an inch deep with soil, then dropping a spoonful of plaster to each 
hill with the corn. By this means, the plaster answers the double 
purpose of holding moisture, as well as taking up and retaining am- 
monia, and thereby preventing its escape. A compost of dried muck, 
plaster, and guano, sown broadcast, in a rainy day in the spring, forms 
a good top-dressing for grain or grass. 

I have also applied to corn, side by side with super-phosphate, gua- 
no, &c, wheat bran, at the rate of half a pint in hill, at the time 
of planting, by which I obtained a greater yield. Used with barn- 
yard manure, it gives good results. 


Statement of Edward Van Meter, of Salem, Salem county, New Jersey. 

Barnyard and stable manures are used for wheat and potato crops, 
and lime is employed to a considerable extent on corn. Green-sand 
marl, which abounds in the northeast part of the county, has proved 
most beneficial to potatoes and grass. 

Statement of D. R. Stillman, of Alfred Centre, AUeghany county, 

New York. 

The principal fertilisers used here are such as are produced on the 
farm, with the exception of gypsum, which is generally applied to 
corn, grass, and wheat. In dry seasons, the latter produces a marked 
benefit, but in wet ones, the effect is hardly perceptible. 

Gypsum costs $8 a ton, and is sown broadcast on grass and grain, 
at the rate of 200 or 300 pounds to the acre. It is also applied to 
corn soon after it appears above the ground, at the rate of a large 
spoonful to a hill. 

Statement of R. Buchanan, of Cincinnati, Hamilton county, Ohio. 

In the cultivation of my little suburban farm of 44 acres, with 
700 fruit-trees and 20,000 grape-vines, I have had abundant occasion 
to appreciate the value of manures. In the vineyard, and around 
the fruit-trees, an occasional application of ashes has been found val- 
uable, alternating with stable manure every two or three years. I 
have twice tried salt, sown in March, on my grass lands, at the rate 
of a bushel and a half to the acre, with marked advantage. Gypsum 
has been sometimes tried by our farmers on grass, and found useful ; 
but itgis rather too expensive, say at $2 50 to $3 per bushel. 

For our general crops, deep tillage and a little barnyard manure 
is all that is required, paying proper attention of course on the 
uplands to rotation, little or none being necessary in the bottom lands. 
Many farmers, with us, turn red clover under, and others plough 
in buckwheat; and they are well pleased with the results. As our 
farms diminish in size before an increased population, we shall learn 
from necessity the value of manure. 

Statement of James McK. Snodgrass, of Mifflin, Alleghany county, 


Barnyard manure and lime are our principal dependence, although 
guano, bone-dust, and gypsum have lately been tried, and are 
regarded as good fertilisers by those who have used them. 

The cheapest way to improve land in this and the adjoining county, 
is by the use of lime. It is not regarded as a direct fertilise!! for our 
grain-crops, except as in a small degree furnishing food for the 
plants, but as a kind of stimulant, the effect of which creates a nour- 


ishment favorable to grass. The best way to apply it is on the top 
of a sod a year or more before it is ploughed under. The quantity 
depends on the soil, and on the after treatment. Heavy clay can 
bear from 150 to 300 bushels to the acre, while, on light soils, only 
from 50 to 75 bushels would be required. The cost of lime at the 
kiln in this vicinity is 8 cents per bushel. 

Statement of C. Snively, of Penn Toionship, Alleghany county, 


Our farmers depend chiefly on barnyard manure and lime as fer- 
tilisers. The custom in this vicinity is to haul quicklime on clover 
or Timothy sod, say 100 to 200 bushels to the acre, and the next 
spring apply a coat of barnyard manure; then plough under and 
plant to corn. Land treated in this way, will produce well for years 
afterwards. The cost of lime, where limestone and coal are found 
on the farm, will not exceed 7 or 8 cents a bushel. 

Clover is sown by all good farmers, and no crop is better calculated 
to enrich the land. In the vicinity of the cities of Pittsburg and 
Alleghany, other fertilisers are used. 

Statement of D . Minis, of Beaver Plain, Beaver county, Pennsylvania- 

Barnyard manure has not been used so much in this county as it 
should have been ; but of late, there has been a marked improvement 
in its application to our crops. Now, but few of our farmers consider 
it a nuisance, and it is pretty generally hauled out in the spring and 
spread on the corn-ground. Applied immediately to our wheat-crops, 
it does not answer so good a purpose as when used for grass. Twenty 
cords to an acre, costing $5, in a favorable season, will increase a 
corn-crop from 30 to 40 bushels. 

Poudrette, as yet, is but little used here, although it is one of the 
best fertilisers we have. Were it not for pride and prejudice, it 
would be extensively employed. 

Statement of Bichard Lechnor, of Stoucliburg, Berks county, 


• Lime and barnyard manure are the principal fertilisers made use 
of in this section. Of the former, 100 or more bushels are employed 
on calcareous clays, and 70 or 80 bushels on gravelly lands. It has 
been found to be particularly advantageous in the cultivation of 
potatoes, corn, and grass. 




Statement of Nathaniel Green, near Middletown, Neiwport county^ 

Bhode Island. 

The systein of rotation generally practised by our farmers is, to 
plant corn on pasture or meadow land, and succeed by oats, seeded 
down to grass, after which it is mown four or five years, and then 
broken up again for corn, and cultivated as before. 

Statement of ' D . Minis, of Beaver •Plain, Beaver county , Pennsylvania. 

With us, there is no established rotation of crops ; yet, our best 
farmers endeavor to sow wheat on a Timothy, blue-grass or clover 
sod, or on oat-stubble, which has been cultivated with corn the pre- 
vious year. They again sow on the wheat, in the fall, winter or 
spring, clover and Timothy, the great object being to keep the field as 
long as possible in grass. 

Statement of Richard Lechnor, of Stouchburg, Berks county, 


The general system of rotation of crops in this county is, first, In- 
dian corn on Timothy or clover sward, followed the next season by 
oats. The ground is then well manured, and sown with wheat or rye, 
seeding down again with Timothy or clover. 




To the mind of every intelligent inquirer into the uses to which 
the various agricultural products of this country are applied, a strik- 
ing anomaly is presented in the fact that, although the experience 
of the people of the entire continent bears uniform testimony in favor 


of the palatableness, the healthfulness, and the economy of Indian 
corn, or maize, our great indigenous Cereal, it is even yet but little 
known to the people of those portions of Europe to whom economy 
in the selection of food is manifestly the great desideratum, with 
the exception, perhaps, of some of the southern countries of that 

That maize possesses the advantages we here claim for it is proved, 
not only by the universality of its consumption among the American 
people, but by a comparison of its nutritive properties, as ascertained 
•by chemical analyses, with those of any other production from which 
bread is made, and of the relative prices at which they usually sell 
in the markets of the Atlantic cities. Let us institute a comparison 
with respect to wheat and maize, the only species of grain, except 
rice, now to any considerable extent .exported from the United 

The analyses of Sir Humphrey Davy, which are relied upon as ac- 
curate in the average of numerous experiments, assign to wheat 
about 95 per cent, of nutritive matter, and to corn 77 per cent. A 
bushel of corn is therefore worth 77 cents, when a bushel of wheat is 
worth 95 cents, their properties of nutriment alone considered. But 
when it is remembered that the 23 per cent, of innutritious matter, 
which constitutes a portion of the maize, are desirable in food for man, as 
"necessary, not only to satisfy the craving of hunger, but to promote 
digestion by the stimulus of distention, which bulk alone can give," 
it will be comprehended that the comparative value of corn is greater 
than these strict analyses would indicate. Accepting, however, the 
nutritive constituents of each as the standard of its value, let us see 
how it corresponds with the prices actually paid for them in our 

The quotations of the grain market of New York, made from day 
to day through several months of the years 1855-56, represent the 
average price of wheat on each of those days to be from two and a 
fourth, to a little more than three times the average price of corn ; 
and a careful equation of these averages affords a higher mean than 
two and a half to one. Thus, when the price of corn is $1 per bushel, 
that of wheat is always at least $2 50 per bushel ; but the intrinsic 
value of the two grains being in the proportion of seventy-seven to 
ninety-five, and $1 being the price of corn, wheat is not really worth 
in consumption more than |l 23^. In buying wheat, we there- 
fore obtain, for any given amount of money, a little less than half 
the nutriment we obtain when we buy corn. Hence, the question 
naturally presents itself, what is the reason of this wide disparity in 
their prices ? The reply first suggested to the mind is, that this is 
determined by the supply and demand, and that we must seek in 
these for the reason. Wheat, though of general and abundant 
product, is neither so universally adapted to the varieties of soil and 
climate, nor so reliable a crop in its most favored localities, as Indian 
corn ; it is more relished by the greater portion of the human family ; 
it may be preserved sweet more easily in any of its stages of manu- 
facture, whether stationary, or during transportation by sea or land ; 
and, finally, thorough, judicious, and persistent efforts have never 



been made to introduce corn among the people of the Northern and 
Central European countries. 

The admission here made that maize, in its various forms of prepa- 
ration, is generally less relished than wheat, will doubtless be except- 
ed to, and the experience of the people of vast portions of North 
America, who use the preparations of it from choice, may be cited in 
opposition to the opinion expressed ; but the writer is speaking of 
corn and wheat as they are presented in commerce in the cities on the 
Atlantic and Gulf of Mexico, and not as in the home consumption of 
the people of the corn-growing regions, whose facilities and skill in 
preserving it, and in preparing it for the table, especially with the 
delicacies of the dairy that everywhere abound with them, enable 
them to enjoy it in a manner not often realised elsewhere. To them 
it is at once the great staple of life, and among the most relishable 
articles of aliment. But it is otherwise in the cities, where such skill 
and facilities are not possessed ; and it is far otherwise in the coun- 
tries of. Europe, where many of the people are not even yet convinced 
that a palatable bread may be made from the flour of maize. Thus 
we find that, although cheap bread is, as has been said, the great 
want of Europe, the Indian corn exported from the United States is 
oven yet far less in value than the wheat exported, as the following 
table will show: — 

Amounts of Indian-corn and corn-meal, and of loheat, wheat-four 
and wheat shipbread, exported from the United States during a 
period of thirty-four years, each ending on the 30th of June. 

Value of corn 

Value of wheat 

Value of corn 

Value of wheat 


and its 

and its 


and its 

and its 















































































































From the facts here presented, it is apparent that if corn could be 
transported to the different countries of Europe, in good condition, 
and if the people of those countries could he instructed in its use as 
the Americans understand it, without in the least interfering with 
the exportation of wheat, which is not used by the poor of those 
countries, Indian corn would soon become the most important and 
most profitable commodity of export, as it now is the most important 
and most profitable product for home consumption. That success 
has not attended the efforts heretofore made to accomplish these 
purposes, is proof of nothing more than that they have either not 
been skillfully, made, or not persistently prosecuted. 

Corn is sometimes, at least, as long on its transit by railroad, canal, 
and other avenues of conveyance, from the interior of this country 
to the Atlantic sea-board, as it would be on ship-board thence to 
Europe ; it is preserved in cribs, granaries, and warehouses through- 
out the year ; it is freely consumed by people of all conditions in all 
parts of this country ; by the rich from choice, and by the poor in 
many instances from choice, and always in obedience to a wise econ- 
omy. The barriers to its introduction throughout Europe, therefore, 
however formidable they have heretofore proved, cannot be insur- 
mountable. Nothing more is requisite than the means herein already 

The government of Prussia, wisely appreciating this subject, in the 
fall of 1855, caused a series of experiments to be made, which, though 
not entirely satisfactory, have been attended with a sufficient degree 
of success to induce the determination of continued effort, which there 
is good reason to hope may yet lead to permanent success. The causes 
of the partial failures in these experiments were radical. In the first 
place, the meal sent thither by his Excellency, Baron Gerolt, the 
Minister Kesident of his government at Washington, though in 
less degree than other shipments, still was sour when it reached 
the hands of the agents employed to test it ; and, in the second place, 
those agents, upon finding that it was not fine, like the flour made 
from wheat or rye, attempted to reduce it to that condition by re- 
grinding. Those who are accustomed to the use of corn in this coun- 
try, will be surprised to learn that any experiment with meal, thus 
impaired, could be regarded as affording even the least promise of 

In their Keport on the experiments made by them, the Prussian 
Board of Agriculture commence with an expression of the opinion 
that "a bread similar to the American would not be to the taste of 
our [their] public;" and accordingly no attempts were made to 
prepare the meal in any of the forms in which it is used in the re • 
gions of the world where its consumption has proved satisfactory 
throughout the experience of centuries. 

From this Eeport we learn that the meal was conveyed to that 
country in barrels ; that its coarseness, and the presence of its innu- 
tritious particles, were objected to ; that it was sifted, and then re- 
ground by certain flouring mills, and of course but a small proportion 
of fine flour obtained ; and that, though sour, it was not so bitter as 
that in use in Berlin, which the Board believed was either dampened by 


the millers, or not carefully protected from moisture. The writer of 
the Report proceeds to say : 

" Maize flour, even the finest quality, cannot he "baked alone into 
bread. It ferments like other flour, hut the dough falls in the oven, 
and gives a compact, soap-like loaf, which could not be eaten daily. 
Previous experiments had taught me, that a certain quantity of som« 
other substance, as potatoes, was necessary to make maize flour a good 
substance for bread ; a third part of wheat, rye, or potato flour, is 
sufficient for this purpose. 

" I made experiments with fine and coarse rye flour, and fine and 
coarse maize flour. It was necessary to find out the most suitable 
way to raise the bread. From yeast, I did not expect any favorabk 
result, as the application of yeast would be too expensive. The sour 
dough only remained as a way of fermentation, but it seemed doubt- 
ful if it could be used in a similar manner, as by the baking with pure 
rye flour a second and more simple way had to be tried. Instead of 
using a mixture of maize and rye flour in the accustomed manner, as 
it is usually done, it seemed more appropriate not to mix beforehand 
the different qualities of flour, but each one by itself, and in the fol- 
lowing manner : to leaven the rye flour for itself, as it is usually 
done, and to knead in the maize flour with a sufficient quantity of 

"The results of my experiments show clearly that maize flour, 
mixed with rye flour, has all the qualities necessary to obtain from it 
a good, palatable, and nourishing bread, in consequence of its rich 
and floury substance. I have further shown that this may be obtained 
by an equal mixture not only of fine, but of coarse rye flour." 

"The difficulty of grinding Indian meal into fine flour is not an 
insuperable one, because the dough, consisting of two-thirds coarse, 
and one-third fine maize flour, made a bread nearly as good as that 
made of entirely fine maize flour." 

"It is not necessary that the maize flour should be kneaded in with 
the rye flour; and, indeed, it is better that it should not be." 

The Royal Police Department of Berlin, also, in December, 1855, 
made a Report upon "The Applicability of Indian Corn to the Pre- 
paration of Bread," in which it is stated that a few resident bakers 
in that city "prepare, in small quantities, bread of a mixture of 
maize and rye flour," and that maize is used to some extent in Dantzig 
also. It is inferred from the information obtained from these and 
other sources, that "a bread composed of two-thirds rye, and one- 
third maize, is about 10 per cent, cheaper than bread made of pure 
rye, a pound of rye and Indian meal bread, costing about 3 
cents." The Report goes on to say that, "it is further ascertained 
that such bread is eatable, and not without a pleasant taste, although 
Indian meal is frequently found with a bitter taste." It is added 
that "it stales very quickly, and in this condition can scarcely be 

Counsellor Surgeon Liick, the prison physician, after examining 
some of the bread made of two-thirds rye, and one-third maize, ex- 
pressed the opinion that it was wholesome, and recommended its use 
in the prisons, but thought that, in consequence of its solidity, it 


should be given chiefly to those employed in the open air. He was 
of the opinion that Indian meal was more healthy than the potato, 
and more nourishing than either wheat or rye. 

The Police Department experienced the same difficulty with respect 
to regrinding the meal, that was encountered by the Board of Agri- 
culture, and like that Board, persisted in the attempt to adapt corn- 
meal to use in that manner. We quote the somewhat unsatisfactory 
conclusion of this Beport: 

"In baking, five different experiments were made as to its mixture 
with rye flour. 
' ' Ten pounds of rye flour and 2 pounds of maize flour gave six loaves 

of bread, of 3^ pounds. 
"Nine pounds of rye flour and 3 pounds of maize flour gave six 

loaves of bread, of 3 pounds. 
"Eight pounds of rye flour and 3 pounds of maize flour gave six 

loaves of bread, of 2^ pounds. 
"Seven pounds of rye flour and 5 pounds of maize flour gave five 

loaves of bread, of 3^ pounds. 
"Six pounds of rye flour and 6 pounds of maize flour gave five 

loaves of bread, of 3^ pounds. 

Thus 40 pounds of rye flour, and 20 pounds of maize flour, gave 
twenty-eight loaves of bread, of 3| pounds. 

"The results of these experiments confirm the opinion previously en- 
tertained, that Indian meal absorbs less water, and on this ground 
produces less bread, than rye flour ; they even show that the quantity 
is greater the more rye and the less maize flour. The taste of the 
bread from these mixtures was good. 

"The experiments further show that the preparation of this bread 
demands particular care and attention, and takes much time. Maize 
flour must be gently kneaded, and a certain proportion between maize 
and rye flour must always be observed. This proportion cannot gen- 
erally be regulated, and it changes in nearly every case, and in such a 
degree that" it becomes necessary to examine properly the material 
which is to be used for baking, and to establish some minor experi- 
ments to test the true proportion of mixture. The age of the maize 
flour demands the greatest consideration, and in this case, if we take 
only a trifle too much, the bread will taste sour. The leaven is not 
to be prepared of maize flour. 

"These experiments further show that Indian meal cannot be kept, 
and is to be overhauled every day, and therefore, cannot be transported 
to a great distance. It will be necessary to connect a mill with each 

"Lastly, the difference in price between the two flours is very small, 
that of Indian corn being $2 T5, and that of rye only $3 12 ; and it 
is believed it could be obtained at the same price. 

"The Police Department is of the opinion that the application of 
maize flour by bakers may be recommended ; but as to the consump- 
tion in our prisons, it is not applicable, since the expenses are nearly 
the same, and the bread of rye is superior in quality and taste." 

Bye and potatoes are the food of the common people of Germany ; 


and, notwithstanding the misapprehensions still existing, as indicated 
in the Reports here quoted, there are good grounds for hoping that 
the experiments instituted will not he abandoned, hut that success 
may he attained ; and when the prize contended for on the part of 
this country is nothing less than the interchange of many millions of 
bushels of corn annually, with the different inhabitants of Germany, for 
the various commodities they have to export, it is also hoped that the 
skill and enterprise of American citizens may be efficiently applied 
to the work of devising means for the safe transhipment of corn, and 
its preparation in a manner acceptable to the tastes of the people of 
Germany ; for these are the only difficulties presented. 

The objects to be achieved, therefore, are the selection of the pro- 
per varieties of corn for exportation, the determination of the ques- 
tion as to whether it should be exported whole or ground, the best 
modes of preparing and putting it up for exportation, and instructing 
the people of Europe in the methods pursued in this country of making 
corn-bread, or bread of corn mixed with rye, wheat, or potatoes, and 
otherwise preparing corn for use as food. 

All the varieties of corn, produced to any considerable extent in 
the United States, are capable of being preserved sweet throughout 
the year, not only in the regions in which they are severally grown, 
but in all other portions of the country. It is, however, usually pre- 
served in the grain, and not ground before required for market, or use, 
as the epidermis, or hull, the least destructible portion, is its natural 
shield and protector from a damp or vitiated atmosphere. In dry and 
well-ventilated situations on ship-board, there is no more necessity 
for the occurrence of decomposition than in similar situations on land. 
The subject first to receive attention, therefore, is the means of so pro 
tecting it on ship-board ; and for this the intelligence and energy of 
private enterprise will no doubt be fully adequate. The use of barrels 
or sacks, will probably not be dispensed with, because of the neces- 
sity of a staid position for such a cargo, and because of the genera- 
tion of heat from a large bulk of corn in the mass* Special devices 
for the ventilation of the holds of ships are also worthy of the atten- 
tion of inventors, with respect to the safe transportation of this as 
well as of other articles of export and import. 

But while all varieties of corn may with proper care be transported 
with a good degree of security, it may be stated, as the result of 
ample experience, that those containing much oil, such as the ".Golden 
Sioux," the "King Philip," or "Northern Eight-rowed Yellow," the 
"Dutton," the "Rhode Island White Flint," &c, are less liable to 
decomposition than those that contain little or no oil ; but that the 
flour, or meal, made from these sorts, is not so pleasant to the taste, 
especially of persons unaccustomed to its use, as that made from the 
soft, farinaceous varieties of the South and West. These, however, 
may be adapted to safe transportation by means of kiln-drying, a pro- 
cess for which improved facilities will doubtless be devised as soon as 
an enlarged demand for kiln-dried corn shall indicate a necessity for 
them. In this process, corn should be subjected to a degree of heat 
not greater than 212° F., sufficiently long to destroy its germinating 
power, but not long enough to parch or crisp it so a* to impa: its £T:b- 


stance or nutritive properties. The length of time proper for retaining 
it in a place thus heated must depend upon various circumstances ; such 
as its dryness or humidity, when placed there ; the openness or com- 
pactness of its texture-; the size of the chamber or cylinder; the hulk 
of corn within it; and the quantity of oil contained in the corn, there 
being generally some appreciable quantity of this element, the "Tus- 
earora," the "White-Hour," and the "Wyandotte" being among the 
exceptions. It must be stated, however, that kiln-drying impairs the 
flavor of corn of all kinds; and therefore some means of exporting it 
safely, without a resort to this process, will continue to be sought, 
successfully it is hoped. 

Mr. Thomas Pearsall, of Smithborough , in New York, assumes that 
the necessary cause of the fermentation and consequent souring of 
corn-meal is the action of heat generated within the package upon 
the moisture always present in some degree, and from which the heat 
proceeds, and that the centre of the bulk is always first affected in 
this manner. He has proposed a means of obviating this difficulty, 
consisting simply of a vertical tin tube, 1\ or 3 inches in diameter, 
and open at both ends, which passes through the centre of the 
barrel. In 'this manner, a bulk of 18 or 20 inches diameter is re- 
duced to 9 or 10 inches, which is almost equivalent to the separation 
of the barrel into four sections and the admission of air to the exterior 
parts of each, or the reduction of a radius of 9 or 10 inches to i\ or 5 
inches ; and all this only by the omission of a quantity of meal from 
the centre which it would require scarcely an appreciable enlargement 
of the circumference of the barrel to retain. 

The grinding of corn into meal, grits, and hommony, and the prepa- 
ration of these articles for the table, are arts not likely to be acquired 
from any amount of instruction, however minute, unaccompanied by 
practical demonstration; and it has therefore been wisely suggested 
that these operations should be introduced into some of the countries 
of Europe by American millers, and American domestic bakers. It 
may be remarked, however, that the common saying is true, that 
"No kind of grain is spoiled by fine grinding, except Indian corn," 
although wheat may be injured thereby. Corn may be well ground 
by means of the mill usually employed in grinding wheat, which 
admits of regulation for the purpose by means of the elevation and 
depression of the upper stone, the revolving speed being in like man- 
ner affected ; but mills appropriate for the purpose have also been 
constructed of cast-iron. 

The effort made in Prussia, and which has been herein alluded to, 
was instituted with the view of manufacturing a merchantable article 
of bread, made of rye and corn, in the proportion of two parts 
of the former to one of the latter, for the purpose of making such 
saving in the cos* as the lower price of the corn would insure. 
Although it is not proposed in this place to enter into a description 
of the modes of baking and cooking corn in its various forms of prepa- 
ration, it is proper that the precise case before us should be satisfac- 
torily met. 

Delicacies for the table made of corn, with eggs, milk, butter, and 
cream, are, of course, articles of domestic manufacture. Plain bread, 


made with reference to economy, is also, from reasons of economy, 
manufactured at the family hearth. The wheat and rye bread sold 
by the bakers of this country is consumed by many who relish it, and 
by many more to whom it is convenient to purchase it, both classes 
being indifferent as to the expense. But a fastidious taste, and a de- 
sire to be economical, alike induce the home manufacture of bread. 
Corn-bread, therefore, is seldom sold by the bakers ; but, so far as it 
has obtained a place on their shelves, it has proved acceptable, though 
made even more economically than was attempted in Prussia. 

The "Boston Brown Bread," contains two parts of corn to one of 
rye-meal, by measurement, and is made in the followng manner: 
To three quarts of mixed meal are added a gill of molasses, two tea- 
spoonfuls of salt, one tea-spoonful of salteratus, and either a tea-cup- 
ful of home-brewed, or half a tea-cupful of brewer's yeast. This 
bread continues good and wholesome as long as any other bread is 
usually kept ; but, like all other preparations of corn, it is preferred 
warm, and is therefore generally eaten fresh, or after being toasted. 
Like all other kinds of corn-bread, it is an acceptable substitute, 
not only for the bread made of other grains, but for the vegetables 
which use has made desirable at the noon-day meal ; and it is so 
used with butter, molasses, soup, or the gravy of meats, which latter 
is freely absorbed by it, and renders it both palatable and more 

If it be true, as alleged in the foregoing quotations from the Report 
of the Department of Police of Prussia, that the difference in the 
prices of rye and corn is very small, there being a saving of only one- 
eighth of the price of the rye displaced by the corn, then, so far as that 
country isconcerned, the market may not be attractive; but when it is 
remembered that corn-meal is there quoted at 2f cents a pound, and 
that this for a quantity equal in weight to a barrel of flour is $5 50, 
the American farmer and merchant will both alike conclude that the 
people of Prussia can be fed with American corn at a much lower 
rate, and yet afford good profits both to the producer and the 
exporter. D. J. b. 



The following analyses were undertaken with the view of ascertain- 
ing how much nutritive matter is contained in the cobs of Indian 
corn, and also how much of each mineral salt they had extracted from 
the soil upon which they grew. Never was a more important subject 
lakl before me than the investigation of the chemical nature of the 
Indian corn-plant, since it concerns the chief agricultural industry of 
our people. Were as much time and expense devoted to the analyses 


of our staple crops, and tire soil in which they are cultivated, as there 
is annually expended on metals and ores, how soon would the farmer 
reap the advantage of a truly scientific and profitable agriculture. 
The age demands progress in this science, and I trust that, ere long, 
complete investigations will be made in the other parts of this valua- 
ble plant, as well as in several others among our economical pro- 

Analysis of the Corn-cob, from the Farm of Thomas Andrews, in 
Smitlvfield, Rhode Island. — This corn was produced by admixture of 
the two varieties, "Canada" and "Ked-cap." It was remarkably 
prolific, with a very small cob, weighing only 124 grains. 

The matter soluble in ether, alcohol, and water was found to be 
in the following proportions : In 100 grains of the ground cob, the 
whole amount dissolved was, 3.145 grains, or about o\ per cent, of 
the cob. 

Grains, or per cent, of cob. 

A sicative yellow fixed oil, . . . 0.323 

Sugar, 0.242 

Dextrine (gum) and some albumen and extractive, 2.557 

Loss, . . 0.023 


The saccharine matter did not crystalise, and probably is identical 
with grape-sugar, or glucose. 

In other samples from the same farm, the relation of the kernels to 
the c«b was first ascertained by shelling several ears, and then weigh- 
ing both the cobs and the grain. The number of ears to each stalk 
was four, the weight and increase of two specimens of which were as 
follows : 

First Sample. 

Weight of cob, . . . 260 grains. 

Weight of kernels, , . 1,970 " 

Number of kernels on ear, . 332 
Yield, 1,328 grains to 1. 

Second Sample, 

Weight of cob, . . . 280 grains. 

Weight of kernel, . . 2,070 " 

Number of kernels on ear, . 325 

Yield, 1,300 grains from 1. 



One thousand grains in weight of these cobs, dried at 212° F., and 
burned in a platinum bowl, left 9£ grains of ash, which, on analysis, 
was found to consist of the following ingredients : — 


Soda, .... 

Phosphate of lime, 

Phosphate of magnesia, 

Phosphoric acid (from the alkalies) 

Silica, .... 


Per-oxide of iron, 

Unburned charcoal, 

Carbonic acid and loss, 



One hundred grains in weight of this corn yielded to ether 4| 
grains of a fat fixed oil; and to alcohol, 4.11 grains of sugar and 

Analysis of the Cob of "Burr's Improved Wrinkled Sweet Corn" 
{early variety.) — The cob of this corn was short, thick, and quite 
large in proportion to the depth of the kernels, one of which weighed 
307 grains. One hundred grains of this cob, reduced to a fine pow- 
der, yielded of matter soluble in ether, alcohol, and boiling water, 
successively employed, the following proportions, or about 3f per 
cent, of the cob : — 


or per 

cent, of cob 

Siccative oil, . 



Sugar, ..... 



Brown extractive matter, 



Dextrine (gum) and albuminous matter, 




Analysis of the Ashes of the Cob of the ( ' Sweet Corn. ' ' — A cob , weigh- 
ing 480 grains was burned in platinum to ashes, which weighed 4.2 
grains. These ashes, analysed, produced nearly seven-eighths of one 
per cent, of the cob, the ingredients of which were as follows : — 

Grains, or per cent, of cob. 

Potash, .... 


Soda, ..... 


Silica, ..... 


Phosphate of lime, 


Phosphate of magnesia, 


Oxide of iron, .... 


Phosphoric acid, 


Chlorine, , . 


Carbonic acid and coal, . . 




Analysis of the Cob of the "Maryland White Southern Corn." — The 
cob of this corn weighed 290 grains, and was quite short, bnt not 
large. When burned, the ash weighed nearly 4 grains, and yielded 
about If per cent, of the cob, the ingrediente of which were as follows : 

Grains, or per cent, of cob. 

Potash, ..... 0.4585 

Soda, 0.1211 

Silica, ...... 0.1720 

Phosphate of lime and magnesia, . . 0.0800 

Oxide of iron, .... 0.0420 

Phosphoric acid, .... 0.0290 

Chlorine, ..... 0.0340 

Unburned carbon, .... 0.2242 

Carbonic acid and loss, . . . 0.5872 


Analysis of the Cob of u Southern Corn," a Red-colored Variety, grown 
near Cape May, Neio Jersey. — The cob weighed 560 grains, and when 
burned, left 7.6 grains of ashes, which yielded about If per cent, of 
the cob. 

Grains, or per cent, of cob 

Potash, ..... 0.450 

Soda, .... 
Silica, .... 
Phosphate of lime and magnesia, 

Phosphoric acid, 


Oxide of iron, 

Unburned carbon and carbonic acid, 



Analysis of the Ashes of the u Tuscarora" Corn-cob. — This corn was 
grown at Long Meadow, on the Connecticut river, in Massachusetts. 
It is a large-grained corn, very rich in starch. The cob weighed 630 
grains. When burned, it gave 12.2 grains of ashes, which yielded, 
on analysis, nearly 2 per cent, of the cob. 

Grains, or per cent, of cob. 

Potash, ..... 0.6430 

Soda, ...... 0.1970 

Silica, ...... 0.0714 

Phosphate of lime and magnesia, and oxide of iron, 0.0800 

Phosphoric acid, . . . 0.0800 

Chlorine, ..... 0.0630 

Unburned carbon, .... 0.1430 

Oxide of iron, carbonic acid, and loss, . 0.6590 


Analysis of the Cob of ^Button Corn." — This corn is cultivated in 
Massachusetts. It has a small yellow kernel and a large cob, weigh- 
ing 830 grains. Three hundred grains of the dried and powdered 



cob yielded, on analysis, of matter soluble in ether, alcohol, and wa- 
ter, about o\ per cent, of the cob. 

Grains, or per cent, of cob. 

Fixed drying oil, .... 0.249 

Sugar, ...... 0.333 

Dextrine (gum), albumen, and astringent 

extractive matter, .... 2.700 

When analysed for inorganic matters, the ash yielded about If per 
cent, of cob, as follows : 

Grains, or per cent, of cob. 


Potash, . 



Phosphate of lime, 

Phosphate of magnesia, 

Phosphoric acid, 

Oxide of iron, 


Unburned carbon, . 

Carbonic acid and loss, 



It will be observed that there is a considerable variation in the 
relative proportions of the inorganic constituents, owing probably to 
the chemical natures of different soils. Potash and soda are the most 
abundant and important of these principles. The phosphates of lime, 
magnesia, and of the alkalies are evidently in smaller proportion in 
the cob than in the grain. Chlorine, originally in the state of chlo- 
ride of sodium, is observed to be a constant ingredient in the corn-cob, 
and varies considerably in its relative proportions to the other mine- 
ral salts. Silica must have existed in the state of silicate of potassa, 
and the small proportion of phosphoric acid, separate from lime and 
magnesia, was combined with the alkalies, potash, or soda. 

In order to understand fully the chemical physiology of Indian 
corn, it will be desirable to analyse the different parts of the plant in 
its various stages of growth and development, beginning with the 
germ at the time it is drawing its nourishment from the starch of the 
grain, changed gradually into dextrine and glucose, and then to make 
researches on the stalks and leaves anterior to the fructification of the 
ear, and afterwards when the sugar changes into starch. There is 
evidently a period when the sugar is in the state of glucose, or grape- 
sugar, and another when it is mostly cane-sugar. Then comes the 
conversion of this sugar into starch, in the milky grains, precisely the 
opposite of the changes observed in germination. 

The transfer of the phosphates from the stem to the "chits" of the 
grain is also a most interesting phenomenon in the plant, and the 
facts relating to it should be well ascertained. It will be seen, then, 
that we have but just entered upon the field of chemical research re- 
lating to the physiology of the grain ; and certainly this is a plant 
that deserves the special study of American agriculturists, as well 
as of chemists. 




In many regions of the United States, the high price of land makes 
it difficult for those who cultivate small farms, to realise profits pro- 
portionate to the capital invested. To such persons, in particular, it 
becomes a desirable object to be able to keep cows in order to enrich 
their land cheaply, and to derive revenue from the products of the 
dairy. What is termed "soiling" is, in these cases, of the highest 

There is no doubt that at least three animals can be kept in good 
condition upon the green food cut and fed to them daily from a piece 
of land that would barely support one, if left to feed thereon, while 
the manure thus saved, if properly applied, would be more than 
equal to the cost of the labor involved, without taking into the ac- 
count the gain in land. 

It has been found difficult during hot and dry summers to have a 
ready and sure supply of green food. Realising this difficulty in feed- 
ing teams, two years ago, I made an attempt to supply^the defect by 
sowing Indian corn broadcast ; and though the season was unusually 
hot and dry, the experiment proved successful. Last spring, I accord- 
ingly proceeded to the cultivation of corn for that purpose, in a sys- 
tematic manner. 

The ground selected was near my barn, and in good condition, as 
to heart ; and all the preparation I made was to plough it once and 
then drag it down smooth. As the corn grown in this region is the 
common " Yellow," I sent to Ohio, and obtained my seed from the 
large Southern varieties. 

On the 2d of June, I set one of Batchelder's corn-planters to drop 
the hills a foot apart, and then run it backward and forward as near 
the rows already planted as possible, without actually interfering with 
them. After planting it in this manner, I gave it a good rolling. 
It came up finely ; I then found that the planter was a decided 
improvement upon the former modes of sowing corn. 

On the 6th of August, I cut an average stalk from one of the hills, 
when the tassel was just in sight, and found it to weigh 3| pounds. 
When subsequently cured, it weighed a pound. 

The amount of green food which may thus be grown, under favora- 
ble circumstances, seems almost incredible. An acre contains 43,560 
square feet. If, therefore, but one such stalk were to grow upon each 
foot, there would be over ^6 tons produced to the acre. 

The supply of food thus furnished was beyond all my expectations, 
and satisfied me that, hereafter, I could in no other manner do so well 
as to prepare a small lot for planting or sowing corn to feed my teams. 
I think that any land that will produce 2 tons of hay, will yield 
10 tons of corn fodder. I think also that, at the North, the Southern 
corn will do best for soAving, while, at the South, some of the Northern 
varieties will grow fully as rank and strong as can be desired. 



•^Statement of 3. 3. Pratt, of Centre, Cherokee county, Alabama. 

Corn is justly considered our most important crop. It is easier 
cultivated, yields more to the acre, and, upon the whole, is a more cer- 
tain crop than any other. Our river "bottoms" and valley lands 
are well adapted to its growth. Without manure of any kind, and 
with our careless management, it will average about 30 bushels to 
the acre. This year, the maximum yield is 50 or 60 bushels. Two 
crops of " Early Dutton " corn can be raised on the same land in one 

In a successful experiment within my knowledge, some corn was 
gathered from the field on the 27th of July, and on that day, a por- 
tion of it was planted in a garden. It fully matured in October. 
Corn may be planted here any time from the middle of March till the 
first of July, with a fair prospect for a remunerating return. It is 
frequently put in after the crop of wheat is removed from the field, 
and the product is good ; but this double cropping is only resorted to 
in cases of necessity. 

Statement o/"MastonS. Gregg, of Fay etteville, Washington county, 


I have my land "deadened" out in July or August three years 
before clearing. I break the ground well, 8 inches deep, lay off the 
rows 3^ feet each way, and plant by the 15th of April, an inch deep. 
As soon as the corn comes up, I run once between the rows with a 
plough. In ten days after, I run the plough crosswise the rows as 
near the centre as possible. This furrow drains each hill, and keeps 
it warm and dry. Cold and wet should be guarded against at this 
season of the year. The single furrow also keeps the corn from 
washing down. At the third and fourth ploughings, I run twice 
between each row, turning the earth from the corn. In the first two 
ploughings, I would rather have one furrow than two ; and in the 
third and fourth, I would prefer two rather than four. At the 
fifth ploughing, I run four times between the rows, and then thin- 
out, leaving two stalks to a hill. The great secret in corn-culture 
is prompt and rapid movement at the proper time. Thorough break- 
ing of the ground, early planting, rapid culture, having it thick on 
the ground and thin in the hill, are the main points. By observing 
this system, I get two weeks in advance of my neighbors, avoiding 
much of the hot weather and the flies, and sparing my horses ; and, 
moreover, I make from 10 to 20 bushels to the acre more than others 
around me. I cultivate 20 acres every year with my own hands, using 
a good plough, and hoeing very little. When the season is good, I 
can, with great ease, produce 100 bushels from each acre on our best 
"bottom" land. 


For ten years past, I have planted the "Polk" corn, which con- 
stantly improves. I use only the best ears, discarding the small 
ends and imperfect grains. 

The market price of corn here varies from 25 to 50 cents a bushel. 

Statement of George P. Norris, of New Castle, New Castle county, 


Indian corn is the most certain crop raised in this county. The 
1st of May, and earlier, if possible, is usually selected as the proper 
time of planting. 

The average yield is 45 bushels to the acre. New corn is worth at 
the present time, 70 cents a bushel. 

Statement of William W. Woodbridge, of Paw Paw Grove, Lee 

county, Illinois. 

Corn may be regarded as our most valuable crop, 100 bushels being 
often raised to the acre, including large fields ; but 50 bushels may 
be considered an average crop. 

In 1855, it brought more than 60 cents a bushel. 

Statement of C. W. Babbitt, of Metarnora, Woodford county, Illinois. 

Indian corn, in this section, is the surest, as well as the most profita- 
ble crop we can raise. The following is an account of an experiment 
made by me the past season : — 

The ground on which the corn was raised had been badly culti- 
vated the years previous, and was exceedingly full of the seeds of 
weeds. The stalks of the preceding year's corn were cut off near the 
surface but not burnt. The ground was ploughed about 8 or 9 inches 
deep, as early in the spring as it could be done. Just before plant- 
ing, it was harrowed lengthwise the furrows, so as not to interfere 
with the stalks, in order to kill the weeds, which had started. The 
corn was then planted about 3^ feet apart, with a drill, in the same 
direction in which it was ploughed. The drill furrowed the ground, 
dropped the corn, and covered it by one operation, with one kernel to 
about every 8 inches. A man and a horse planted about 8 acres in a 
day. Just before the corn came up, the ground was again harrowed 
in the same direction in which it was ploughed, the teeth of the har- 
row being only about 3 inches in length. As soon as the corn was 
up sufficiently high, it was ploughed as near it as possible with a 
double-shovel scouring plough, going twice between the rows. In the 
course of the season, the plough was run between the rows a fourth, 
and, in some cases, a fifth time, but no sensible gain was derived from 
the latter. No hoe was used, nor scarcely a weed removed, except 
what was done with the plough ; neither had there been applied any 
manure to the land. The yield was over 50 bushels to the acre, 


though the corn suffered much from drought. The corn was then 
husked, (shucked.) put into rail pens, and covered with straw or long 
grass, with rails swung across, and hay ropes to protect the covering. 
The present price of corn is from 22 to 35 cents a bushel. 

Statement of A. J. Boone, of Lebanon, Boone county, Indiana. 

The "King Philip" or "Brown" corn, I received from the Patent 
Office, was planted June 9th, 1855, and harvested September 10th. 
The hills were 3 by 3 feet apart, and the number of stalks to each 
hill three. I made no estimate of the yield to the acre, for the rea- 
son that I planted but one of the papers of seed that I received ; but 
the yield was far better than I expected. The only value of this corn, 
with us, is its early maturity for meal, and for table use, while green. 
Our common varieties far surpass it for fodder and grain. I will try 
it next year from the seed now grown, hoping that a- better season 
may increase the yield. The ground, where it grew, was a brown, 
loose soil, on a clayey subsoil, thoroughly ploughed, with a top-dress- 
ing of stable manure, and the corn was hoed once. 

I planted the "Lee" corn on the same date as the above, and har- 
vested ifc on the 10th of October. The distance of the hills apart was 
3 by 3 feet, and the number of stalks in a hill from three to five. 
The season was very wet ; and even those kinds of corn which were 
fully acclimatised, did indifferently well. I think a year or two more 
in this climate and soil will demonstrate that it is a profitable corn 
for ordinary purposes, the yield being fair, and its maturity in time 
to escape the autumnal frosts. There are generally two ears on each 
stalk, and sometimes three. The stalks are large, and from 15 to 
16 feet high, with "spvrr" roots, occasionally, at the third joint from 
the ground. 

Statement of Alexander Heron, near Connersville, Fayette county, 


Corn, as it has never wholly failed, having withstood all the vary- 
ing seasons of summer and autumn, is the most reliable as well as 
the most profitable crop with us. 

The chief varieties which we cultivate are the "White- water Val- 
ley," the "Large Yellow," the "White Piper," and the "White- 
bread " corn. The usual mode of cultivation is the old method of 
planting in hills. 

The average yield of past season was from 60 to 75 bushels 
to the acre; the greatest yield 131 bushels. The price at this place 
is 30 cents a bushel. Cost of transportation to Cincinnati, by canal, 8 
cents a bushel, or 15 cents for 100 pounds. 

Statement of William J. Payne, of Bushville, Bush county, Indiana. 

Our corn-crop, this year, has been remarkably good, yielding from 
50 to 80 bushels to the acre. We generally work it four times with 
a shovel-plough, but never with the hoe. 



The present price of corn here is 25 cents per bushel ; old corn has 
been selling for 65 cents. 

Statement of Gr. P. Walker, of Hamilton, Decatur county ; Iowa. 

I planted the "King Philip" corn, which I received from the 
Patent Office, in my richest ground, in a very careful manner, on the 
9th of May. When the earth became too dry, it was watered. It was 
fully ripe before the middle of August, and the yield was abundant. 

Having distributed this corn liberally among my neighbors, both 
in Southern Iowa and Northern Missouri, to a distance of 60 miles, I 
am confident it will be thoroughly tested the present year. We 
sometimes plant corn in the month of April, though I am satisfied 
that we ought not to plant, even here, in the sunny side of the State, 
until, say, from the 10th to the 20th of May. 

Statement of Benjamin F. 

Odell, of Plumb Spring, Delaware county ; 

Indian corn is our principal crop, which is planted about the 
middle of May, in rows 3 feet apart. The average yield is 40 bushels 
to the acre, worth from 25 to 50 cents a bushel. 

The estimated expense of cultivating an acre is as follows: — 


Marking out and planting, 

Harrowing twice, 

Hoeing once, . 



Interest on land, 

Total cost, 
:' Value of 40 bushels at 35 cents, 

Profit, 5 50 

Twenty-five bushels to the acre will pay the cost of cultivation. 

. 1 00 

. 1 00 

. 1 50 

. 15 

. 1 25 

. 2 00 

. 8 50 

. 14 00 

Statement of L. E. Dupuy, of Shelby ville, Shelby county, Kentucky. 

The most valuable staples of our county are corn and blue-grass. 
On these, we graze and feed all our cattle, hogs, and mules. The av- 
erage quantity of corn raised by good farmers is about 50 bushels to 
the acre, but choice fields will yield from 60 to 75 bushels. 

The best method of cultivating clover-stubble, or sod-land, is to 
break it in the fall or winter, and cross-plough in the spring, in each 
case with two horses, running about 6 inches deep. Between the 15th 
of April and the 10th of May, harrow over the ground until it becomes 
smooth and light. With a corn-drill, make the rows from 3^ to 4 feet 


apart; drop one grain to each foot in the row; or, what is better, one 
grain to every 6 inches, and then thin out to a grain to the foot. 
This is better than the hill method, with three or four grains to a 
hill, as it gives each stalk sufficient room to spread its roots. As 
soon as the corn is up a few inches, we run a harrow over it with the 
front teeth out, and have a hoy follow and uncover all that may need 
it. A week afterwards, we go over it with a shovel-plough, and fol- 
low with a hoe, to exterminate all the weeds left. In about ten days, 
we go over it again with a cultivator, which will level down the fur- 
row, and enable us to follow close to the corn with the shovel-plough ; 
and finally we finish with the cultivator, in order that, at last, the 
ground may be left level, to prevent washing. 

This process makes the cultivation cost about $4 to the acre, with 
interest on the value of the land ; making the whole cost $8 an acre. 
The produce of 50 bushels is worth in the field from 20 to 25 cents 
a bushel. We sell but little corn, and export none. It is fed to 
cattle, hogs, mules, &c, and, in this way, brings us, in beef and 
pork, from $15 to $25 per acre, according to the value of the animals 
fed and the care and attention bestowed in feeding; them. 

Statement of Edward Stabler, of Harewood, Montgomery county, 


The "Wyandotte" is certainly the most prolific corn I have ever 
grown, and in some localities may prove very valuable. I received it 
from Illinois, paying a cent a grain for twenty-five grains, that being 
the market price. It was not planted until late in May ; but, as the, 
fall was seasonable, it ripened tolerably well. Each grain had a sep- 
arate hill, and those which escaped the cut-worm and fowls, pro- 
duced from three to five strong stalks, averaging from 8 to 10 feet in 
height, and usually with from one to two ears to the stalk ; thus 
yielding from four to eight ears from each grain planted. 

There are two strong objections to making this a crop corn in this 
latitude : It is certainly much later in ripening than our yellow va- 
rieties, when cultivated under similar circumstances, though, if 
planted early, it might mature well ; but the greatest objection in 
field culture, is its liability to fall after a soaking rain, on account of 
its single root and great weight of stalk and ears. For table use, I 
think it will prove valuable, either in summer, or for putting up in 
cans for winter use, being very succulent and almost as white as 

Statement of William Hadsell, of Hancock, Berkshire county, 


I planted the "King Philip" or "Brown" corn, I received from 
the Patent Office, on the 20th of May, on a dark, rich, loamy soil, 
that had a heavy top-dressing. The hills were 4 feet by 2 apart, and 
four kernels planted to each hill. There were two hundred and sev- 
venty-six kernels, which made sixty-nine hills. The worms destroyed 


af least ten hills, and we had the longest drought that has occurred 
in five years, which affected the corn very much. But, under all 
these disadvantages, I picked, on the 1st of September, 3 bushels of 
ears of very fine corn. The ears were of good size, and the kernels 
quite large. I think this corn is well adapted to our latitude. 

I planted a number of varieties of corn the past season, but none 
yielded so much as the King Philip. 

Statement of Richard C. Stone, of Sherborn, Middlesex county, 


I planted the "Improved King Philip" corn on the 20th of May, 
on a rich, dark, and rather moist soil, which, for five years previous, 
had been cropped with carrots. It was not what we consider good 
lland, but I had no other where it would not certainly mix with 
other corn. I put no manure in the hill, nor on the land. The first 
part of the season was wet ; the latter, quite dry. The corn matured 
fast, and ripened early, and measured by weight from 50 to 60 bush- 
els to the acre. The ears are of medium length and well filled, the 
kernel large, the cob small, and there were frequently two ears to a 
stalk. I consider it a superior kind for high latitudes. 

I have preserved this corn, as requested, and am giving it in small 
quantities to those who will test it in our farming community. 

Statement of Thomas 0. Jackson, of Plymouth, Plymouth county, 


I send you four ears of the Plymouth "Smutty-white" corn. 1 
planted an acre on the 12th of May, 1854, topped it August 31st, 
and harvested October 3d. The distance of the hills apart was 3^ 
by 3| feet, and the number of stalks to a hill four. 

The yield of dried shelled corn was 60 bushels to the acre. Had it 
not been for the drought, it would have been 80 bushels. The weight 
per bushel, of dried grain, was 60 pounds. The number of pounds 
of dried ears required for a bushel of grain was 76. About 2 tons 
of fodder were obtained. Of manure, 4A cords were put in the hills. 

Statement of E. A. Holman, of Harvard, Worcester county, 


Corn is one of the most remunerating products with us. The max- 
imum yield is 96 bushels to the acre ; average 37 ; the smallest yield 
that will pay expenses, 16 bushels when guano is used as a fertiliser. 
Average cost per bushel, 75 cents. 

Statement of C. S. G. Clifton, of Greene county, Mississippi. 

Indian corn is the best crop cultivated in this county. In some in- 
stances, that planted from the 20th of March to the 1st of April 


succeeds best. Our best lands will yield from 40 to 50 bushels to 
the acre. 

The price is generally $1 per bushel. 

Statement of Samuel J. Fletcher, near Winchester, Clarke county, 


Indian corn is the principal crop with us. On prairie "bottom" 
land, the yield is from 60 to 100 bushels to the acre. 
The price of corn here is from 30 to 40 cents a bushel. 

Statement of William B. Giddings, of Middle Grove, Monroe county, 


Corn is the crop we cultivate to the best advantage in this county, 
as but little care is required to raise it. The maximum yield is 100 
bushels to the acre ; average, 40 bushels. Twenty bushels to the 
acre will pay expenses of cultivation. 

Corn is worth at the heap 15 cents a bushel. 

Statement of Alton H. Hibber, of Or eve Cceur, St. Louis county, 


I plant corn from the 20th of April, to the middle of May, in rows 
4 feet each way, leaving two or three stalks to the hill. I commence 
working early, with a heavy two-horse harrow, till the corn gets too 
large. I then use a steel mould-board plough, running deep, and 
throwing the soil from the corn and to it, each way, ploughing four 
or five times. 

I never fail to get from 40 to 100 bushels to the acre. 

Statement of John Brown, of Long Island, near Lake Village, Belknap 
county, Lake Winnipisiogee, New Hampshire. 

A majority of our farmers content themselves with raising 25 or 30 
bushels of corn to the acre, and are hard to be made to believe that any 
more can be produced. They go on in the old way, planting the rows 
4 feet apart, and the hills 3 feet asunder, putting from four to six 
kernels in the hill, and after the blades get a fine start, and the roots 
spread in all directions, instead of going to work, as they should do, 
with a hoe, and giving it a light brushing, to stir the ground and 
keep the weeds down, they take a horse and cultivator, or plough, 
and cut off half the roots, and by making a mound, or hill, give the 
oorn a check from which it never recovers. Managing in this way, 
no farmer should expect a large crop of corn, even from ground well 

When I went to farming in 1817, I was hoeing my corn about the 
1st of July, and making a hill, as all formers then did. The ground 


was not weedy, but I found that I was cutting off a great many root- 
lets. It struck me that I was hurting the corn by making the hill ; 
and from that instant, I left off making hills around my corn, and 
have since that time left the ground as smooth as possible. 

After making several experiments, as to the distance that the hills 
should be planted apart, I made one, in the year 1836, which I have 
taken as a guide ever since, and which I believe to be the best. The 
experiment was to plant the rows 3 feet apart, and the hills in the 
row 2 feet from each other, and not have more than three plants 
growing in a hill, thinning them out at the first hoeing. 

I have a variety of corn, apparently fixed in its character, which 
sometimes bears my name (Brown corn.) See Patent Office Eeport 
for 1853, page 111. 

About one-half of my corn, the past season, was planted on ground 
on which potatoes grew the year before ; the other half on land newly 
broken up, the whole well manured and ploughed in. That part, 
where the potatoes were raised the year before, was much the best, 
almost doubling that planted on the sward land. One acre yield- 
ed 7,200 pounds of ears, which were weighed, when carried into 
the corn-house. I shelled 70 pounds of ears, and they produced 2 
quarts over a bushel, which makes a fraction over 109 bushels of 
shelled corn to the acre. 

The cost of labor, including drawing the manure, to the acre, 
amounted to $28 ; seed and interest on the land $4, making $32. 
Fifteen cords of barnyard manure were used on the acre, and, esti- 
mating it at the highest price, $4 a cord, it would be worth $60. Now, 
suppose we get one-third of the strength of the manure the first year, it 
would cost $20. And, reckoning the fodder to be equal to 2 tons of 
hay, it would bring $20, just equal to what the manure exhausted, 
so that the whole cost of raising 109 bushels of corn was only $32. 

The corn was harvested the last of October, and was in good order 
to grind. If I had spread the 15 cords of manure on 2 acres, I should 
have got, according to former experiments, made in a favorable sea- 
son, 50 bushels to the acre, and the labor would have been double, 
except drawing the manure and harvesting ; and the expense -of rais- 
ing would have been equal to 54 cents a bushel, while the cost the 
present year was only 29 cents a bushel. 

Statement of Moody Marshall, of East Weave, Hillsborough county, 

New Hampshire. 

I received from the Patent Office, last spring, two hundred and 
eighty-three kernels of the "King Philip" or "Brown" corn, which 
I planned 3^ feet apart. The season was quite unfavorable. Of the 
kernels planted, twenty-six were destroyed by worms ; but, from the 
remaining two hundred and fifty-seven ? there was a yield of 71 pounds. 

I think this the best corn for this climate I have ever tried. 
It does not require to be planted so early as to expose it to the spring 
frosts, and it will ripen before the usual time of frost in thr fall, 


Statement of H. Gr. Stone, of West Boscawen, Merrimack county, New 


Indian corn is our most important and reliable crop. The " Im- 
proved King Philip," or " Winnipiseogee corn," is a beautiful eight- 
rowed variety, yielding well, and is suitable for our climate. 

The common yield is from 25 to 50 bushels to the acre, although 
in favorable seasons, with high culture, much more is obtained. 

Statement of D. R. Stillman, of Alfred centre, Alleghany county, Neio 


Indian corn is not very extensively cultivated in this section, though 
nearly every farmer produces some. The varieties most raised are the 
"Eight-rowed yellow," and the " Twelve-rowed Dutton." It is 
planted from the 10th to the 20th of May, in hills 3 feet apart each 
way, with four plants to a hill. It is cultivated or hoed twice, cut 
up at harvest time close to the ground, and the shocks cured as soon 
as the leaves begin to turn, or before they are injured by frost. The 
maximum yield is 100 bushels to the acre ; the average, 30 or 40 
bushels ; and 20 bushels to the acre is as small a yield as will pay 

Corn sells here at 75 cents a bushel. Cost of raising, 40 cents. 

Statement of J. H. Wright, of Neio Haven, Oswego county, New Yorft. 

I planted the "King Philip" or "Brown" corn, I received from 
the Patent Office, on the 20th of May. It was fit to harvest in Sep- 
tember. All who reside in this vicinity say that it ripens at least 
two weeks earlier than other field corn, which is a matter of much 
importance in this high latitude ; and it is also very productive, many 
of the stalks having two good long ears, with large kernels and small 

Statement of Peter Cramer, of Middle Granville, Washington county, 

. Neio York. 

I followed the directions sent with the "King Philip" or " Brown '* 
corn, and, notwithstanding the severe drought, I raised from one rod 
of ground at the rate of 102 bushels to the acre, while the corn on 
each side of it did not yield half a crop, or over 30 bushels to the acre. 
It was planted on a dry and slaty soil, and received neither extra cul- 
ture nor manure. 

Statement of John P. Haller, of Lima, Allen county, Ohio. 

The average yield of Indian corn to the acre, in this section, is about 
40 bushels ; though, with proper cultivation, from 100 to 125 bushels 


can be raised. The past season, a farmer In this vicinity raised 116 
bushels to the acre at a cost of $5 15. 

The "Improved King Philip" or "Brown" corn will mature here 
in about ten weeks, while other varieties require nearly four months. 

The price of corn is 35 cents a bushel. 

Statement of W. D. Lindsley, of Sandusky City, Erie county, Ohio. 

On the 21st of April last, I planted 2 acres with "White Gourd- 
seed" corn, the hills about 4 feet apart and four kernels to a hill. 
The soil was composed of a mixture of clay and sand, of a reddish 
color, and was well adapted either for wheat or corn. The crop was 
cultivated the usual way, and was harvested on the 1st of October. 
The yield was 148 bushels of ears to the acre. 

On other parts of my farm, I planted, in drills, the same kind of 
corn, with a seed-planter, which drops the kernels on an average of 
8 or 10 inches apart. This mode of planting, I ponsider an improve- 
ment over the old method, as it is a great saving of labor, while the 
yield is much more than when planted 4 feet apart. A man can 
plant by this method from 10 to 12 acres in a day. In order to be 
successful in the mode of planting, it is necessary to commence the 
cultivation as soon after the corn is up as it can be distinctly seen in 
the rows. 

Last season was unusually cold and wet in this section, and corn 
was very slow in its vegetation, as well as in its growth and maturity. 
I continued planting from the 21st of April until the 7th of June. 
That last planted did not ripen before the coming of frost, and when 
it first came up, it was much injured by the "cut-worm," an insect 
which destroys annually hundreds of acres of corn in this vicinity, 
especially that which is planted in May or June. Seventy-five acres 
of my land, I planted in April, and not one hill of it was destroyed 
by the worm. Of this land, 10 acres were oat stubble ; 12 of new 
land ; and 3 acres of old meadow, which had been broken up the 
previous fall. The sward-land, ploughed in the fall and spring, and 
not planted before May or June, was completely infested with the 
cut-worm, and acres of corn-plants were destroyed in a single night. 
I am of the opinion that the only way of avoiding its attacks, is to 
plant as early in April as practicable, in order that the corn may be- 
come large and tough before it makes its appearance. It generally 
attacks the corn about forty-eight hours after the corn is up, and sel- 
dom, if ever, meddles with the plant after four leaves are formed, as it 
is then unsuited to its taste. 

Statement of J. Woodsides, of Marion county, Oregon. 

Indian corn, in this county, from becoming acclimatised, or from 
some other cause, grows much better than it did formerly, and is receiv- 
ing the increased attention of our farmers. I have not much doubt 
that we shall be able soon to cultivate it with success and advantage. 


Statement of John F. Bennett, of Pittsburg, Alleghany county, 


About two years ago, I obtained from the Patent Office two ears of 
"New Mexican White-flint" corn, which I planted in the spring of 
1854, and received a fair yield, notwithstanding the unfavorableness 
of the season by drought. Last spring, I planted 4 acres from the 
seed produced the year before, which has also yielded a fair crop. 

Statement of James McK. Snodgrass, of Mifflin, Allegliany county, 


Corn, next to wheat, is our most valuable crop. The best mode of 
raising it is to plough and subsoil a pasture or meadow lot, in winter 
or early spring, to the depth of 12 or 15 inches ; then harrow 
thoroughly, and mark out in rows 3^ feet apart, each way, dropping 
four or five grains in a hill ; then use the cultivator, or double-shovel 
plough, freely, so as to keep down the grass and weeds, and cause the 
soil to be loose around the hills. It should be thinned out so as to have 
not more than three stalks to each hill. The greatest yield to the 
acre is 115 bushels ; the average yield but 45 bushels of shelled corn. 

The price is 55 cents per bushel. 

Statement ofD. Minis, of Beaver Plain, Beaver county, Pennsylvania. 

The average yield of corn, in this section, the last season, was about 
30 bushels to the acre. By giving the ground 20 cords of manure, 
the yield would have been double. 

The cost of cultivating an acre of corn here is about $9. 

Statement of Bichard Lechnor, of Stouchburg, BerJcs county, 


Next in importance to wheat, in this section, is the cultivation of 
Indian corn. There are many varieties planted, which are designated 
by local names. "The "Yellow," however, is much preferred, gene- 
rally containing a red cob, with from fourteen to twenty rows. The 
yield the past season was rather above an average, being upwards of 
60 bushels to the acre, though not unfrequently twice that amount 
has been raised. 

The following is an account of the manner of cultivating this sta- 
ple : First, a Timothy or clover sward, which has been mown for 
several successive years, is selected. This is well ploughed in the fall 
of the year, to a depth of 6 or 8 inches. Fall-ploughing is preferred, 
as it gives ample time for the decomposition of all vegetable ingredi- 
ents contained in the soil, which are turned under by the plough. In 
the spring of the year, about the end of March, the surface of the 
ground is ■ well stirred with the harrow and cultivator, in order to pre- 
vent an early growth of weeds. Early in April, the land is marked 
off into furrows about 3| feet apart, and the corn dropped in, either 
singly, leaving an intervening space of about 15 inches, or in hills, 

2 00 

1 00 

1 10 




3 00 

5 00 



3* feet apart, and four kernels to a hill. As soon as the corn has 
grown to the height of 4 inches, plaster is applied ; the ground is 
then stirred with the cultivator, and afterwards with the shovel- 
plough ; subsequently, it is suckered. 

The following is the estimated cost of cultivating an acre_ of corn : 

Interest on land, 

Ploughing, .... 

Dressing with harrow and cultivator, . 

Marking out and planting, 

Seed and plaster, 

Passing through with cultivator, 

Passing through with shovel-plough, . 

Cutting up, shocking, and husking, 

Shelling and conveying to market, 

Tax, ..... 

Total cost, . . . 22 50 

The yield upon an average may be estimated at 50 bushels to an 
acre, which will give a cost of 45 cents a bushel. The average mar- 
ket price here is about 80 cents a bushel, which will give a net profit 
of 35 cents to a bushel. 

Statement of George M. Wasson, of Cedar Springs, Clinton county, 

-. Pennsylvania. 

I select a clover sod of at least one year's standing, and early in 
March sow a bushel of fine-ground plaster to each acre ; I then plough 
about 8 inches deep as early as possible. About the end of April, 
I harrow well, and mark out the ground 3* feet apart each way, 
from 1 to 2 inches deep. I plant, the first week in May, three ,or 
grains to a hill, with about a table-spoonful of plaster to each. As 
soon as the corn is 2 or 3 inches high, I pass between the rows 
with a one-horse cultivator, and, a few days later, again crosswise 
with the same implement, making use of about a table-spoonful of 
plaster to each hill. My reason for sowing the plaster on the ground 
before planting is to cause a more rapid decomposition of the refuse 
clover trampled down the previous year by the farm stock. 

I plant the " Red-cob Peg" corn, and raise on an average 60 
bushels of shelled corn to the acre. 

Statement of Nathaniel Green, near Middletoivn, Neivport county, 

Rhode Island. 

Indian corn is one of the most reliable and profitable crops that can 
be raised upon this island, especially since the failure of the potato. 
A wider space is given to the corn, however, and more manure is ap- 
plied to the land than formerly. It was usual in former times to 
plant 3* feet apart each way, leaving four stalks in the hill to stand; 
but since the introduction of the corn-planter, it is dropped 3 feet 
apart between the rows, and from 2 to2* feet asunder along the rows, 
particularly by those who use the cultivator. 


Barnyard and hog manure are in general use, and are sometimes 
mixed with menhaden fish. The farms in the vicinity of the sea are 
partially manured with sea-weed, rock-weed, and heach sand. Four 
or five cords of manure are usually spread broadcast, and ploughed 
under, to the acre, on sward land, when intended for corn, as it is ob- 
tained from September to the time of ploughing, which is generally 
done the latter part of April ; though some farmers continue the old- 
fashioned mode of manuring lightly in the hill, or ploughing a por- 
tion of it under when sown broadcast. 

The average yield of corn to the acre is about 45 bushels, although 
the produce is sometimes as high as 100 bushels to the acre. The 
cost of raising is not less than 50 cents a bushel. 

The price of corn delivered at the mills, is from $1 to $1 25 a bushel. 

Statement of Robert W. Baylor, of Wood End, near Charlestoivn, 
Jefferson county, Virginia. 

Indian corn is the most profitable crop we cultivate. The maxi- 
mum yield is 100 bushels to the acre ; the average crop, 40 bushels to 
the acre. Twenty-five bushels, at 50 cents a bushel, will pay the ex- 
pense of cultivation. 

The cost of transportation to Baltimore, 100 miles, by railroad, is 
14 cents a bushel ; to Georgetown, in the District of Columbia, 80 
miles, by canal, 6£ cents a bushel. 

Statement of James E. Kendall, of Poplar Grove, Kanawha county, 


Corn is cultivated here more than any other crop. The average 
yield is about 40 bushels to the acre. The cost of raising, 20 cents a 

The market price is usually 50 cents a bushel. 



The terms "mule," "hybrid," "half-breed" and "cross-breed" 
are vaguely and indiscriminately used by many writers ; but it is es- 
sential to accuracy that more precise distinctions should be observed. 
The offspring of two animals of different species is a mule, and is sel- 
dom endowed with the procreative power, and still more rarely with 
a long-conth' led succession. The product of two plants of different 
species is a ht, hrid, and although it is in general more prosperous than 
the mule of auimals, it is still destined to yield at length to the be- 
neficent law of Nature, which ordains that neither among animals 


nor vegetables shall the distinctions of species be obliterated. The 
permanent divisions among plants of the same species, often called 
"varieties," are properly p?*oles, or races. The product of two indi- 
viduals of the same species, but of different races, is a variety, as is 
every modification of this, effected by cross-fecundation with any other 
variety, or with any of the races of its species. 

Great advantages have been found to proceed from the practice of 
cross-fecundation, in the extraordinary improvement effected in the 
flowers, esculent vegetables, and fruits of almost every country. 
That the Cereals have only to a limited extent shared these advan- 
tages is a subject of just surprise to the curious inquirer ; but, until very 
recently, it was doubted that much, if anything, could be accom- 
plished in regard to them. Professor GrEertner, of Stuttgart, who has 
been said to have almost exhausted the subject in certain points of 
view, has declared the Cereals to be " among the plants least favora- 
ble to cross-fecundation." In 1851, however, prize medals were 
awarded at the Industrial Exhibition, in London, to Mr. B. Maund, 
and to Mr. H. Raynbird, of the United Kingdom, for their respective 
collections of "hybrid Cerealia." In their award, the jurors speak 
of the process, not as impracticable, but merely as being difficult, 
in consequence of the care requisite in removing the unexpanded 
anthers from one plant, and applying the pollen of another, and sub- 
sequently guarding them from the attacks of birds, insects, and other 
disturbing influences. 

Mr. Maund experimented with "Cone" wheat, which contains 
much gluten, in the hope that by crossing it with a race containing 
more starch, he might obtain a whiter quality of equal value ; but it' 
is not stated that he was wholly successful. Mr. Raynbird com- 
menced his experiments in 1846, with the "Hopetoun," a white 
wheat, of long ear and straw, and fine grain, and "Piper's Thickset," 
a coarse red wheat, with thick, clustered ears, a stiff straw, and very 
prolific, but liable to mildew. Mr. Maund enumerates eight instances 
in which successful cross-fecundation had taken place, as follows: — 

1. Male. — Old Lammas 

> A muuii larg 

Female. — Oxford Red. ) 

3. Male.— Clustered Red. ) . -, ^-i-pared sort 
Female.— Satin White. \ A Coarse ' rougllj Sll0rt eareCL S0 t# 

4. Male.— Old Lammas. ) A , , 
Female.— King's White. \ A YeTJ iarge i0ng ear * 

5. Male. — Boston Red, ) T j ± „+~„™. 
iMe.-Donna Maria. $ Large ear > and ver ^ strong straW 

6. Male.— White Cone (hairy.) ) A long, beardless ear, 
'Female. — Northumberland Red (smooth) ) rather downy. 

7. Male.— Dark Cone. ) A small, deformed ear, white, tinged with 
Female. — Pearl? ) black. 

8. A parcel of anomalous forms, all instances of deterioration. 

Male.-OU Lammas. > A much ^ ear than eithef> 
Jbemale. — Donna Maria. ) ° 

Male.— Pearl White. ) 


Mr. Maund found, as a general rule, in the cross-fecundation of 
wheat, that a strong male and a weak female produced a better result 
than a weak male and a strong female. The specimens of deteriora- 
tion, under No. 8, are all of this character. 

The entire feasibleness of the production of new varieties of wheat 
by cross-fecundation, and its great desirableness, being thus estab- 
lished, it is not doubted that many intelligent agriculturists of the 
United States will be willing to institute further experiments for the 
purpose of developing improved varieties, or such as shall be found 
peculiarly adapted to the soil, climate, or demands of particular sec- 
tions of the country ; and, for their guidance, a few practical sugges- 
tions will here be given. 

New varieties thus produced resemble both parents, but seldom in 
an equal degree. In successful experiments, they are usually of ear- 
lier development than either parent, more prolific, and better adapted 
to withstand cold and drought. A late plant of an early, and an 
early plant of a late race, may be made to produce early, late and in- 
termediate varieties. Sometimes, when the first cross is not good, a 
mixture between it and one of the parent races, or even a second or 
third cross of this nature, may result in the desired quality. Two 
races, which do not cross freely, may also find a medium of union in 
a third. Again, a race that will not readily receive, will often freely 
impart impregnation. 

In every perfect head of wheat, there are, during the blooming 
season, both male and female organs of reproduction, three stamens 
and one pistil. The stamens, or male organs, shoot out beyond the 

The letter a, denotes a longitudinal section of the stalk, including a joint; 6, a detached leaf, one-third 
the natural size; c, a head of wheat in flower, somewhat reduced; d, the entire organs of reproduction 
enlarged; e, a side view of the berry, or grain, showing the embryo, or germ ; /, a partial vertical and 
transverse section, exhibiting all the parts of a grain, with the embryo, magnified. 


chaff, or calyx, each having an anther suspended by a fine thread, as 
indicated in the preceding engraving. 

The three males are designed to impregnate the stigma of the one 
female, or pistil, which is situated in the centre of the anthers. From 
these anthers, a powder, or pollen, is emitted, which adheres to, or is 
absorbed by, the stigma, and is conveyed by it down to the berry, or 
seed, at its base, and thus effects the work of fecundation. So de- 
cided is the preference of the pistil for the pollen of its own stamens, 
that it is often impossible to impregnate it with that of any other 
head, while a particle of this is near. Impregnation takes place best 
when the weather is dry and warm, as a peculiar warmth and a cer- 
tain electric state of the atmosphere prepare the parts for this process, 
which always occurs on a dry day. The opinion, indeed, has been 
expressed that the pollen of the male conveys hydrogen to the ovules 
of the female, that oxygen is received from the atmosphere, and car- 
bon, in the form of carbonic acid gas, from the roots, and that when 
the pollen is destroyed by the rain, or from any other cause, the car- 
bon alone is found in the ear, and that this is the well known "smut" 
in wheat. That pollen of the stamen is essential to impregnation is 
at least certain ; and it is almost as certain, from what has been sta- 
ted, that the total destruction of the reproductive power of a particu- 
lar race of wheat must be effected before the influence of another can 
be felt. Two races being placed together, therefore, a cross can only 
be certainly effected by clipping the anthers from all the stamens of 
one variety, and leaving the work of impregnation to be effected by 
those of the other exclusively. This may be securely done by any 
person capable of distinguishing between the two races ; but, perhaps, 
the safer guide to this distinction consists in sowing the two in sepa- 
rate drills very near each other, say 9 or 10 inches apart ; and, to 
render the work still more sure, there should be no other growing 
wheat within at least a quarter of a mile of that experimented upon, 
the affinity between the pollen and the ovules being of almost incre- 
dible force. A series of experiments can only be made, therefore, by 
the cooperation of several experimenters, or of a few occupying farms 
of considerable magnitude ; yet they ought to be conducted according 
to a plan of perfect unity of design. 

If it should be proposed to make a trial with ten races of wheat, 
for instance, a scries of ninety experiments, in as many isolated situa- 
tions, would be required, as it is necessary to match the male with 
the female of each race. Let us suppose the following to be the races 
selected : — 

No. 1. White Tuscan wheat. 

2. Tuscan straw-hat wheat. 

3. Large white soft Tuscan wheat. 

4. Bed Tuscan wheat. 

5. Italian Brenta wheat. 

6. Turkish flint-wheat. 

7. White Turkish wheat. 

8. American Soule wheat. 

9. Algerian flint-wheat. 
10. White Polish wheat. 



The combinations in pairs would be as indicated in the following 
table :— ° 


M. F 

M. F 

j M. F. 

M. F. 

M. F. 

M. F. 

M. F. 

M. Fl 

No. 1 and 2 
2 and 1 

No. 2 and 3 
3 and 2 

No. 3 and 4 
4 and 3 

No. 4 and 5 
5 and 4 

No. 5 and 6 
6 and 5 

No. 6 and 7 
7 and 6 

No. 7 and 8 
8 and 7 

No. 8 and 9 
9 and 8 

No. 9 and 10 
10 and 91 

1 and 3 
3 and 1 

2 and 4 
4 and 2 

3 and 5 
5 and 3 

4 and 6 
6 and 4 

5 and 7 
7 and 5 

6 and 8 
8 and 6 

7 and 9 
9 and 7 

8 and 10 
10 and 8 

1 and 4 
4 and 1 

2 and 5 
5 and 2 

3 and 6 
6 and 3 

4 and 7 
7 and 4 

5 and 8 
8 and 5 

6 and 9 
9 and 6 

7 and 10 
10 and 7 


1 and 5 
5 and 1 

2 and 6 
6 and 2 

3 and 7 
7 and 3 

4 and 8 
8 and 4 

5 and 9 
9 and 5 

6 and 10 
10 and 6 

1 and 6 
6 and 1 

2 and 7 
7 and 2 

3 and 8 
8 and 3 

4 and 9 
9 and 4 

5 and 10 
10 and 5 

1 and 7 
7 and 1 

2 and 8 
8 and 2 

3 and 9 
9 and 3 

4 and 10 
10 and 4 

1 and 8 
8 and 1 

2 and 9 
9 and 2 

3 and 10 
10 and 3 

1 and 9 
9 and 1 

2 and 10 
10 and 2l 

1 and 10 
10 and 1 

Having selected perfect seeds of two races, and fixed upon a locality 
suitable for the purpose of an experiment, at least six drills should 
be made, about 10 inches apart, and the seeds of each race deposited 
in the earth, particular care being observed to remember in which of 
the drills each race is sown. A wooden label may be fixed at the 
ends of each drill, and, lest these should be defaced or removed, a 
drawn plan of the group should be preserved. 

The following diagrams may serve to aid the experimenter in his 
first efforts, the purpose being to impregnate the female of No. 2, 

with the pollen of the male of No. 
and F female : — 

1, and vice versa, M denoting male, 

No. 1. *M*M*M*M*M*M 

O -fc™ ^x? ^■p ^u ^"ci ^w 

1. M*M*M*M*M*M 



No. 2. *M*M*M*M*M*M 

1 , *F * F *F *F *F *F 

2. *M*M*M*M*M*M 

1. *F*F*F*F*F*F 

2. *M*M*M*M*M*M 
F * F * F * F ^F *F 1. *F*F*F*F*F*F 

Experiments with No. 1 and 2 in alternate drills, 9 inches apart. 

■p* pi *f*F*F*F 

S "T" Of-'.. 2 ) 4... 

.♦"T" , «. .v' • >•..<>" : \ 

* 2*--' '■ V ' « > •} 


I '^2i 

Experiments with No. 1 and 2 in quvncuneem, 9 inches apart. 


Watchful care should then be taken to protect the patches or drills 
from disturbance by vermin or fowls, while still in the ground, and 
afterwards from insects and birds. The use of gauze nets would be 
by no means superfluous, from the moment that the heads begin to 
form. As soon as the anthers show their first rudiments, in a race 
upon which the cross is to be made, they should be carefully removed, 
or clipped with a pair of sharp scissors, leaving the female organs 
undisturbed. Thus both races would be impregnated with the pollen 
of one. When matured, the utmost care should be taken to gather 
the seeds of the crossed race by itself. 

It will also be curious to observe the difference between the pro- 
ducts of the two experiments with the same races of wheat, for in- 
stance, of the male of No. 1 with the female of No. 2, and the male 
of No. 2 with the female of No. 1 ; for, from the superior influence 
of the one sex over the other, upon the characteristics of the joint 
product, if of uniform result, may be inferred something of proof upon 
a point still involved in controversy, though we now have the light 
thrown upon the subject by Mr. Maund. 

Our country possesses great advantages for the prosecution of ex- 
periments of this kind ; first, in the very large farm which a single 
individual often owns and cultivates ; secondly, in the intervention 
of forests, or considerable distances, between the different wheat-fields ; 
and thirdly, in the facility with which experiments may be con- 
ducted, according to any prescribed mode, by the members of State, 
County or other Agricultural Societies. 

Such experiments would not involve the expenditure of any con- 
siderable amount of time, labor, nor money, while the benefits to the 
country would be great, and the advantages and honor of achieving 
success would be gratifying in the extreme. D. J. B. 


In the cultivation of wheat, the first object is to obtain clean, dry 
seed, of large or small, flinty or soft, white or dark grain, according 
to the soil and climate in which it is intended to grow, newly threshed, 
if possible, even if one or more years old, and steep it in some liquid 
that has the power of destroying the spores of parasitical fungi, 
which, although invisible to the naked eye, may still be present in 
sufficient quantities to produce "black-ball," or "smut," in the suc- 
ceeding crop. 

In respect to the age of the seed, Theophrastus says, and after him 
Pliny, it is best when a year old ; if kept two years, it is not so good ; 
if three years old, it is still worse, and if older than that, it will not 
grow. This opinion appears to have prevailed from the days of the 
Romans in Spain and Italy down to the present time, and the same 
practice is sedulously adhered to by the farmers in those countries, as 
well as in Spanish America, whenever attention is paid to this species 
of culture, who aver that old wheat-seed is not so liable to mildew or 


blight as new; whereas, on the other hand, it has been conjectured 
that their success may be owing to early sowing, inasmuch as new 
wheat cannot conveniently be obtained in season, and consequently 
has to be sown late. 

"For seed," continues Pliny, "you should choose the fullest ears, 
having the fullest berry, and set them apart in the barn, and by no 
means admit those ears that are not well filled throughout, as in 
such grains there is danger of producing like ears." But let it be re- 
membered that this rule was intended to apply to the Koman Empire, 
where wheat was almost invariably sown in the fall, and where the 
soil was naturally fertile, or otherwise made rich. On the contrary, 
many of the farmers of Europe choose the smallest and leanest grains 
for their poor land, acting on the premises that a large plump berry 
contains a sufficient amount of elementary matter to send forth more 
"tillers" than an indifferent or meagre soil can maintain, which, in 
the end, must starve or die. It is better, they say, in this case, that 
small seeds should be sown, in order that they may bring fewer tillers, 
which can be well fed and sustained. Whatever mode, however, may 
be adopted, whether by liming, brining, or otherwise soaking or pre- 
paring the seed, it is of much consequence, and the first point to be 
gained is to get good roots to the plants ; for, although the ground may 
be poor, the larger and fairer the grains strike their roots, the greater 
the depth or compass they will draw their nourishment. 

There is also believed to be great benefits derived from changing 
seed, not only from one climate to another, but to a different soil. 
For instance, it is a noted fact that the further north wheat can be 
made to grow, the shorter is the period of time in which it comes to 
maturity. It has also been observed, when wheat is grown in the 
extreme north, if used as seed in a southern country, it gives its first 
product more speedily, ripening in a much shorter time, although, in 
sowing the seed of that product the second year, it loses this quality. 
Advantage has been taken of this circumstance in Sweden, in annu- 
ally bringing their wheat-seed from Torneo, at the north of the Gulf 
of Bothnia, almost within the arctic circle, and sowing it in lands so 
much exposed to the cold that ordinary wheat, from the shortness of 
the season, scarcely has time to ripen. By these means, the lands in 
that country, which were formerly so utterly barren, are now ren- 
dered fruitful. Again, the wheat brought from near the shores of 
the Mediterranean, to many parts of the United States, not only suc- 
ceeds well, but possesses the property the first year of ripening some 
days earlier fhan the ordinary sorts, and thereby often escapes injury 
from the ravages of insects or the rust, besides the advantage to be 
gained from an early market. But whether this change is produced 
wholly from the difference of climate, or from a deviation in the char- 
acter of the soil, is at present unknown. From numerous experiments 
made in England, within the last hundred years, it would appear that 
"plants, like animals, affect to be nourished by a variety of food," 
which would tend to show that it is not so much the change of cli- 
mate that occasions these alterations, as in the change of soil. A 
case is recorded of a farm in England, on which one field had a clay 
bottom, another a loam, a third a gravel, and the fourth a chalk. 


These gave the occupant the opportunity of changing the seed of his 
wheat every year, who confined himself only to two sorts, the " Eed 
Lammas" and the "Pirks." When he sowed his Lammas on the 
clayey soil one year, the next he sowed the seed of the product of the 
same seed on gravel or chalk, which, though not truly the proper 
soils for this variety of wheat, yet it proved no impediment to its 
growth, as he seldom failed to obtain a good crop. In a similar 
manner, he used the Pirk wheat, a variety which grew well in any 
of the four soils. 

In reference to the change of wheat from one climate to another, 
there are numerous facts on record in connection with which there 
appear to have been some phenomena, that were as inexplainable 
as they were opposite in their effects. As instances, it may be stated 
that one of the companions of Columbus, 362 years ago, made the first 
attempt to cultivate wheat in America, whose experiment was at- 
tended with the most satisfactory result. The seed was introduced 
directly from the west of Spain, without any intermediate acclimati- 
sation, to the settlement of Isabella, on the north side of St. Domin- 
go, in latitude about 19° 58* N. "On the 30th of March, 1494," 
says the historian, "a husbandman brought to Columbus ears of 
wheat which had been sown in the latter part of January." Wheat 
has also been brought from England, and sown in various parts of 
the West Indies, both with and without success, particularly in the 
Bahamas, Antigua, and Barbadoes ; but, as failure to an equal extent 
was the result of experiments with wheat, the growth of warmer cli- 
mates, as Sicily, Poonah, &c, and as the temperature of the cycle of 
wheat varies little from the mean temperature of the cooler months 
in the West Indies, I should be inclined to look for some other cause 
of failure than the mere abruptness of introduction. It may be asked, 
why the experiment of 1494, made with the wheat introduced direct- 
ly from Spain, should have succeeded so fully, while even "Talave- 
ra" wheat, the produce of the same part of Spain, and "Poonah'* 
wheat, the produce of the elevated, but hot district in India, adjoin- 
ing Bombay, should have wholly or partially failed in 1840 ? The 
"Victoria" wheat, produced from Caracas seed, sown in England, 
retained its native properties unaltered by the change of climate, and 
succeeded in the West Indies, as well as that introduced directly from 
the region adjacent to La Victoria and San Mateo. Again, Hum- 
boldt, in the fourth volume of his "Personal Narrative," says 
that "the finest harvests of Egypt and the kingdom of Algiers, and 
those of the valleys of Aragua and the interior of the island of Cuba, 
sufficiently prove that the augmentation of heat is not prejudicial 
to the harvest of wheat, unless it is attended with an excess of mois- 
ture or drought. To this circumstance, no doubt, we must attribute 
the apparent anomalies experienced in wheat-culture in the torrid 
zone. We are astonished, says the same author, to see to the east of 
Havana, in the famous district of Quatro Villas (the wheat region) 
this limit descends almost to the level of the ocean ; while, to the 
west of Havana, on the slope of the mountains of Mexico and Xa- 
lapa, at a height of 4,312 feet above the level of the sea, the luxuri- 
ance of vegetation is such that wheat does not form ears." 


It may here be remarked, that experiments like the preceding 
are valuable as far as they go, but they should be received with cau- 
tion, as many other circumstances should be taken into considera- 
tion before they can be adopted as conclusive. If, in addition to the 
particulars referred to above, chemical analyses of the soils, xm which 
the wheat was cultivated, as well as of the manures employed, had 
been given ; if the nature and yield of previous crops had been stated ; 
and, if the mean temperature and extremes of heat and cold in each, 
month of the year had been recorded, together with the amount of 
rain and snow, sunshine and shade, force of the wind, and the occur- 
rence of early and late frosts, we would then have had elements by 
which to judge of the accuracy of these results. 

Wheat, in this country, as well as in some parts of Europe, is sub- 
ject to the "black-ball," or "smut." It is no guarantee against this 
intruder to employ seed which may have been entirely free from it 
during its growth. For the spores of the fungus which produces it, 
for aught we know, may be lurking about in the barns or stacks, or 
even in the air itself, and thus be brought into contact with the seed 
employed. When the wheat is in the green ear, the smutty ones may 
be discovered as they stand, but they are more readily observed, when 
nearer maturity, by rubbing the diseased heads, when a black powder 
will fly out, emitting a disagreeable smell. This disease in wheat 
sometimes happens only on one side of the ear, while the other parts 
appear to remain perfectly sound. A case is on record in which the 
west sides of the ears of a whole field were affected with smut, while 
their opposite sides were free throughout. "Smutty grains," says 
Tull, "will not grow, for they turn to a black powder ; but, when 
some of these are in a crop, then, to be sure, many of the rest are in- 
fected, and the disease will show itself, if the year wherein it is planted 
prove a wet one." 

The following are a few of the most reliable modes that are em- 
ployed in Europe in getting rid of this troublesome pest : Metzger, 
of Germany, after a trial of 22 years, found only one single injured 
ear in all his crops, by mixing the seed with soap-suds and slacked- 
lime. The wheat was prepared three days before it was sown, or until 
it be^an to germinate. He says: "If sown earlier after mixing with 
the lime, it will be liable to smut." 

Morton, in his "Cyclopedia of Agriculture," a recent English pub- 
lication, considered as the highest authority, says: "The old agricul- 
tural pharmacopoeia gave chamber-lye and caustic lime as the grand 
recipe for the destruction of the black-ball, and sometimes washing 
with salt and water was recommended. Both plans might mitigate 
the evil, but neither of them ever prevented it. Fortunately, sul- 
phate of copper (blue-stone, or blue vitriol) was thought of, and there 
can be but one opinion as to the perfect efficacy, when properly ap- 
plied." The quantity generally used in pickling new wheat is 1£ 
pounds of blue-stone, dissolved in 2 gallons of hot water, which is suf- 
ficient to prepare 8 bushels, the liquid being allowed to cool be- 
fore sprinkling it on the wheat. There is little risk of injuring the 
seed by an overdose, as half a pound of blue-stone has been applied to 
a bushel without injury to the seed. Old wheat can also be pickled 


with perfect safety with blue-stone — a thing that never can be done 
without great danger, when chamber-lye, or salt and water and lime, 
are employed. The quantity of blue-stone for old dry wheat never 
need exceed 1^ pounds to each 8 bushels, but 2^ or 3 gallons of 
water are necessary for saturating the seed. 

The mode of pickling wheat with blue-stone is exceedingly sim- 
ple, and this of itself is a great recommendation in its favor, even 
although it were not more efficacious than the older methods of pick- 
ling ; but, when simplicity and efficacy are united, there is no excuse 
for any farmer who may still obstinately stick to imperfect and obso- 
lete practices. All that is necessary, in pickling with blue-stone, is 
to dissolve it in hot water in the proportions before stated ; then spread 
out the wheat about 6 inches thick, on a stone floor, sprinkle the pickle 
equally over it, and mix thoroughly with shovels until the wheat 
has acquired a uniform degree of dampness. It will be ready for 
sowing in the course of two or three hours, but it is better to have 
the pickling done a day before sowing. Many farmers pickle the 
whole of their seed wheat at once, and let it lie for years before sow- 
ing, not only without injury, but with evident advantage ; the blue- 
stone thus appearing to possess the power of defending the germ 
against atmospheric influences, while, at the same time, rats and 
mice will not touch wheat so pickled, unless greatly pinched for food. 

According to Cato, cold wet land should be sown early with fall or 
winter wheat, and warmer or drier ground reserved to be sown late, 
which is confirmed hy Palladius, who says, in his calendar for Sep- 
tember : "In this month, in wet, barren and cold ground, and in 
places shaded from the sun, wheat should be sown in clear, serene 
weather, about the time of the equinox, in order that the roots may 
have time to grow strong before Avinter sets in." And Columella 
cites as an old saying, proverbial among the Roman farmers: "Early 
sowings often deceive — late, never," which leads us to infer that, 
such places as are naturally cold should be sown first, and those 
which are warm and dry, last. These expressions, let it be remem- 
bered, are purely Southern, and apply to the warmer parts of Italy 
and Spain, but would not answer for the Middle and Northern por- 
tions of the United States. 

In Italy, they sow their wheat on heavy and strong lands in Sep- 
tember and October, which, as well as November and December, are 
drier than January and February ; therefore, such lands may be ex- 
pected to work better, as the casting of the seed into a warm, dry 
bed, especially if the ground be cold, is of great consequence, what- 
ever weather may afterwards occur. Nor are the Italians less judi- 
ous in sowing their drier lands in January and February, when they 
are naturally watered by warm and copious rains. 

In the middle and colder parts of the United States, where the land 
is cold, stiff and strong, wheat is found to do best when sown late in 
August or early in September, which enables the roots to get a good 
start and better resist the winter's cold ; but if the ground be warm, 
dry and rich, the time of sowing may be prolonged fully a month. 

Summer or spring wheats may be cultivated only in those districts 
where the winter varieties will not bear exposure to hard frost and 


long-remaining snow; or where it will not thrive on account of too 
little summer's warmth. In those regions in which winter wheat 
will thrive, the summer varieties only prosper where there is frequent 
and sufficient rain; in dry and hot climates and seasons, they will not 
succeed. They require the same kinds of soil as winter wheat, hut 
more manure, or, at least, a larger quantity of humus, or vegetable 
mould. They must he sown as early as practicable in the spring, in 
order that they may have time to tiller before the heat of summer ; 
they must also be sown thicker than winter wheat, as the produce is 
universally less, and they are more liable to smut and rust. 

As to the quantity of wheat which may be sown to the acre, it 
should vary according to the quality of the ground, the nature of the 
climate, the period of sowing, the variety cultivated, and the mode of 
committing the seed to the earth. Therefore, the proportion of seed 
that is necessary must depend upon the above-named circumstances 
and local experience. As a general rule, when sown broadcast on 
good land, in the fall , the quantity will not vary far from 2 bushels to the 
acre ; but when the sowing takes place very early in the spring, the 
quantity may even be increased to 3 bushels. Where the "drill" or 
"dibble" system of culture is practised, considerably less seed may 
suffice. D. J. B. 


Statement of J '. J. Pratt, of Centre, Cherokee county, Alabama. 

Wheat, in this region, is second only in importance to Indian corn, 
without additional manure, with the exception of a little cotton-seed 
which is sometimes thrown on the "galled" spots in the field. It 
is usually sown broadcast at the rate of about a bushel to the acre, 
from the 1st of October to December, and covered with a shovel- 

Our main harvest is from the 1st to the 15th of June. We use the 
old-fashioned scythe-cradle. After it is cut, it is shocked in dozens, 
in the field, where it generally stands till the corn harvest is over, 
about the middle of July, when it is threshed by horse-power. The 
average yield, this year, is from 15 to 20 bushels to the acre; but, in 
some instances, it has been as high as 40 or 50 bushels. 

. Our nearest market is Rome, in Georgia. The cost of transporta- 
tion, by steamboat, up the Coosa, is 5 cents a bushel; by wagons, 
from 20 to 30 cents. Price at Rome, from 90 cents to $1 25 a bushel, 
of 60 pounds. 


Statement of J.T>. Morley, of Lagrange, Stanislaus county, California. 

Wheat is extensively cultivated in this county with fair profit. The 
most common mode of culture is, to plough in December, January, 
and February, and sow on the top of the ground, and harrow in 
forthwith ; but this enables the birds, which are very numerous, to 
get much of the seed. Many of the farmers sow too little seed, and 
that not of the best variety. But we have no rain after the first of 
May until the last of November or the first of December ; or, at least, 
not enough to benefit the crop. Much of the grain is affected by the 
smut. I plough in March and April, and let the ground lie fallow 
until November, and then sow from 1^ to 2 bushels to the acre, when 
I plough it in or use the cultivator. After this, I go over the ground 
with a heavy roller, which is of great advantage ; when the grain is 
ankle high, if it has not jointed. 

The best variety is the "White Chili." The time of harvest is 
the last of May or first of June, and the average quantity per acre is 
25 bushels. One acre of wheat, sown in fallow ground, is equal to 
two, sown in the manner first described. The yield in favorable sea- 
sons varies from 15 to 16 bushels to the acre. 

In the fall of 1853, wheat was worth here from 6 to 8 cents a 
pound ; in that of 1854, from 5 to 6 cents ; in the spring of 1855, 
from 3 to 4^ cents ; and in the fall and winter of the same year, from 
4 to 6£ cents a pound. 

Statement of George P. Norris, of Newcastle, Newcastle county, 


The recent high prices of grain have induced the farmers of this 
county to sow more wheat than usual. Much of the land planted 
with corn last year, is now sown with wheat, which we sow about the 
20th of September, and manure with guano at the rate of 300 pounds 
to the acre. I am of the opinion that when early sown, it does the 
best. The "Mediterranean" is generally used for seed, and certain- 
ly answers well. Our farmers in general use drills. 

The present price of wheat at the Brandywine Mills, is $2 10 a 
bushel. It has been as low, however, as $1 55 the past year. 

Statement of Wm. W. Woodbridge, of Paw Paw Grove, Lee county, 


The varieties of wheat raised in this vicinity are the " Black Sea" 
and the "Bed Canada club." If properly put in, the average yield 
is 25 bushels per acre. Fall or winter wheat is not much raised. 

The price, since the harvest of 1855, has been from $1 to $1 40 per 


Statement of C. W. Babbitt, of Metamora, Woodford county, Illinois. 

Fall wheat is so liable to be winter-killed in this vicinity, that but 
little of it is cultivated. Spring wheat is only moderately grown ; 
the " Italian" and the "Black Sea" varieties are the two principal 
kinds sown, and yield about 15 bushels to the acre. All wheat here 
is subject to blight, rust, and smut, though good management much 
lessons the liabilities to the last two evils. 

Wheat has been selling the present season from 75 cents to $1 15 
a bushel. Spring wheat brings about 15 per cent, less than the win- 
ter varieties. 

Statement of Alexander Heron, near Connersville, Fayette county, 


Wheat has been cultivated in this region the past season to more 
advantage than any other crop, proving the most abundant yield ever 
known, ranging from 25 to 30, and, in some instances, as high as 40 
bushels to the acre. For some years past, it has been a very uncer- 
tain crop with us, being liable to be killed by the severe winter frosts, 
er injured by the weevil and rust. The principal varieties cultivated 
are the "Mediterranean" and the "Genesee," the former being 

Our best crops of wheat the last season were raised on a clover sod, 
ploughed under the fall preceding, and sown broadcast at the rate 
of 2 bushels to the acre, and then harrowed in. They were harvested 
the first week in July. Estimating the expense of seed, cultivation, 
and harvesting at $8, a yield of 30 bushels to the acre, at $1 50 per 
bushel, the price at our home market, the net profit would be $37 to 
the acre. 

Our wheat is all manufactured into flour near home. The cost of 
transportation to Cincinnati is 25 cents a barrel. 

Statement of William J. Payne, near Rusliville, Bush county, Indiana, 

The product of wheat, this year, is uncommonly good in this section, 
We generally sow among standing corn, covering it with a shovel- 
plough, without manure. I have heard of but one field that haa 
yielded less than 20 bushels to the acre. An inverted clover sod, or 
stable manure spiOad broadcast, produces the greatest yield. 

The present price of wheat is $1 10 a bushel, against $1 90 last 

Statement of Benjamine F. Odell, of Plum Spring, Delaware county, 


Next to Indian corn, wheat is our most important crop. Spring- 
wheat is the only variety we raise. The average yield is aboi#. 15 



The cost of raising and 

bushels to the acre, valued at $1 a bushel, 
sending to market is about $9 an acre. 

The following is the expense of raising 11 acres in 1855, sown on 
sod-land broken up the preceding year: — 

Dragging once with two yoke of oxen, . $3 00 

Seed, 16 bushels, 


Dragging twice with one yoke of oxen 


Hauling and stacking, . 


Eent of land at $2 an acre, 

Yield 82£ bushels at $1, 

Profit on 11 acres, 

16 00 

2 50 

17 50 
6 00 

12 00 
22 00 

T9 75 

82 50 

2 75 

Only about 7 acres were harvested, the remainder being " hazel- 
brush" land, which was choked down by weeds. It is a notable 
fact, that this class of land, last year, did not yield with us more 
than half a crop. 

Statement of O. H. Kelly, of Northwood, Benton county, Minnesota. 

The "Saumer" spring-wheat, which I procured from the Patent 
Office last season, succeeded well. It ripened about the 1st of Sep- 
tember. Should it maintain its character for hardiness and yield next 
year, I shall continue to cultivate it. 

Statement of Samuel J. Fletcher, near Winchester , Clarke county, 


In the cultivation of wheat, I plough from 8 to 12 inches deep, 
running over once with a large harrow, when the ground is rough ; 
then sow broadcast 2 bushels to the acre; harrow twice, lengthwise, 
and across the furrow, afterwards passing over the field with a two- 
horse roller. My average yield is from 25 to 40 bushels to the acre. 
This year, I raised on a field of 10 acres, of the "White Blue-stem," 
about 400 bushels, while the average crop in this region was only 
from 7 to 12 bushels to an acre. 

In 1853, I obtained from Baltimore 2 bushels of "White Blue- 
stem" wheat, and 2 bushels each of "Australian" and "Gale's Early- 
flint." From the Blue-stem I harvested 38| bushels of fine wheat, 
while both the others were perfect failures. They were all sown at 
one time, and in the same field. 

The price of wheat last year varied from $1 10 to $1 50 a bushel, 
The best flour is worth $9 50 a barrel. 


Statement of Daniel Paterson, of Fayette, Howard county, Missouri. 

Wheat here is sown in the fall, and yields about 20 bushels to the 

Price, §1 25 a bushel ; cost of conve}-ance to market 15 cents a 

Statement of D. R. Stillman, of Alfred Centre, Alleghany county, 

Neiv York. 

Wheat is but little cultivated for market in this section of the State. 
The spring varieties succeed best, and are sown as early as the ground 
will admit, at the rate of 1| to 2 bushels to the acre. It is harvested 
about the 1st of August, and yields from 10 to 30 bushels to the 
acre, or an average of about 15 bushels. 

The price this season has been $2 a bushel, or 75 cents more than 
is usual. 

Statement of Gershom Wiborn, of Victor, Ontario county, JSFeio York. 

This county, up to within a few years, was considered one of the 
best wheat-growing regions in the country ; our farmers producing, 
in favorable seasons, from 15 to 35 bushels to the acre ; but latterly, 
there has-been a great falling off in their crops, so much so that they 
begin seriously to talk of discontinuing its cultivation. The reason 
assigned for this falling off is attributed to winter-killing in unfavor- 
able seasons. Fields that lie bare of snow, and take the dry cold 
winds of winter, have entirely failed, and those which escape are 
generally injured by the wheat-midge and the Hessian fly. 

Our most reliable wheat-lands are either dry, level fields, or such 
as have an inclination to the south or east, or those which are pro- 
tected from the northwestern winds by high ridges, or dense woods. 

We have never much practised raising spring wheat here. A few 
attempts have been made, but they have mostly failed. For the 
most part, we sow the "Soule" wheat, but the "Mediterranean" has 
of late come much into favor. It seems to do better upon some land 
than the Soule wheat; and, as it is earlier in ripening, it is less lia- 
ble to be injured by the midge. Its flour, however, is vastly inferior 
to that of the Soule. 

Statement 0/ John P. Haller, of Lima, Allen county, Ohio. 

This was a considerable wheat-growing county until the red weevil 
made its appearance. The "Mediterranean" variety does best, as it is 
not so liable to be destroyed by this insect. Winter wheat should be 
sown here from the 1st to the 20th of September. The yield is about 
15 bushels to the acre, valued at $1 37 a bushel. 

For several years past, the wheat-crop has been much injured by 
the red weevil. In some cases it has been an almost entire failure. 
The past season, it was but little injured, owing probably to the cool 
weather which occurred about the time they commenced their ravages. 



Statement of William H. Goudy, of Buteville, Marion county, Oregon 


"Wheat is, and perhaps will be, the chief staple in Oregon. The 
finest crops are raised on the fresh prairie sod, broken in May and 
June, and sown in the September following. Those who have old 
farms, plough their land in the spring and the early part of summer, 
and sow in the fall. In either case, from 30 to 50 bushels may be 
raised to the acre. The old French settlers plough their land in 
February and sow their seed. In this way, they raise good wheat year, 
after year, on the same land. The quantity of seed sown is from lj 
to 1£ bushels to the acre. The cost of raising is 60 cents a bushel. 

The kinds raised are the "White Winter" wheat, the "Bald," and 
two varieties of spring wheat, one a white chaff and bald, the other a 
red chaff and bearded. There is also some of the " Egyptian" wheat 
here, which excels all other varieties. One of my neighbors planted 
three small heads, last season, in a bed in his garden, from which he 
raised a gallon of clean wheat. Some of the stalks were 8 feet high. 

Wheat is worth here at present $1 a bushel. 

Statement of Mathew Hall, of Alleghany county, Pennsylvania. 

Wheat is raised to the best advantage in this section. Our 
mode of cultivating is to spread barnyard manure on sward-land, 
put the field in corn or oats, and then take two succeeding crops of 
wheat. After breaking up a field, we generally take three crops from 
it, and then clover is seeded, allowing it to remain from three to five 
years without breaking up, according to the size of the farm. 

The "Mediterranean" variety is preferred by a majority of our 
farmers, on account of its early maturity and comparative freedom 
from the ravages of the fly. I consider the "Club-head" and "Blue- 
stem" better varieties than the Mediterranean. The wheat is of a 
finer quality, and yields about a fourth more to the acre, but is sub- 
ject to the fly or weevil. The Blue-stem is a small white wheat, and 
is superior in quality to any other variety grown in this region. The 
Club-head is a red, smooth wheat. These varieties are of stronger 
growth, and are not so apt to lodge, as beardy or Mediterranean wheat. 

The maximum yield is between 45 and 50 bushels to the acre, but 
the average is about 18 bushels. 

Statement of James McK. Snodgrass, of Mifflin, Alleghany county, 


Wheat is raised to a considerable extent in this county, much land 
being well adapted to its culture. There are different varieties in use 
here, such as the "Mediterranean," "Blue-stem," "Golden-straw," 
and others known by local names. The Blue-stem and Mediterranean 
are most esteemed, on account of their ripening early, and being less 
subject to rust. 



The best mode of raising wheat is to break up clover sod, from 
8 to 10 inches deep, about the 1st of Soptember ; harrow it until it 
becomes well pulverised, and then drill in the seed from the 15th to 
the 25th of the same month. If White wheat is sown, 5 pecks of 
seed are employed to the acre ; and if Mediterranean, 6 pecks. By- 
drilling, we get from 4 to 5 bushels more per acre than by sowing 
broadcast. The greatest yield is 45 bushels to the acre ; the average 
yield 20 bushels. The usual mode of harvesting is with the cradle. 
The reaping machine is not yet in general use, but, when employed 
on level or slightly rolling land, it appears to give satisfaction. 

Statement of C. Snively, of Penn Township, Alleghany county, Penn- 

The average yield of wheat in this county is 14 bushels to the acre. 
When it is less than 8 bushels to the acre, it will not pay. 

The varieties chiefly grown are the "White Blue-stem" and the 
"Mediterranean." They both mature early, and are therefore more 
apt to escape rust, and the midge, which, for several years past, has 
somewhat injured the crops in this county. Our method of cultiva- 
tion is to break up in August or September a clover or Timothy sod, 
and then sow. Timothy seed is sown for hay or pasture with the 
wheat, and the following spring clover is sown at the rate of half a 
peck to the acre. Grain drills are rapidly coming into use. They 
save time and labor, as well as seed. When we sow wheat broadcast, 
we put in from If to 2 bushels to the acre. When drilled in, 1£ 
bushel is amply sufficient, and the yield is greater. The time for 
sowing is from the 10th until the last of September. 

The price of wheat the last year was from $1 G5 to $1 75 per bushel. 
At the present time, (April, 1856,) it is from $1 to $1 10 per bushel. 

The cost of transportation to Philadelphia, by railroad, is 30 cents 
a bushel ; by canal, somewhat less. 

Statement of D. Minis, of Beaver Plain, Beaver county, Pennsylvania. 

The wheat-crop, in this section, last season, was unusually good, 
although it was somewhat injured by the wet weather. The latter 
circumstance, however, may be an advantage to some of our farmers 
hereafter, by inducing them to shock their grain with more care. 

The best remedy for the fly, is, to have the wheat ground in good 
condition, and sow from the 20th of September to the 5th of October, 
in this latitude. If sown earlier, the fly deposits her eggs on the 
plants ; they immediately hatch, and the larvae perform their work 
of destruction in the fall ; but if sown later, they do not hatch before 
spring, and the larvae, or worms, then commit their ravages. If sown 
at the above-named period, the young broods of flies are hatched in 
the fall, but are too feeble to withstand the winter's cold, and 

The average yield of wheat, with us, the past season, did not exceed 


25 bushels to the acre. The prices have varied from $1 25 to $2 a 

Statement of Richard Lechnor, of Stoucliburg, Berks county, Pennsyl- 


Wheat is extensively cultivated in this county. The varieties com- 
monly grown, are designated as the "Red" and "White Blue-stem," 
the ""Red-chaff," and the "Mediterranean. The White Blue-stem has 
the preference, being esteemed for its white plump grain, which weighs 
from 4 to 6 pounds to a bushel more than the other varieties. The 
Mediterranean is an early sort, with a somewhat long and slender 
berry, and is more cultivated here than formerly. It is almost totally 
exempt from the depredations committed by the weevil, which made 
its appearance in this county a few years ago, carrying destruction 
before it to an alarming extent. From eight to ten of these little 
insects have been observed feeding upon the milk of a single grain. 
The best remedy for guarding against the ravages committed by this 
little destroyer is early sowing, in order that the grain may attain a 
sufficient degree of maturity before it commences its work of plunder. 

The time of sowing wheat, with us, is from the 15th to the 25th of 
September. No pains are taken in the preparation of the seed, except 
that it is cleaned from all trash, which is readily accomplished by the 
fanning mill. The quantity sown to the acre is from 1^ to 2 bushels. 
The land is prepared by two ploughings, the first time as deep as 
practicable, say from 8 to 10 inches, performed in August. A few 
weeks after the first ploughing is executed, say from the 10th to the 
15th of September, the land is well harrowed, the second ploughing 
effected to the depth of 6 or 8 inches, presenting a ridgy appearance. 
The wheat is then sown broadcast, and the land harrowed, covering 
the seed to a depth of several inches. The seed-drill, however, has 
been somewhat extensively used of late. Practice has shown that the 
latter method is better adapted to the culture of this great staple than 
the other modes. 

The time of harvesting is from the 4th to the 20th of July, accord- 
ing to the season. The average product of wheat to an acre is about 
2-0 bushels, though from 30 to 40 are frequently raised. The average 
price at the Reading market, last year, was about $2, ranging from 
$1 50 to $2 50. 

Statement of George M. Wasson, of Cedar Springs, Clinton county, 


In the culture of wheat, I plough a clover sod of one or two years' 
standing, from the middle to the latter part of May, from 8 to 10 
inches deep, previously having manured any impoverished spots, with 
barnyard manure. I harrow it well about the 1st of July, and 
again about the 1st of September, and plough the second time from 
the 1st to the 15th of September, about 8 inches deep, and immedi- 
ately after sow from If to 2 bushels to the acre. On oat stubble, I 


cart to each, acre about 35 two-horse loads of manure from the barn- 
yard, spread it evenly over the ground, and plough it under as soon 
as possible, so as to prevent the moisture from being dried out by the 
sun and air. I plough from 6 to 8 inches deep, and harrow immedi- 
ately. About the 10th of September, I plough again, about the same 
depth as at first, for the purpose of mixing the manure and earth 
properly together. I sow broadcast, from 1-| to 2 bushels to the acre ; 
and about the 10th of April, or sooner, I sow about a peck and a 
half of plaster to the acre. 

I cultivate the "Bald-white Blue-stem" wheat. My average crop 
for many years, under this mode of culture, has been 30 bushels to 
the acre, weighing 63 pounds to the bushel. I regard late sowing as 
the best preventive of the ravages of the Hessian fly. 

Statement of Joseph Parker, of West Rupert, Bennington county, 


But little wheat is sown in this county, except the spring varieties. 
That known as the "China" wheat, has been the most productive; 
the yield the past season being 20 bushels to the acre, worth $2 50 
a bushel. 

I received from the Patent Office, last spring, a small package of 
"Algerian" wheat, which I sowed on the 21st of March. It vege- 
tated early, and ripened the usual time of spring wheat ; it produced 
well, having a large berry. It will well remunerate the effort of 
cultivating it, as it appears to be hardy, with large heads and a long 
heavy beard. 

Statement of Robert W. Baylor, of Wood End, near Charlestown, Jef- 
ferson county, Virginia. 

The maximum yield of wheat in this county is 37 bushels to the 
acre; the average crop, 15 bushels. Twelve bushels, at $1 a bushel, 
will pay expenses. 

The cost of transportation to Baltimore, 100 miles, by railroad, is 
14 cents a bushel ; to Georgetown, in the District of Columbia, 80 
miles, by canal, 6|- cents a bushel. 

Statement of Matkew Harrison, of Leesburg, Loudoun county, Virginia. 

The President of our Agricultural Society gave me a few papers of 
spring "Tea" wheat, from the Patent Office, containing altogether 
about half a pint. I sowed half of it on the 9th, and the residue on 
the 10th of Maich last, in drills a foot apart. The entire space occu- 
pied by the wheat was 7 feet wide by 35 feet long. I cut the crop 
on the 18th of July — seven moderate-sized bundles — three from the 
sown first, and four larger from the latter. I obtained a peck of 
wheat from my crop. The grain had undergone some change. The 
seed I sowed was like rye in color, very dark and small ; that which 
I gathered, was larger, not so dark, and more like the Mediterranean, 


especially the Mediterranean of this year, (1855,) which, with us, 
was very indifferent. 

This wheat, I suppose, would weigh 55 pounds to the bushel. Tho 
ground in which it was cultivated was first-rate wheat land, heavily 
and recently manured, and deeply worked. The yield was at the rate 
of 45 bushels to the acre. Tho head was bearded, and very long ; and 
I think it probable that after becoming acclimatised, it would be val- 
uable in this section. 



Statement of James McK. Snodgrass, of Mifflin, Alleghany county, 


There are considerable quantities of rye raised in this county. It 
is usually sown after wheat. Some of it is ground into flour, which 
commands a ready sale and a fair price. The rest is distilled. Thirty 
bushels to the acre is regarded as a fair yield. 

The average price is TO cents a bushel. 

Statement of Richard Lechxor, of Stouchburg, Berks county, 

Rye, with us, at present, is mostly cultivated in patches on wheat 
fields, principally for its straw, but is not so much grown as former- 
ly. The quantity usually sown to an acre is 1^ bushels. 

The ordinary yield is 24 bushels to the acre, worth from 80 cents 
to $1 a bushel. 



The value of barley, in one form or other, as an article of use, has 
acquired in some countries a factitious importance from its easy con- 
vertibility into malt and spirituous liquors ; but, viewing it simply as 
an article of diet for man, it must be assigned a lower position than 
wheat, oats, or Indian corn. 

In an economical point of view, the grain of barley, when boiled, 
has long been employed in Europe as a mash for horses after a hard 


day's work, or when unwell, acting as a gentle aperient, as well as a 
sudorific, opening the system and softening the skin. In Egypt, as 
also in all parts of the East, it has been used in an uncooked state 
from time immemorial, as the common food of horses, where the use 
of rye and oats is unknown. However prejudiced farmers may be 
against it, as horse food, from the belief that it is too heating to those 
animals, when kept hard at work, they cannot avoid being convinced 
of its excellence, in this respect, when they consider that in the coun- 
tries where they are the most remarkable for their good qualities, as 
well as for their beauty, they eat no other kind of grain. 

Barley, when fed to horses in a half-malted state, is said to be per- 
fectly harmless, however highly heated they may be, irrespective of 
the quantity they may eat. The only preparation it requires for their 
purpose, is to soak it in water for twelve or twenty-four hours, after 
which it may be fed to the animals in the usual way. d. j. b. 


Statement of Gershom Wiborn, of Victor, Ontario county, New York. 

Barley is raised here to some extent, and makes a good substantial 
food, when ground, for fattening cattle and swine, as well as for 
working oxen and horses. It requires a rich, warm, loose soil, and 
one that will not suffer much from drought. Our usual practice is to 
break up a clover lay in the fall, and sow the seed in the spring ; 
then, as soon as the crop is harvested, say, about the middle of July, 
the stubble is ploughed under, and the ground re-sown in September 
with wheat. When, harvested, it is stacked like hay — first mown, 
with the scythe, and then raked into windrows, cocked, and stacked. 
The yield is from 15 to 30 bushels to the acre. 

The price of barley in this region varies from 50 cents to $1 a 

Statement of Nathaniel Green, near Middletoivn, Newport county, 

Rhode Island. 

Barley is rather an uncertain crop with us, and but little is culti- 
vated. When it escapes the "maggot," or worm in the straw, it 
generally succeeds well, and is as profitable to raise as any other 
grain. Formerly, it was the most remunerating grain-crop raised on 
this island. 




Statement of J. J. Pratt, of Centre, Cherokee county, Alabama. 

Oats are a valuable crop with us. Our land seems well adapted to 
their culture. The time of sowing is from the first of February to 
the last of March, and this generally on land which has been planted 
with cotton or corn. The amount of seed to the acre is from 1 to 2 
bushels. The time of harvesting is about the 1st of July. They 
are usually consumed on the farm or sold in the neighborhood in the 
sheaf, or are threshed out in the spring for seed. 

The price in the sheaf is from 15 to 20 cents per dozen, or from 40 
to 50 cents a bushel, when threshed. 

Statement of George P. Norris, of Newcastle, Newcastle county, 


Oats, with us, are usually sown as early in the spring as the ground 
can be prepared, at the rate of 1\ bushels to the acre. Two hundred 
pounds of guano to the acre are usually applied, and this is consid- 
ered a fair dressing. 

The price of oats is 43 cents a bushel. 

Statement of J). R. Stillman, of Alfred Centre, Alleghany comity, New 


Oats are the most extensively cultivated in this county of any of 
our tilled crops. They are sown broadcast from the 15th of April to 
the 1st of June, at the rate of 3 bushels to the acre. The maximum 
yield to the acre is about GO bushels ; average 30 bushels, and 12 
bushels is as little as will pay the expense of cultivation, which is 
about 25 cents a bushel. 

The market value of oats here is 37| cents a bushel ; cost of trans- 
portation to New York, by railroad, 14 cents a bushel. 

Statement of Gershom Wiborn, of Victor, Ontario county, N*ao York. 

Oats are cultivated in this section to an almost unlimited extent, 
and I have raised them for some years at a profit. The yield is from 
50 to TO bushels to the acre, and they sell from 40 to 60 cents a 


Statement of John P. Haller, of Lima, Allen county, Ohio. 

Large quantities of oats have been raised in this county the past 
season, the average yield being about 35 bushels to the acre, worth 
20 cents a bushel. 

Statement of William H. Goudy, of Buteville, Marion county, Oregon 


Oats are extensively cultivated here, as food for horses and oxen. 
They are sown in April, on land broken the previous fall, and 
ploughed again in the spring. The quantity of seed sown varies 
from li to 2 bushels to the acre. The average yield is 40 bushels, 
though 80 bushels are often raised in this way. 

Statement of James McK. Snodgrass, of Mifflin, Alleghany county, 


Oats, with us, are raised by almost every farmer, and are in gene- 
ral use as food for horses. When sown early, they yield well ; but 
they are regarded as an exhausting crop. They are generally sown 
after corn. The average yield is 50 bushels to the acre. 

The price is 28 cents a bushel. 

Statement of D. Minis, of Beaver Plain, Beaver county, Pennsylvania. 

Oats, in this section, are cultivated on almost every farm, for home 
feed or for sale. The average yield to the acre is about 30 bushels, 
although as high as 88 bushels have been raised. 

The cost of production of an acre of oats, in this county, is about 
$7. They sell for 25 cents a bushel. 

Statement of Richard Lechnor, of Stouchburg, Berks county, Pennsyl- 

Oats are extensively cultivated here, and are considered a remune- 
rating crop. The sowing is performed as early in the spring as the 
ground will admit, at the rate of 3 bushels to the acre. 

The yield is from 40 to 50 bushels to the acre. The average mar- 
ket price is 45 cents a bushel. 

Statement of Joint Boyd, of Parker sburgh, Chester county, Pennsylvania. 

From a small parcel of Egyptian oats, obtained from the Patent 
Office, a few years since, I increased, my stock to 18 bushels, which I 
sowed last spring on 6 acres of ground of middling quality. The 
result of the crop was 240 bushels, which, when well cleaned, weighed 
40 pounds to a bushel. 


Another good feature in these oats is that the straw is stiff and firm, 
which renders it less liable to fall before harvesting. 

Statement of Nathaniel Green, near Middletoivn, Newport county, 

Rhode Island. 

Oats, on this island, are generally sown on land which has been 
planted with corn the preceding year, and are considered a remu- 
nerating crop. About 3 bushels are sown to the acre. The average 
yield is 45 bushels, although 80 bushels to the acre are sometimes 
raised. The cost of production is about 20 cents a bushel. They are 
generally threshed by machines at 4 cents a bushel. 

The price of oats, delivered at Newport, is from 50 to 60 cents a 

Statement of Augustus Elliott, of San Francisco, San Francisco 

county, California. 

In 184*7, Mr. R. P. Tucker, a farmer near the head of Napa Valley, 
discovered six stalks of oats, which he supposed had grown from seed 
dropped by some bird. The year following, he sowed the grain they 
had produced, and came near losing them, as they barely matured. 
The next year, (1849,) he raised from the product about a quart of 
oats. From these, he obtained a bushel, in 1850, which were dis- 
tributed among the farmers in that vicinity, who now cultivate no 
other oats. It is estimated that there were cultivated, in 1856, 30,000 
bushels in the county of Napa alone. 

The height of these oats was 8 feet, at least a yard taller than 
those ordinarily cultivated here. The straw, though large, still is 
fine for fodder. The yield is about 50 bushels to the acre, weighing 
from 40 to 50 pounds to the bushel. 



Statement of D. R. Stillman, of Alfred Centre, Alleghany county, 

Neiv York. 

Buckwheat is extensively cultivated in this county. The variety 
principally raised is known as the " Scotch grey," and is sown from 
the 15th of June to the 10th of July, at the rate of a bushel to the 
acre. The maximum yield per acre is 50 bushels ; average, 25 bushels ; 
and 12 bushels to the acre will pay for cultivation. It can be raised 
for 25 cents a bushel. 

The past season, they have been sold from $1 to $1 50. a bushel, 
though the usual price has been from 62£ to 75 cents. Cost of trans- 
portation, by railroad, to New York, 22 cents a bushel. 


Statement of Gershom Wiborn, of Victor, Ontario county, New York. 

Buckwheat, sometimes, is very successfully cultivated here, hut, at 
others, it is almost an entire failure; hence it is considered a rather 
uncertain crop. In a good season, it will produce from 15 to 30 
hushels to the acre, but an early frost or a few days of hot weather, 
blasts the husbandman's hopes. It is sown about the first of July, 
and harvested the last of September. 

Buckwheat flour, in limited quantities, sells for near the same 
price as that of wheat. 




The following are directions for cultivating new varieties of potatoes 
from seed. Although they would seem to be easy, from my experience, 
but few persons would exercise the patience and watchfulness neces- 
sary to carry them into execution. 

Previous to sowing, soak the seeds in lukewarm water, six or eight 
hours ; pour off the water ; then mix them with sand or fine earth, to 
give them body, so that they may be sown thinly and evenly. Sow 
in as clean ground as possible, or you will lose them in weeding. 
Cover lightly, and press the earth upon the seeds, marking the exact 
place of the rows very accurately. The seeds, if well saved, are 
very sure, but slow in sprouting. The young plants will be fit to 
weed, the first time, in from three to four weeks. Sow different sorts 
separately, and give the whole ground of,your bed to them. 

Sow, in this region, the middle of April; but earlier further south. 
Transplant in six weeks. The plants are as hardy as tomatoes, and 
may be treated similarly, taking earth up with them, when you can, 
after having first hardened them to the air before removal. Shield 
them from the hot sun with any large leaves or shingles, until they 
get rooted. Transplant into a fair soil, but not a rich one, as a 
moderate growth is stronger than a rapid one. Use a handful of 
rich compost about the young plants, to give them a start. If sown in 
Central New York, use a moderate hot-bed, or, what is much better, 
sow as late as May 10th, in a cold bed under glass. Further south, 
sow out of doors as you would cabbage. If you sow under glass, be 
sure to shade from _ the hot sun, in the middle of the day. Do 
this with straw sprinkled lightly over the glass, or with narrow 
boards. Begin before the seeds are up, and continue as long as they 
are in close beds. Out of doors, this is not usually needful. Few 
plants suffer so much from hot sun as young potatoes. 


In transplanting, prepare the ground by deep ploughing. Lay off 
the furrows 3 feet apart. If possible, run a small sub-soil plough 
through the bottom of the farrow, to give depth to the culture. 
Place the plants 2 feet apart in the row, and but one plant in a place. 
Do not use poor plants if you have a tolerable supply, and set them 
a little deeper than they grew. Hoe and plough frequently until 
they are in flower, after which do nothing more than superficially 
scrape out the weeds. I advise not to hill potatoes in dry ground. 

Dig early, though not quite so early as you do common field-crops, 
but before they are injured by wet, dark and damp weather. Re- 
rnember that a seedling potato, the first year, sets and matures its 
tubers mostly after regular field-crops have got their growth. Seed- 
lings dug somewhat early will not be so large, but they will be much 
more healthful than when dug later. Late-dug seedlings are often 
a little diseased, not from constitutional weakness, but by a law appli- 
cable to all tropicals when grown in unpropitious weather. In the 
fall, dig each hill alone. Having dug a plot, go over it once and 
again, most deliberately, throwing out every hill which seems weak, 
ill-shaped, or yellow-fleshed, or that spreads widely in the ground, or 
is small and immature. A seedling well cultivated, the first year, and 
yet making small tubers, will never afterwards ripen in season. Save 
each hill separately; that is, put such good hills, as can readily be 
separated, together, to the amount of three or four. Put these sep- 
arate parcels in dry sand, in a barrel, placing strips of shingle be- 
tween each parcel. In this way, store the whole. Throw away the 
small tubers, even of good hills, as they would be more trouble than 
profit. Some of the good sorts will be tolerably eatable when two 
seasons old; others will require from three to four years' growth, just 
as in the case of many fruits. Good seeds yield a very variable pro- 
portion of plants. In my experience, it has varied from one-fifth to 
four-fifths of the seed sown. Potatoes, cultivated in this manner, will 
mostly gain an eatable size the first year. 

The number of potato seeds cultivated, in a troy ounce, is about 
72,000, a thousand of which are as many as one person needs for an 
experiment. From these, one can obtain from 200 to 800 plants, 
half of which will appear sufficiently fine at the first digging in the 
fall to be saved for further trial. 



[Condensed from Results of the Cultivation of Potatoes on the Trial-field of the Royal 
State Nursery, near Potsdam, in Prussia, by Director General Lenne".] 

In connection with the Royal State Nursery at Old Geltow, near 
Potsdam, is a trial-field, on which are cultivated and closely examined 
the plants assigned to that branch of government by the Board of 
Agriculture, or recommended by other persons for agricultural or 
industrial purposes. From the devastating effects of the late potato 
disease, a series of experiments were instituted by that establishment 
with the view of determining its nature, causes, and prevention, the 
principal results of which are as follows : — 


In observing that one variety of potatoes better resisted the disease 
of the tuber than others, the Director General was led to make a 
number of experiments on different sorts, but only on those which 
had already been found to be of superior quality and healthfulness. 

The position of the field employed for the purpose was quite open 
and exposed to the influence of the west and northwest winds. The 
soil was of a uniform character, consisting of a fertile, sandy loam, 
with a due admixture of clay, with a sub-soil sufficiently porous to 
allow the rains to percolate without under-drainage. The cultivation 
was principally performed with a hoe, the tubers planted in a rectan- 
gular form, at a distance of one and a half feet apart. The field was 
well manured with a composition of equal parts of horse and cow- 
dung. The weeding and earthing up of the potatoes were done in the 
usual manner. 


The Occurrence of tlie Disease of the Tuber. — This malady had pre- 
viously but slightly appeared on the trial-field, with the exception of 
the variety called "Early Hermaphrodite," in 1853, and the "Belgium 
Morning Dawn," in 1854, when it was estimated that one-fourth of 
the whole product was lost, the investigation of the greater or less 
susceptibility of each variety to the disease, being one of the princi- 
pal objects in view. It could not be accomplished in less time than 
three years, a partial verification of which will be found in the table 
on a succeeding page. 

Influence of the Color of the Shin of the Tuber in predisposing it to 
Disease. — Among other highly interesting and very remarkable re- 
sults, may be mentioned the influence of the color of the skin of the 
tuber in predisposing it to disease. For a long period, without the 
guidance of comparative experiments, an opinion was prevalent that 
potatoes, which had a colored skin, resisted the disease better than 
those which were yellow or white. The result of the experiment in 
this respect was as follows : — 

In 1852, out of 72 white or yellow-skinned varieties, 23 were diseased. 
" 1853, " 110 " " " " 16 " " 

" 1854, " 117 " " " " 5 " " 

Thus, from an average of three years, about one-sixth of the white 
or yellow-skinned varieties was found to be affected. 
In 1852, out of 15 red-skinned varieties, 1 was diseased. 
" 1853, " 37 " " " 7 " " 

" 1854, " 40 " " " 2 " " 

— showing that, from an average of three years, about one-tenth of 
the red-skinned varieties became diseased. Again: 

In 1852, out of 5 blue-skinned varieties, none were affected. 
" 1853, " 14 " " " none " " 

" 1854, " 16 " " " none « « 

From the above, it must not be inferred, however, that the blue- 
ekinned potatoes are exempt from disease under all circumstances, but 


only in a less degree, and that those having white or yellow skins 
are the most susceptible to the malady. 

Influence of the Form of the Tuber in predisposing it to Disease. — 
A comparison of the different varieties of potatoes, in reference 
to their distinctive form, furnishes results not less striking in regard 
to their predisposition to disease, than has been observed in respect 
to their colors. 

The primary forms of the tubers were distinguished as rounded, 
elongated, and kidney-shaped. 

In 1852, out of 71 rounded varieties, 21 became diseased. 
" 1853, " 21 " " 10 " " 

" 1854, " 130 « " 3 " " 

Hence, from an average of three years, about one-eighth were found 
to be affected. 

In 1852, out of 17 elongated varieties, 3 became diseased. 
" 1853, " 27 " " 10 " " 

" 1854, " 30 " " 2 " " 

— showing that about one-fifth were attacked. 

In 1852, out of 5 kidney-shaped varieties, none were diseased. 

" 1853, " 13 " ' " " " 2 " " 

" 1854, " 13 " " " 2 " " 

— indicating that about one-tenth showed signs of the malady. 

Thus it will be seen, by this comparison, that tubers of an elongated 
form were the most susceptible to disease, and it is still more striking, 
and the more confirmatory of this opinion, that the two varieties above 
cited, the "Early Hermaphrodite," and the "Belgium Morning 
Dawn," were of this shape. 

Influence of the Time of Maturity in the Predisposition to Disease.— 
The opinion entertained, that the early varieties were less subject 
to disease than those ripening late, would seem to be corroborated 
by the observations on those ripening before and after the middle of 

In 1852, before August 15, out of 24 varieties, 4 were diseased. 

" 1853, " " " " 41 " 3 " " 

" 1854, " " " " 44 " 3 " " 

Thus, from an average of three years, only abeut one-tenth of those 
of early maturity were attacked. Again: 

In 1852, after August 15, out of 70 varieties, 20 were diseased. 

" 1853, ", " " " 122 " 20 " " 

" 1854, " " " " 129 " 4 " " 

— showing that an average of about one-sixth of late maturity became 

From the three comparisons, by color, conformation, and period of 
maturity of the tubers, it was decided that those belonging to the 
blue, rounded, early potatoes have the least predisposition to disease. 

Varieties recently produced from Seed, not exempt from Disease. — 
Soon after the first appearance of the potato disease, it was be- 


fievt 1 by many that a new generation produced from the seed-ball, 
wouh! he exempt, at least for a time, from attack. The experiments 
in this respect proved the reverse to he the case. Out of forty-one 
varieties, cultivated, in 1852, originated from seed four years before, 
sixteen were diseased, while, the same year, there were cultivated 
in all ninety-two old and new varieties, out of which twenty-four were 
attacked. The fact, however, that new varieties mature somewhat 
later than others may account for this predisposition to diucase. 

Influence of the Distance of the Plants apart upon the Health of the 
Tuber. — In making an experiment in two adjoining fields, homogene- 
ous in the character of their soil, manured and treated aliko in every 
respect, both were planted at the same time with a variety of red 
potatoes, with only this difference : one was planted almost t-Aice as 
densely as the other. The hills in one field were 1-| by 2 feet apart, 
and those in the other a foot apart each way. At harvest, it Appeared 
that those of the more open culture were quite healthy, while the 
others, for the most part, were diseased. 

Influence of the Excess of Moisture on the Health of the Tuber. — In 
consequence of the unusual rising of the river Havel, in 1854, the 
lower grounds, near the trial-field, were overflowed to a point where 
the water remained in the draining furrows, so that the tubers which 
grew in the middle ridges, or dryer parts of the field, remained 
lieal thy, while those nearer the furrows were more or less diseased. 

Influence of the Cultivation of Potatoes on the same Ground in con- 
secutive Years, upon the Health of the Tuber. — In order to determine 
the influence of the cultivation of a variety of the potato for several 
years on the same field, a part of the trial-field was planted three 
consecutive years, annually renewing it with manure, from which it 
appeared that there were no injurious effects in extending tho disease. 
Thus, in 1852, out of ninety-three varieties, twenty-four were dis- 
eased, and in 1853, out of one hundred and sixty-one varieties, twen- 
ty-two are recorded as unsound. 


The Effects of the Blight on the Vines, and its alleged Reaction on 
tJie Tuber. — The attack of the disease on the vines of the potato had 
spread so extensively within the last two years on the trial-field, as 
well as the surrounding estates, that their vitality was entirely de- 
stroyed long before the maturity of the tubers, there being only a few 
varieties exempt from attack. 

According to an opinion generally adopted, the blight of the vines 
and the rot of the tubers are the symptoms of one and the same dis- 
ease. Furthermore, it is supposed that in most instances the disease 
of the vine is the precursor of that of the tuber. From the observa- 
tions, however, in the experiments of the last two years, some doubts 
may be thrown upon this theory. By a glance at the annexed tables, 
it will be seen that, notwithstanding the vines of nearly all of the 


varieties were blighted, nevertheless, most of them remained unaf- 
fected by the disease of the tuber. In J 853, a land owner in the 
vicinity harvested 60 wispels (1,930 bushels) of potatoes, and notwith- 
standing the vines were totally destroyed by the blight, the tubers 
were healthy. Furthermore, among the few varieties which did not 
suffer from the blight of the vines, in 1853, cultivated on the trial- 
field, two of them had diseased tubers. 

In referring to the table, it will be seen that, within the last two years, 
there was a diminution of the yield when compared with the former 
year, in almost every variety, the tubers being smaller and less fari- 
naceous. This phenomenon was attributed to the blight of the vines, 
as the prematurely dying off of the leaves could not but influence 
injuriously the complete development of the tuber. 

The Degeneration of Varieties. — The opinion has often been ad- 
vanced that varieties of the potato degenerate when cultivated many 
consecutive years upon the same field, and even when regular rota- 
tion of crops has been observed. If a decrease of yield each succeed- 
ing year is an evidence of degeneration, then this opinion has been 
corroborated by the experiments instituted. This deterioration can 
hardly be attributed to any other cause than repeated cultivation 
upon the same spot ; for potato-fields next adjoining the trial- 
ground, which were treated in precisely the same manner, except 
that in them potatoes were planted for the first time, did not 
show any sign of this degeneracy, but had fine smooth tubers. Nor 
to the blight of the vines could the decay of the tubers be ascribed, 
for the tops of the potatoes in all the fields were blighted, but the 
tubers of the trial-field alone were injured. In 1854, the potatoes 
raised consecutively on the same ground, were planted in a new 
field, the product of which immediately assumed its former healthy 

TJie Importance of a uniform Classif cation and Nomenclature of Va- 
rieties of the Potato. — In order to group and compare the different 
varieties with each other, whether nearly allied or otherwise, a 
classification was adopted indicating their distinctive marks and char- 

It was observed that the hue of the stalks of the vine was a crite- 
rion by which to judge of the color of the skin of the tuber. For 
instance, when the stalk was green, or sometimes mottled, near the 
ground, with violet-colored spots passing into green, the tubers were 
white. On the contrary, when the stalks of the varieties were of a 
violet color nearly to the top, the tubers were colored. 

The blossom was also regarded as a constant mark for a variety, as 
no change had been observed in its color, form, or size, each sort ad- 
hering strictly to its own peculiarity. Some varieties matured only 
a limited number of blossoms, while in others, the petals dropped off 
'before fully opening. The color of the blossom, however, had no 
relation nor connection, whatever, with the color of the tuber. 

A distinction had already been made in varieties, the tubers of 
which were white, red, blue-skinned, bluish-black, or yellow, spotted 


with "blue ; but it had never been observed that the color of any vari- 
ety had changed from one tint to another, although it had occurred 
that in the pale-red varieties, by cultivation, the intensity of shade 
had diminished, leaving only dark spots in the cavities round the 
eyes. There was not, however, any variety, in the collection with 
which experiments were made, that was perfectly white, the skins 
being more or less yellow. In a similar manner, there were none pre- 
cisely blue, as they appeared more or less of a violet shade. 

In respect to the form of the tubers, three classes only were adopted 
namely, the rounded, the elongated, and the kidney-shaped. The 
former included only those the length of which did not exceed dou- 
ble the thickness. The elongated varieties were such as exceeded in 
length double their breadth, and were cylindrical in shape. The kid- 
ney-shaped were those exceeding in length twice their breadth, with 
shalloAv-seated eyes, somewhat flattened, or with the root-end pointed. 

Tbc varieties were also characterised by the eyes of the tuber 
which sometimes occurred in great numbers, often only isolated 
while in others, they were found quite deep-seated, very shallow or 
even elevated. 

The mode of attachment of the tubers to the roots formed another 
basis for classification ; sometimes they were attached closely to the 
lower part of the stalk, or some distance from it, to the main roots 
while, in others, by slender roots of greater or less lengths. 

Another basis of classification was the color of the flesh, or pulp. 
In cutting the tubers asunder, it was found that the flesh had the 
most diversified hues, varying from pure white to saffron yellow. 
Some varieties, with dark-colored skins, had red, violet-tinged or 
marble flesh. 

Conformably to the foregoing distinctions, the potatoes employed 
for experiment were divided into fifteen classes, each of which com- 
menced with the varieties the most beautiful as to color and smooth- 
ness, and the most regular in their form. 

The annexed table exhibits the names of the varieties, the time 
of harvesting, their size, yield, sanatory condition, and uses. 

The yield of each variety is expressed in the table in metzen, to a 
Prussian square perch, which is equivalent to nearly 17 square 
yards, English. The metzen is equal to about 3 quarts, Winchester 

Under the head of "Sanatory Condition," the varieties are consid- 
ered only in reference to those which manifested slight symptoms of 
disease ; h, signifies healthy, and d, those which were diseased. 

The names are transferred from the original Report, to enable one to 
order them for experiment if desirable. Small quantities of most of 
the varieties can be obtained on application to Director General 
Lenne, Old Geltow, near Potsdam, Prussia, by the mere paying for 
packing and transportation. 



es 2 

v a> 

■ 1 • V 

rO T3 +* 

41 gj 

t- .0 

a> a> a> <u 

a — • .a 

o «2 o 

- - 


t. S 55 t, - 

^ o t* 2 o 


^- ^« &■< 


a> T3 1) 5tl t3 


------ O.O K 

o - 
o - 


■■a o -a ^ o - 
a o a ^2 o - 




r & *^ *"C r ^ ""^3 ""O ""^ r C *t3 ""O '^ 'd F >3 *^ ""O P C r O r ^ r d h3 ""d "^ 'C T3 "^ *& J3 


xjfld .0 .0 .a ja ,0 ,0 a t» n3 xiflja^^^ja^j^J^ 

JSJ3J ,0.0.0 flfl TS .0 .0 J3 .0 .0 ,0 .0 .0 -a .0 T* 

SB 5 

'S 4> 4) 

.2 rt 3 

r— o co »n <o *- Cioo >ft oo J-io«t-tooootOii » 

co >a to cemto com e* ±- ©t-cocoocicocoooco 

a assssaaaeEsa 

cs^e>e3S33553PD0Ps*c* i _j 

•"O h3 13 *x3 ^ '"O 

O D V 4) 4^ 1* 

a a a fl 

3«s a 3 3 -J ({^ . g 

ajssss aaassaasg^ssaas s 1 1 i « a 

, si 

O .2 

2 » 

a « 


in ic in in io m io 

bfltiObSbDbObcbCbDbfibljbohcbobc-'f biibfi-e bfi be *J t! 13 •£ t3 ** ^3 

a^aDsnssGss^snt^ssr^a^*^^— -*-"-3i.0.0< 



.S ^ 4> 4> 

r* '•"' 

© 01 4) .^ w 

^ ■£ H i-i I 

4> tf „ a, 

U ^-0 -0 . 

4) 1) . 

I» -E .3 ,_, 4)^-*; — 





3 2 43 

aj 03 

43 +* 


** cu 

u> 43 

. ja 







£ = 

= i's 

5a x) 



= = 3§ 





£ = = 





{-J C/J 

xj 5g : 











43 43 43 43 43 43 43 43 43 43 43 43 43 43 43 43 43 43 43 T3 43 43 43 43 xl 


434343 t3T3 43 43 43 43 XS X) 43 43 43 43 x! X) X) 

43 43 T3 T3 T3" 43 13 43 43 43 

1Q CO in JC- •"*" CO 


10 030 

»o t- 

oo in co •»* in co *- 

i- CO CO CO 00 

.t- m ^ co *-• 

«o co m co m 


|> CO 00 

O 00 

co OS 10 o m co © 

m o m oo o 

CO Ci 00 CD ih 


a a a a a a a ssa 

3 •■ - -33 -3333 • -333 
•d bO 03 oil bt'O X! CJ.T3 XJ X5 X) b£ hex! 13 XI htX! "C XJ XJ X! X3 03 r>X! XJ 03 03 bCXJ he he hex! X! XJ XI 03 


aaaaas s a a 

» 3 3 _• — 3 3 _• _• 


,; 3 

a a a a 

3 _J 

C <L ;- o O O o t- t- o o ^ ;- GJ O o^aajsaeaa.^ a s s a a 

> s a s g.s ajsjs « a a a a 

in m r-i m i 


•£ •£ -£ be be be be bo be ho -bo -£■£ ho he he~~ ho he-e «« -e — i 







t? o 


<2 £<S 

13 5d T3 
o 33 ° - 
o'S o- 



o> - „ a; 4> 


43- - .43 fl 



d for 




d for 



: *i 




o 3; o a 


O 13 




a >5o.fc> 


"^ r& ^ T3 "^ ^ ^ *"^ *"C ^ ^ "O ^ r C3 '"O ^3 _C2 r^4 ""3 '"O *^ 'O 'O 


S» 2,a 

43434343434343 43 43 43 43 43 43 43 43 43 43 43 -a 43 43 43 

43434313 43 43^3 43 

i-.t-.t-Oi lOtDOOO 

(OOOiOH ooot-oo 

S?"3 £>£• 

oi S a> o> 

aaaaaaaaaaaa a aa a 

— ■ — •' 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 .2 .2 .2 .2 .2 — ' o" .2 — ' 2 2 a> — 

r 3 - c3'3'3'S'5'5'5i3 ; - 3 i3i3i3i3'3 ^^ "5 ^c t3 bo t»>'3 

a a a a a aaaaaaaSiie 

bO bfi bD-e 

3 3 3°* 

CO i— t i— I WrtHHH COCO i— I CO CO i— t 

SfaS'S'a.Sfs'WS'S.- 1 S a a a. c. aliS, aa 

5 Q 

ta a 


w OS -_ . 

u ° " S 

a; ■£ a43 

S3 Si t. o 

J3 3 

3S 5 3 o 

<U C 4) 1. 

05 H 

cj SX) 

•* a 

*> . : 

. bfl > is 

« a . » -mis 
-a to o js n *+ o 
O o><a o t. - t: 

= ^o ?e s s 

> n c-i3 gta oj 
=2.5- 3 > j 2 

4> 41 (S 4> . J- 4> 

O fa, W co co £ J 

4= e 3 
° 2 a 


J :"§^J2'^ 


O 4> 

Sj * 

. 4) 4) -o 

" T3 *J CO CC I 

a, 4> 4> iS m- 

a ■ S a p cu 

i O 3 0) ►>. 

'-2-s fej».a.fif> 

g jj;_2 c 41 j- 

w W „ c w as 

i % £ «-=; ^.S*3S 

3 =3 33 O .4) > "J; 

s^ > "Mo 4,- s .5*o c 

JS «*£ 1,3 i C ffl (. 

> ■- 3'S.Sm 2 a) o«<» Jh 

- bC QL :si OS "3 H "Si 4> 4) _ 

; cu 4) 3 aj .>j — {3 : ?3 a ^ 
,.-.__ 05^ ^C.„£>co • 

;zs^ tf !> CO oi W as i—3 «=t* 





So- - is 


•o so- 

nata 1 


o- - - 

E 2- © 

r ^Jt3 r ^ r d r d r ^ , ^^3 






T3 -d J T3 A J -O ^flflj 

TS ,3 



,o ^j-o^ja^ 

,3 .3 ,3 T3 13 T3 




a a a a 




■HN (2 

e^-o^M t3 -+* 

-te-tHrM^- <il'» <■* 

CO ■*" ci 


o cm cs m 


a, p< 





00 xj< co t~ 






ao ia 




lO CO ^* t- 


-* ■■*" 






s s a a 

s a a a 

43 43 <u . .-. .Z, 

T3 T3 -a -3 faO bo be r*>T3 t3 bed 

a a a b*«* ^asjg 


a a 

a* a 

bo . 

£ a 

b > "'° "3 "c3 
£ a s a 

> H co aa 

s a a a 

. co .^ « 0) o .i . 
£> biT3 bo bo bOT3 r> 


ho bo be bfi bo bo -£ "S 
3 3 3 3 

■<to-<-<<i < <5<i<!cocococo 


CO .-< CO CO 

t*» bi hi*-; 


m -h t-i i-H 

2 - a. a< 

i— I rH i— Ir- 1 to t— IHIO 
CO CO CO >-l CO r* 

bo *f" be bi bi bo *?" *; 

3 3 3 3 3 ^ -^ 

"< CO -3 <!"<<! CO 02 


1 D X * s 

Si S 

3 cS 3 


£ 3 


3 a bc-s P 

.£ c-sNiij £ v-"t = bx 
3eJ!l!loS a ««.:-i 

3 rf^ "5 ni-E 3 E 'Sj 5* -3 

v in co r— OD c?3 — — tr* to -=r .r; o 

2 O 
, U 4) 


s~ W>£ SP 

►— i ** 




5 -5 

o " a co 

l ^ 



-CM — 


=3 . 3 

£a ; /? 



•8 fc 

SS O g 43 £ ^ 



to r« 

fia, -2 

SI Q3 !- 43 3 

P 1 ^ 3 -k, 

3 -g-TS 

J= J3 -5 : ?- -3 fe J3 

o c : t is o 
ci ci t, si oi 

r-H --. r>3 C-l Ol CM CI C« 





be J bi 

- £S = 

.5 2.3 

S rt 

s * z: 

13 • 

m <a 


•2 <& " 


S to 

t. u t. 

t- v 

m co 



- o O - 

O O O 


oo t>cu 


^ "^ ^ 13 43 

43 -C 43 43 43 43 43 43 43 

43 43 43^2 43 

43 43 43 t3 43 43 43 43 

43 43 43 'O 13 



















S3 a 


a a a a 

3 • 3 _ - 3 3 


sa 8 

. .£ <i> cu . 
j*--« bo be r*» 

P 43 43 > 

a s s 

.2 cJ.2.2 

13 hCC 13 

O h Cv 01 

s * a a 

W<5 02 

&0 bo ■£ -£ bo bo be bo bo 

3 3 ~~ 3 3 ;3 3 3 

bO *£ esc be bO 



C 43 fc- 






S3 a> 



H C 43 3 

««* £a 

r— CO CO O 

.* .23 bo > 

'E -S .2 s «2 ~ 5* 2 « 

fl« «0 ij »o.3 
O O — TJ CO -t it-, CD i- 



1 ^ 

ce- 3 . 



H bfc«J 

c o 


a <d O .22 « 

iS * t M O 

O 43 d co J; 

0t> Ol C3 •— CN 
CO CO "T ^ *C* 


' Oj O 



33] <D 

o - 
o - 

O £»2 

o -2,2 o 

fe -g ti -d 'S 





W? C3 & O CQ 

o - 
o - 


: o3 g< 

r ^ r ^ *^ ""^ r ^ 

•^ "^ >t3 h3 "^ r O 'O *t3 r ^ 

J3 ,13 J3 J3 J3 -C 



^a^a^a j3 j5 

.S .3 

>£3t! -S T3 -fl 

- — 


4^^ ja^s 

j3,a jj ,« ,a A 

-a x\ 

A X3 

* -a 

J J3 J3 


oo m m 

9 U « — 

h» h> ?"> bo fcx ■*» 









be be o5 to 

U 5-. r- t* 

ej oj C ij 

s a a 
.2 .2 .2 «• 6 

■73 «73 t3 to bO 

o d u u J- 

a a ai=^ 

be be bo ■£ bo bo 

3 3 3 

3 3 

"{"< -^co*^ <i 

be bo bD be 
3 3 3 3 

be bo be bo be 


a a a a a a 

oT.2 <u aJ .2 .2 .2 .2 .2 

bOT3 bO bOT3 T3 13 T) T3 

^ a-g^ a a s a a 

H r4 rt rt -I LT H r-i IO 


■g bo be bb-S ib >^ >~. bO 

cq «i ■< <i 03 < .^ <! 










*■» ^ 

!3 * H 


o^3 ao "s ^ *-. 

bo 5 St£ 
a> •£ .- w 


J **2 


S^"a> <5 


fi O ij 

o ■>-• 

rf , , ^ o 

paffi K3 -/- " :-: 

J.— co a. • _ — n 

^ ^ -4 1 in m lo 

k fe§£§ X 

E bo ><! 

."B $« 5 * 

"§3 mso 

a £-2 £. 

35^ a 


,rs 3 

>8 O • r2 

3 3" 


« 5 & O ^3 
I. - — 1-0 

» a> S°r 

h w .0 e 

l' S ."3 3 

a> 'C - — ' m 
rr C O OQ - ^ '- ft 


h "3 >3 jj 

C Ti 
o i« 
^=! 3 

<ri S3 


Statement of William W. Woodbridge, of Paw Paw Grove, Lee 

county, Illinois. 

Potatoes of excellent quality are easily grown here. They were 
partially destroyed by the ' ' rot' ' in the fall of 1855 . ' ' Pinkeyes ' ' and 
"Mercers" are the favorite varieties. None but barnyard manure 
is used, and many of the farmers do not take the trouble to haul out 
even this. 

The price for eating size is 50 cents a bushel. A year ago, they 
were worth $1. 

Statement of John Brown, of Long Island, Winnipisiogee Lake, near 
Lake Village, Belknap county, New Hampshire. 

Some years ago, I made an experiment with a view of settling a 
disputed point relative to the best portion of a potato to plant in 
reference to its size, and the productiveness of its yield. As the 
exact result had been mislaid, or lost, and as I have often since heard 
and read assertions directly contrary to the conclusions I arrived at, I 
resolved to repeat the experiment. 

Accordingly, last spring, I planted four rows of equal length, side 
by side, with two varieties of potatoes. In one row, I planted only 
the "seed ends," so called, or those containing the most eyes, which 
included about a third of the bulk of the tubers, and in the next row, 
the "stem ends," the parts of the tubers which were connected with 
the roots. The two varieties were the "Pinkeyes" and the "Peach- 

The yield of the four rows was as follows : — 


Pink-eyes, stem ends, ... . 217 

Pink-eyes, seed ends, . . . I70f 

Peach blows, stem ends, .... 225 

Peach blows, seed ends, .... 189 

The potatoes raised from the stem ends were much larger than 
those from the others, and appeared to be from a week to ten 
days earlier. The result corresponded with that of my former ex- 
periment ; and had the whole field been planted with the stem ends, 
the additional yield would have been more than 50 bushels to the 

I also planted two rows next to those named above, one with large 
potatoes, half a tuber to each hill, cut lengthwise, so as to divide the 
eyes of the tubers as nearly equal as possible, and in the other row, 
small uncut potatoes, one to each hill. From the former, I dug 181f 
pounds, and from the latter 134£ pounds. I would add that the 
average yield of the field was about 180 pounds to the row, and that 
large-sized potatoes were generally used for seed, cut lengthwise, with 
half a tuber to each hill. 


Statement of D. K. Stillman, of Alfred centre, Alleghany county, New 


Potatoes have not been extensively cultivated here, of late, in con- 
sequence of the "rot." The variety most raised is known in this 
region as the "Lake Erie," a red potato of not very good quality, 
but preferred, on account of its hardiness. Potatoes are planted 
here in April or May, in deep-tilled soil, with but little manure, as, 
in rich ground, they are considered more liable to injury from disease. 
The maximum yield is about 200 bushels to the acre ; average, 100 
bushels; and 40 bushels are as few as will pay expense of cultivation. 

The usual price of potatoes here is 50 cents a bushel ; cost of pro- 
duction, 25 cents. Transportation to New York, 25 cents a bushel. 

Statement of Gershom Wiborn, of Victor, Ontario county, Neio York. 

The common potato is raised here in large quantities, and to the 
best advantage on a dry, warm soil ; but upon a wet, tenacious one, 
of late years, it has been considerably destroyed by the "rot," or 
"blight." This disease is now, however, diminishing in its ap- 
pearance. Our old sorts, the " Meshannocks " (Mercers) and the 
"Blues" were so much affected by it, that they were often left in the 
ground undug. The "Early Pines" and several other new varie- 
ties, when planted on a dry soil and sparingly manured, do not suffer 
much by the blight. 

The yield is about 100 bushels to the acre ; but I could easily in- 
orease it, by high manuring, to 150 or 200 bushels, were it not for 
the fear of inducing the rot. 

Statement of John P. Haller, of Lima, Allen county, Ohio. 

Potatoes, in this county, had not been much affected by the "rot* 
:efore last season. They do best on new ground. The average yield 
,-er acre is about 150 bushels, worth 40 cents a bushel. 

Statement of W. D. Lindsley, of Sandusky city, Erie county, Ohio, 

In April last, I received through the Patent Office, a parcel of 
"Fluke" potatoes, from England, which I planted in six hills, in a 
rich sandy soil, well adapted to the growth of this esculent. They 
grew well, and ripened, by the 10th of July, retaining their original 
form, and were excellent in quality. Near these, I planted two rows 
of the "Meshannock" (Mercer) potato, but the yield of the Flukes 
was vastly greater, being entirely free from the "rot," while full 
one-fourth of the Meshannocks were destroyed by that disease, and 
did not ripen till three weeks later. 


'Statement of William H. Goudy, of Buteville, Marion county, 
Oregon Territory. 

Potatoes, with us, are extensively cultivated to feed to hogs. They 
are cooked and mixed with wheat that has been "chopped." So far 
as I have tried them, I consider 2 bushels of potatoes equal to one of 
wheat for this purpose. A bushel of cooked potatoes, with a bushel 
of chopped wheat, is worth more than 2 bushels of wheat fed dry, 
after the manner some feed it in this county. 

The mode of cultivating potatoes is to plough a well-manured 
piece of land in March, or as early in the season as the weather will 
admit, and let it remain until the 20th of April ; then harrow it 
well, and plough again very deep, after which, lay it off in rows 3$ 
feet apart, dropping the potatoes in hills 2 or 2| feet asunder, cover- 
ing them with a hoe about as deep as corn. As soon as they 
are up, so that we can hoe them, we draw the dirt to them. When 
they are large enough, we plough and hoe again, drawing some earth 
to them, but do not hill up very high. We afterward plough and 
hoe again, to keep down the weeds. Some farmers take a pair of 
horses and plough, running one furrow on each side of the row, 
and another in the row under the potatoes, turning them out on the 
top. One man and two horses, with four hands to follow him, in 
this way, will dig about 300 bushels a day. The stock-hogs are then 
turned into the field to gather what are left. The average yield is 
800 bushels to the acre on upland. Bottom land will yield from 400 
to 700 bushels to the acre. 

/Statement of James McK. Snodgrass, of Mifflin, Alleghany county, 


Potatoes, in this section, are one of our most profitable crops. 
Several varieties are cultivated. The "Mercer," the "Pinkeye," 
the "Galena," and the "Long Reds," are the principal. Of the 
Reds, the average crop is 230 bushels to the acre. The other varie- 
ties yield' about 160 bushels. 

Statement ofD. Minis, of Beaver Plain, Beaver comity, Pennsylvania. 

Since the occurrence of the potato disease, in this section, the yield 
has been quite uncertain. In some cases, from one-fourth to one-half 
has been lost, and in a few instances, the entire crop. The average 
yield is from 100 to 150 bushels to the acre. 

The cost of raising an acre of potatoes is about $16; the price in 
the field, from 20 to 25 cents a bushel. 

Statement of Richard Lechnor, of Stoucliburg, Berks county, 

The potato has been extensively cultivated in this county, especially 
within the last few years. The most prolific and profitable varieties 


are the "Pinkeyes" and the "Mercers." The latter find the most 
ready sale in market, although the Pinkeyes are the most prolific. 
The yield, the last season, was enormous, being from 200 to 300 
bushels to the acre. 

Our system of preparing the ground is as follows: A clover or 
Timothy sward is selected, the same as would be applicable to the 
culture of corn, and covered with a coat of manure at the rate of 8 
loads to an acre. The tubers are planted in the furrows late in 
April ; at the time of ploughing, covered with as much manure 
as possible, which is raked over them, and the sod or furrow-slice 
turned upon them, so as to cover them to a depth of 4 or 5 inches. 
A week after planting, the land is well harrowed, after which, the 
culture is about the same as that of Indian corn. 

Statement of George M. Wasson, of Cedar Springs, Clinton county, 


Potatoes, with ns, would be a remunerative crop, at from 40 to 50 
cents a bushel, were it not for the "rot," which makes its appearance 
annually. In the summer of 1853, I cultivated two fields, one upon 
land, considerably elevated, say 400 feet. The other, I manured 
and planted both lots in the same manner, about the 10th of May. 
The yield was good in both cases, being about 400 bushels to the 
acre. The tubers were very large and beautiful. 

The varieties cultivated were the "Pinkeyes," "Large Round 
Blues," and the "Long Johns." Out of those grown upon the low 
ground, 5 per cent, were affected with the rot, while those upon the 
upland were all good. 

Statement of Nathaniel Green, near Middletown, Newport county, 

Rhode Island. 

The potato, formerly, was one of our most valued crops, and was 
extensively cultivated ; but, for some years past, it has been but little 
planted on the south part of the island, owing to its liability to "rot." 
On the north part, however, where the soil is warm and rather sandy, 
and where the water passes from the top of the ground soon after it 
falls, it is somewhat extensively cultivated. It is principally ma- 
nured with menhaden fish, mixed with soil or sand, and applied in the 

The "Shenangos," though an early sort, are very liable to rot. 
The "Boston Whites" are considered the least liable to the disease, 
are early, good flavored, and yield well. The "Dover," a light-red 
potato, is much esteemed for the table, but is considerably affected by 
the rot, although it yields tolerably well. The best preventive of 
this disease is to plant as early in the season as the ground will ad- 
mit, on warm dry land, manured with fish or horse dung put in the 
hill, which will bring the crop to maturity before the "blast," or 
rot, strikes. The disease, with us, for the last two years, has greatly 
diminished. The yield is from 100 to 200 bushels to the acre. 


The price ot early potatoes is from $1 to $1 50 a bushel. Ordinary- 
varieties are worth 60 cents a bushel. 

Statement of James E. Kendall, of Poplar Grove, Kanawha county, 


Potatoes are pretty generally cultivated in this county, and produce 
fine crops, especially when planted on new lands. Our soil is admi- 
rably adapted to raising sweet potatoes, which produce from 300 to 
400 bushels to the acre, without extra culture. 




The sweet potato is here considered to be almost as indispensable 
as the common sort. My hot-bed, last year, was 60 feet long by 10 
feet wide. I design the next spring to enlarge it three-fold. My 
mode is to place logs on a sloping piece of ground, say 10 or 12 feet 
apart. I then drive small stakes, or pegs, in rows 3 feet apart, and 8 
inches high. The object is to have not more than V or 8 inches depth 
of manure, which should be fresh horse-dung, a mixture of hay, 
straw, corn-fodder, &c, trampled down level with the top of the 
pegs. I then put a coat of loam, 3 inches deep, upon the top of the 
manure, which answers for the dressing the subsequent year. I then 
place my tubers on, cover them from 2 to 3 inches deep, and then lay 
on boards, so as to keep them effectually covered from rain or cold 
until the plants are up. During the day, I let them have the sun, 
until I am sure they cannot be injured by frost. I sometimes water 
them, but not before the heat has somewhat subsided in the bed, 
which I ascertain by putting my forefinger through the covering. A 
very little warmth from beneatn is sufficient ; there is more to be ap- 
prehended from too much heat than too little. Some place a covering 
of saw-dust on top of the bed ; but this is entirely unnecessary. In 
this latitude, the beds should be made as early as the 10th or 20th 
of April. The plants will be ready for drawing, from the 8th to the 
20th of May. 

I select ground, for growing the tubers, that will produce good 
corn. To manure just before planting will cause the plants to run to 
vines. Good loam, with or without sand, such as we call "second 
year's land," lying to the sun, yields best. It need not necessarily 
be sandy, to produce the greatest yield ; on the contrary, good loamy 
land produces tubers of the best flavor. I plough the ground well, 
when dry, and harrow thoroughly. It would even be better to cross- 


plough it. Then, I throw two "moles" together, about 4 feet apart, 
and see that the ground is well pulverised, in order that the list 
may be clear from clods, sods, and trash, and that the land is in the 
best order to receive the plants. The time for transplanting is when 
the ground is what we call "dry." The mode of planting is to make a 
hole with the hand, or otherwise, of the proper depth to receive the 
young plant ; and, when it is placed in the hole, I pour in half a gill 
of water, so that the earth may settle round the fibrous roots ; then, 
I draw the dry earth around the plant, and compress it a little with 
a hoe. In less than twenty-four hours, the plant will be as vigorous 
as though it had never been removed. On good land, the distance 
of the plants apart should be from 18 to 20 inches ; for thin land, 15 
inches will be sufficient. The yield, in this section, is from 100 to 150 
bushels to the acre. I should state that the plants require to be hoed 
about as much as corn. The vines should be thrown on the ridges, 
out of the way, while dressing. In digging, I use a large, long, Hat, 
three-tined dung-fork, to throw the tubers out of the ground. When 
dug, I spread them to dry and wilt somewhat, preparatory to putting 
them up for winter, which requires much care. My place of keeping 
is a cellar-kitchen. I pack them in boxes of dry sand, placing a 
scantling upon the floor for the boxes to rest upon. I keep the sand 
from year to year, and sometimes have it kiln-dried. 

The price of sweet potatoes here is from 62£ to 75 cents per bushel. 


Statement of C. S. Gr. Clifton, of Green county, 3Iississippi. 

Sweet potatoes are extensively raised in all parte of this county. 
Our gardens embrace the common variety, but there has not been so 
much attention paid to the subject as the demand for this article 

The tubers command from 30 to 40 cents a bushel. 



This new esculent, it will be recollected, was first introduced into 
this country by the Patent Office, in the early part of 1855, and is 
described and treated of at length in the Agricultural Report for the 
year 1854. The form in which it was introduced was in small tubers 
about the size of peas, that had been propagated in France the year 


previous, by covering the vines with earth, and severing them near the 
angles of each pair of leaves, after they had taken root. The result 
of its growth, in this country, the last season, was, that the vines and 
tubers were generally so small that most of those who experimented 
with it were disappointed in their expectations, and consequently 
abandoned it as a worthless product ; but others, who better under- 
stood the nature of its growth, preserved the roots for a second plant- 
ing, and will probably patiently await the result. 

When cultivated in a deep, rich, loose soil, the small tubers, after 
the first year, will penetrate the earth perpendicularly to a depth of 
two or more feet, and will continue to increase in size from year to 
year, without becoming woody, like those of the parsnip and many 
other plants after the first season's growth. They may be planted in 
the spring, in the open air, as soon as the season is sufficiently ad- 
vanced to be free from danger by frost, and may be cultivated some- 
what after the manner of the sweet potato, or yam, of the South, ex- 
cept that they should remain undisturbed in the ground from one 
year to another, until they are ready for market or use. In the 
colder portions of the Middle and Northern sections of the Union, it 
would be well to protect them from frost during the winter, by cover- 
ing the ground with a bed of spruce boughs, leaves, or straw, which 
should be removed as early in the spring as circumstances may require. 

When fully matured and cooked, the Chinese yam is dry and fari- 
naceous, much resembling in taste and appearance the common po- 
tato, and is more agreeable to the palate than the ordinary yam. 
Considering its property of persisting in the ground for several years 
without deterioration, being in readiness for the kitchen at all times, 
and all seasons, after the first year's growth, it cannot fail to prove an 
excellent substitute both for the sweet and the common potato in all 
localities where it will thrive. D. j. b. 


Statement of W. D. Brackenridge, of Govanstoivn, Baltimore county, 


The two small tubers of the Chinese yam, (Dioscorea batatas.) 

which I received from the Patent Office, last spring, I started in a 

hot-bed, and planted them about the middle of May in a deep-yellow, 

loamy soil. In November, I dug up the roots, and found two of them 

>ver 2 feet in length and 4 inches in circumference. 

This spring, I intend to plant these roots, and the small tubers 
propagated from the stems, and allow them to remain in the ground 
during next winter, as I think, in the second year, they will attain a 
large size by being protected from the frost. 


Statement of D. Boll, of the city of New York. 

Some small pieces of the Chinese yam, which had heen left 
over my spring sales, last year, I started in pots, and planted them 
out in the ground about the middle of June. During the summer, I 
used most of the vines for cuttings, to increase my stock, (of which 
every pair of leaves will produce a bulb,) and dug them in the begin- 
ning of October, to exhibit at the Fair of the American Institute, at 
the Crystal Palace. Such as had not been disturbed by cutting the 
vines, had grown to the length of 2 feet, and the lower end, which is 
always the largest, was about 3 inches in diameter, and weighed up- 
wards of 2 pounds. 

I left a few roots in the ground all winter, and dug them in April 
of the present spring (1856.) The severe winter did not affect them. 
They were in as fine condition as those dug in October, and were 
beginning to vegetate. If left in the ground 18 months, they will 
increase much more in proportion, and improve in quality. Those 
dug last fall kept well, none rotting nor sprouting before they were 

I had one cooked plainly, in water, with a little salt. The flavor 
was like that of a fine Kidney potato, and the yam was very white 
and delicious. I think it will prove a useful and profitable vegetable. 


Statement of John B. C. Gazzo, of La Four che parish, Louisiana. 

The common yam (Dioscorea alata) grows very large here, the 
roots sometimes weighing over 35 pounds. It is propagated by 
planting pieces of the roots containing a portion of the rind, or skin, 
any part of which will germinate. It is commonly planted in March, 
and harvested in November. 

This root is of a delicate flavor, and is highly nutritious. It is 
prepared for the table by roasting or boiling, being more highly es- 
teemed than the common potato, to which, in taste, it has some re- 






"Seeing that cotton is one of the indigenous products of India, and 
one which has been so long cultivated in the country for the uses of 
its inhabitants, it strikes one as extraordinary to hear India frequently 
adduced as a country incapable of producing the finer kinds of cot- 
ton." The thought, thus expressed by an intelligent English writer, 
has so long occupied the attention of the British public, that the ef- 
forts of the government and people to induce the cultivation of cotton 
of fine quality into India, have been continuous, though attended 
with partial success, from the year 1788 to the present time. At that 
period, the most elaborate investigations were made of the condition 
of the culture there, and instructions were imparted to the planters. 
Soon after, seeds of approved kinds were obtained from other coun- 
tries and distributed ; government plantations were established ; 
machinery for cleaning and packing the fibre was introduced ; and 
bounties were offered for the successful culture of exotic varieties. 
Subsequently, societies were organised in India, as well as in Eng- 
land, for the promotion of the object, and American overseers were 
employed to give practical instruction in regard to the culture. 

These experiments were persisted in, until the year 1809, when the 
prospect of a rupture between the United States and Great Britain 
suggested such extraordinary efforts as induced an exportation to 
England from India of 30,000,000 pounds of cotton ; but the inter- 
course with this country having been resumed, in 1810, sales were 
effected of only one-half of this large importation, in obedience to a 
law which has ever since prevailed, to the effect that the cotton of 
India is only purchased and manufactured to any considerable extent 
when the superior varieties from the United States and elsewhere 
cannot be obtained, the important exceptions being only a few first 
crops derived from newly introduced seeds. The theory upon which 
this is sometimes explained is, that such varieties degenerate in con- 
sequence of the unavoidable cross-fecundation with the native sorts ; 
but it is more generally believed that this cause could not prove so 
uniform in its results, and that there must be some cases in which, 
in isolated situations, the exotic kinds would be protected from such 
influences. At all events, notwithstanding the efforts that have been 
made during the fifteen years ending with 1855, while the importa- 
tion of cotton into Great Britain from the United States was about 
8,800,000,000 pounds, that from India was lees than 1,500,000,000 
pounds, or in the ratio of about 6 to 1, as may be seen by reference 
to a statement made to Congress by the Secretary of State, dated May 


30th j 1856. The value of these importations is not therein given ; 
hut in this particular the disparity would be found far greater. 

In the attempts to improve the product of Indian cotton, not only 
has strict attention been paid to the peculiarities of the soil and cli- 
mate of every latitude and altitude ; hut the best varieties of Ameri- 
can seeds have been from time to time sent thither and cultivated in 
strict conformity with the modes pursued in the United States. In 
the earlier experiments, the Bourbon cotton was mainly relied upon. 
Failing in the more fertile regions of Bengal, the elevated, drier and 
lighter soil of Coromandel, which lie between the 10th and 20th de- 
grees of north latitude, was tried. Here the plant grew to a great size, 
but yielded little cotton, and its cultivation was soon relinquished. 

In 1829, the local government of Bengal placed at the disposal of 
a Society, to be given in premiums, the sum of $10,000 ; but this 
was unfortunately lost by the failure of an agency house. They at 
the same time authorised the establishment of an experimental farm, 
at an annual expense of $5,000, exclusive of rent, and appropriated 
$2,250 for buildings and stock for the first year. In the following 
June, there were received there a supply of cotton seeds of the "Up- 
land Georgia," "Sea Island" and "Demarara" varieties, which, 
together with Captain Basil Hall's account of the culture of cotton in 
America, were presented to the Society by the Court of Directors of 
the East India Company. A farm at Akra, eight miles south from 
Calcutta, in latitude 22° 15' N., comprising 166 acres, was taken, and 
active measures commenced in October, 1830 ; but, after the exer- 
tion of efforts deserving success, they did not arrive at favorable 
results, and the projectors of the enterprise were compelled to abandon 
it, in 1833. 

It is proper here to remark that the committee in charge of this 
undertaking attributed their failure to many causes, but that the list 
did not include any presumed incompatibility of soil and climate. 
The enterprise was not resumed, however, and the real cause of fail- 
ure was not demonstrated ; still, it may interest the American cotton- 
grower to know what these alleged disadvantages were : The first was 
bad seed, and, if real, was radical enough ; the second, error in the 
time of planting ; the third, unsuitableness in the quality of the partic- 
ular tract of land, which was in some places too rich, and in others too 
salt — unceasing "blooming" being the result; the fourth, a broadcast 
mode of planting and shallow digging; the fifth, a severe hail-storm, 
which, in 1832, destroyed everything but the lower parts of the stalks 
and roots of the plants — but as these bore promising crops, in 1833, 
the committee were in hopes that an improved mode of cultivating 
foreign varieties was thus suggested, and that a perennial plant had 
been obtained. 

In the district of Dacca, in about latitude 24° N., which, before the 
rise of the cotton culture in the United States, had acquired a reputa- 
tion both for its fibre and its muslins, high hopes were entertained of 
successful results. The opinion was expressed by the British com- 
missioner of that district, that there was " nothing else to which the 
soil was so well suited as to cotton." In 1843, Mr. Price, a gentle- 
man practically acquainted with the culture of cotton in America, was 


appointed to conduct a series of experiments ; and it is stated that lie 
was indefatigable in his endeavors to visit frequently all parts of the 
district. He soon induced some of the indigo planters and others to 
introduce the American seed on their plantations, and the govern- 
ment authorised advances to he made to such "ryots," or permanent 
tenants of farms, as were willing to cultivate it, and engaged to pur- 
chase all the cotton they should grow ; and an experimental farm was 
also placed under the personal supervision of Mr. Price himself. The 
result, however, proved a total failure ; "yet," it is added, "as the 
American plant, in some instances, grew and bore flowers, not for a 
short time only, but for months together, we cannot help thinking that 
there was something incompatible in the soils selected, or in the 
methods of culture adopted." Several causes of failure are given in 
this instance, also, and a most commendable purpose of persistence is 
still expressed. 

The destruction by insects, as described, would of itself be sufficient 
to account for at least the unprofitableness of the effort. It is re- 
marked that " the indigenous cotton, being hardier and more hairy, 
is less attacked by insects." Mr. Price experimented with the Bour- 
bon cotton, also, which, like the other varieties, was of too rank a 
growth, from o to 4 feet in height being attained by it, as well as by 
the others, in a very short time. He at length arrived at the conclu- 
sion that the improvement of the cotton-culture of that region could 
be best effected by giving due attention to the native varieties. 

In Rungpoor, latitude 26° 55' N., the natives had made experi- 
ments with Mexican seed, prior to 1844, and thought it better than 
their own varieties ; but it was greatly injured by the depredations of 
insects. The same year, Mr. Terry, another American, commenced 
a series of experiments there, but bad health compelled him to desist. 

The above experiments, and the over-luxuriance of the fields of 
Southern India should have admonished the cultivators of cotton to 
seek more favorable localities ; and this thought was suggested to the 
minds of many who had known that, when the cotton manufactures 
of Bengal were in high repute, much of the raw material was con- 
veyed thence from the regions of the north-west ; yet, notwithstand- 
ing this, we find that the marked and decided effort made by the 
British government, in 1840, was directed towards Bengal, as well as 
to higher regions. It was then that Captain Bayles, who had been 
sent to the United States for the purpose, returned to India, accom- 
panied by ten Americans, well skilled in cotton-growing, with seeds, 
ploughs, gins, presses, and other tools. Three of these persons were 
sent to Madras, three to Bombay, and four, with Captain Bayles, to 
the Bengal Presidency. The latter four were located near each other 
on the Jumna. Subsequently, however, one of them attempt' 1 a 
model farm at Agra, a second went to ■ Groruckpoor, and a third to 
Rungpoor, while Mr. Price was at Dacca. Experiments were thus 
in progress on eight farms on different parts of a line about 800 miles 
in length. Captain Bayles remained at Humeerpoor, a central situa- 

In the first reports of these eight planters, dated in November, 
1840, they complained of some disadvantages, but expressed the 


opinion that cotton could he ( c produced, in abundance," and that 
"there is no question that the soil is excellently suited for cotton." 
The first season, however, was dry and unproductive, and the only 
satisfactory part of the experiment was the establishment of the fact 
that the indigenous varieties of India could be improved by the 
adoption of the American mode of cultivation. It is said that those 
of them, which were experimented upon, continued green and bearing 
bolls when the fields cultivated by the natives were dried up and 

In Bundlecund and the Doab, in about latitude 25° N., the experi- 
ments which were made led to the conclusion that irrigation alone, 
was needed to insure success ; but there are few situations in which 
irrigation by artificial means has enabled the tillers of the soil to 
compete with those whom heaven has favored with abundant showers. 
In the subsequent efforts of these American culturists, with Mexican 
seed, and the indigenous cotton, they were subjected to disappoint- 
ments as grievous as the first, and it was concluded that "neither 
land, nor money, nor the zeal of men, nor the labor of cattle, will 
suffice, unless the elements are favorable." One of them stated in 
his report that "Bundlecund is and always will be too dry ever to 
produce cotton to advantage ;" and tbat "the seasons in this part of 
India are too short, even if they were more favorable." Another 
reports: "The grand characteristic of this country appears to be a 
flood, a drought; the latter greatly predominating." They still 
thought, however, that Rohilkund or G-oruckpoor might answer ; and 
they accordingly made tours through the Doab, through G-oruckpoor 
and its adjoining districts, through the country in the Sangor and 
Nerbudda territories, and toward Agra in the north-west. In the 
latter region, one of them established a model farm, in 1843, and fa- 
cilities were afforded to the neighboring "ryots" to enable them to 
cultivate cotton upon their respective farms. But the whole experi- 
ment proved a failure. The crops were ruined both by drought and 
floods. In 1846, a decided effort was made in this same locality to 
improve the native cotton and adapt it to the English market by im- 
proved mode3 of cleaning ; but the shortness of its staple rendered it 
unacceptable to the Manchester spinners, and the enterprise tailed. 

In 1843 and 1844, ample experiments were made at Goruckpoor, 
by Mr. Blount, one of the Americans, heretofore alluded to, who, in 
the first year, attributed his failure to various causes, such as the 
lateness of the season, the depredations of cattle, precocious matu- 
ring, the ravages of the caterpillar, &c. In the second year, success 
was despaired~of at the end of September ; but, strangely enough, 
there was a subsequent improvement, and a small crop of fair cotton 
was produced. The experiment nevertheless was abandoned as fu- 
tile, although there were many who thought this partial success 
should have induced further efforts. 

It has been herein stated that the attention of the British govern- 
ment was directed to this subject, in 1788, but the first actual experi- 
ments by the English were made at Madras, in 1790, Avhen Dr. An- 
derson was engaged in distributing Mauritius and "Brown Malta" 
seeds in different parts of the Peninsula. It is stated that Dr. Box- 


burgh had even then ascertained that the dry and less fertile soil of 
Coromandel was better suited than that of Bengal to the Bourbon 
cotton. In 1813, Mr. Metcalfe arrived with American cleaning ma- 
chines at Tinnivelly, the district in which, by careful culture, a Mr. 
Hughes had succeeded in producing good Bourbon cotton. In 1819, 
the Madras government determined on establishing a cotton farm of 
400 acres, under the care of the Commercial Kesident in each of the 
four districts of Tinnivelly, Coimbatore, Masulipatam, and Vizagapa- 
tam. Mr. Heath, who held the above office in Salem and Coimba- 
tore, succeeded by observing the directions of Mr. Hughes. Under 
his culture, cotton came to perfection 150 miles from the sea ; and, 
in the season of 1823-4, he obtained in Coimbatore 500 bales of clean 
Bourbon cotton, making an average of 233 pounds to the acre. The 
result of this experiment demonstrated that, at least in peculiarly fa- 
vorable circumstances, cotton of a fair quality may be produced in 
this locality ; but, that profit may be derived from its culture, even 
under these circumstances, has not been made to appear by any re- 
corded facts. 

In conclusion, it may be inferred, as on a former occasion, that it 
is not the British government, the supply of funds, nor the employ- 
ment of imported agents and improved machinery, that will ever pro- 
fitably produce cotton in India. Aside from the obstacles in her cli- 
mate, she is not a conquered country. Asiatic princes have given 
way before British soldiers, but the governed, at heart, remain what 
they were. Directors and capitalists may patronise, men of science 
may suggest, and culturists may execute, but all in vain. D. J. B. 



Cotton, like many other plants, is subject to diseases, caused prin- 
cipally by accidents, the defects of the soil in which it grows, the de- 
predations of insects, and the effects of the weather. Those which 
are the most fatal may be described as follows: — 


One of the diseases to which the cotton-plant is subject, commonly 
known among planters as the "sore-shin," is sometimes occasioned 
by a careless stroke of the hoe, scraping the outer bark from the 
stem while the plant is yet young and tender. The sap being ar- 
rested by the wound, that part of the main stem above the injury 
dwindles away, becoming both weak and brittle. Although the re- 
generative powers of the plant may afterwards produce new bark 
from the sides of the wound, and the injury heal up ; leaving only a 


larger or smaller cicatrix, or scar, according to the extent of the 
wound received, the stem eventually becoming so attenuated and 
weak, as frequently to break off at or above the place where the 
wound was first made. 

The preventive of this disease would be, to take great care when 
hoeing, not to bruise nor injure the young plant, as, when the growth 
is once stopped by an accidental bruise, or abrasion of the bark, the 
plant, if not broken down by storms, or the weight of its own top fo- 
liage, will always appear stunted or weak. 

There is also said to be another species of " sore-shin," to which the 
young cotton-plant is liable, differing entirely from that occasioned 
by careless hoeing, the cause of which is attributed by many to cold, 
cutting winds, when the plant is very young. Others, however, as- 
sert that, when a high wind shakes the tender plant, the main stem 
is so much bent and twisted, that the sap-vessels are upturned, and a 
serious injury occurs ; but the wound is sometimes healed, and if the 
cotton grows vigorously afterwards, it apparently outgrows the shock. 


In certain portions of the plantations, in many parts of Florida, 
individual plants grow with white or variegated leaves. This pecu- 
liarity is termed "Frenching ;" but, as I observed only a few 
thus marked, it may, perhaj>s, be only a sport of nature, similar 
to the variegated leaves of cultivated plants of our gardens. In- 
dian corn, however, is subject to "French;" and, in this case, the 
disease has been attributed to some imperfection of the soil ; to im- 
proper use of manures, as well as to various other causes. Be this 
as it may, it appears as if only certain spots, varying in area in the 
same field, are attacked, sometimes in succession, year after year, 
while the remainder of the crop is perfectly healthy and good. 
When corn is thus Frenched on what are termed "Frenched lands," 
it grows light-colored, sometimes almost white, or striped, and bears 
no crop. Until this Frenched land has been thoroughly and pro- 
perly analysed, it would be useless to say anything more on a subject 
so little understood ; and I merely mention this disease here to invite 
public attention to it, and to induce practical farmers to experiment, 
in order to find out the cause, and, should one be discovered, to sug- 
gest some remedy for its removal. 


When on the plantation of Major Haywood, of Tallahassee, in 
Florida, in the month of August, several very fine, and apparently 
healthy cotton-plants, from 4 to 5 feet in height, covered with forms 
and bolls, were observed to be dying suddenly, in certain spots, the 
leaves being withered, as if the damage had been done within twenty- 
four hours. Such plants eventually died ; and, on taking them up, 
no worm, insect, nor injury, either external or internal, could be 
discovered ; and the only conclusion that could be drawn was, that 
some of the roots had suddenly penetrated into a soil totally unfitted 
for, and evidently deleterious to, the life of the plant. "What rcn- 


dered it the more singular was, the fact that other cotton-plants were 
growing most luxuriantly within one or two feet of that which was 


The cotton-plant is also subject to a disease called the "rust." The 
leaves, when first attacked, appear rather yellower than the rest, 
with red spots on the surface, and often, margined with the same red 
color. These leaves then turn yellower and redder every day, until 
the plant assumes a bright-red or almost a carmine appearance, when, 
finally, the whole of the foliage turns more of a brown color and falls 
to the earth. When the disease attacks the boll, it assumes a differ- 
ent appearance, and is termed the "red" or "black" rust, as the 
case may be. The cotton, in such bolls as have been attacked by 
the black rust, and the bolls themselves, shrivel up, and turn dark- 
colored, as if they had been severely blighted or mildewed, and are 
totally valueless. 

This disease has been attributed to leaving pokeberry plants 
in the field. But this, I have never observed, and suppose the as- 
sumption to be on the same principle that the mildew on wheat was 
formerly attributed to the influence of the berberry bush. Others 
state that rust is owing to an undue proportion of lime in the earth, 
and that it is no doubt caused by some organic or inorganic imperfec- 
tion of the soil in which it is grown ; but, until such soil shall have 
been thoroughly analysed, and its component parts correctly ascer- 
tained, nothing certain can be known about it. There is also another 
theory in regard to the subject of the rust: that it is entirely owing 
to atmospheric changes, and not to the soil. Experiments, however, 
ought to be instituted to find out the real cause, and the result made 
known, as the disease has done, and is at present doing, much injury 
to the crops of the South. Salt, sown at the rate of half a bushel to 
the acre among cotton, is stated to be a certain preventive of the rust, 
and to restore the plant to its former vigor ; but several planters 
whom I have spoken to on the subject, deny the fact, and say that 
salt had no effect whatever. 

There is also another species of rust caused by an acarus, which 
will be found described on a preceding page. 


When the cotton-blooms, or flowers, are exposed to the heavy and 
beating rains of a Southern climate, especially between the hours of 
ten and two, as they are opening, or have already opened, it fre- 
quently happens that such blooms prove barren. The outer calyx 
turns yellow, and eventually the unfertilised flower and immature 
boll fall to the ground, the seeds turn brown, and the fibre of the* 
cotton is worthless. This is generally attributed to the heavy drops 
of rain washing away the pollen which should have impregnated the 
pistil ; the embryo seed-vessel, of course, never matures, but dries up 
and perishes. Bees, wasps, and insects in general, are Nature's agents 
in distributing the pollen, or fertilising dust. As they fly from 
flower to flower, small particles of this dust adhere to some part 


of their bodies or limbs, with which they impregnate the next flower 
while in search of honey or more dust. 

Sometimes the pistil and stamens of a cotton-bloom are found eaten 
in such a manner as to distort them. This injury is often caused by 
the very young boll-worm, which, penetrating the young flower-bud 
by a hole through the outer calyx, where the egg was laid, alter eat- 
ing several of the enclosed stamens and anthers, and injuring one 
side of the pistil, bores into the embryo boll, before it is shed. I have 
reared several caterpillars found in such situations, and proved them 
to be the true boll-worm. Moreover, I have found the hatched shell 
of the egg on the outer calyx, and traced the caterpillar's track 
through the petals to the stamens, and finally to the boll itself. I 
will not, however, enlarge on this subject here, but refer to the article 
on "The Boll-worm," in a former part of this Report. 


The "rot" has been attributed to a variety of causes, such as 
changes in the atmosphere, defects in the soil, the attacks of insects, 
and to the growth of fungi. Mr. Troup, in the "American Farmer, " 
describes its appearance with great accuracy. He says: "The first 
indication is seen in a small circular spot on the outside of the boll, 
exhibiting a darker green than the circumjacent parts ; as if a glob- 
ule of water had been dropped upon it, and been absorbed. Many 
of these are frequently seen at the same time on the same boll. They 
spread themselves, sometimes faster, sometimes slower, as if induced, 
either by the state of the atmosphere, or condition of the plant, 
changing color as they progress, until they assume a dark-brown, 
approaching to black, and until the whole exterior is in like manner 
affected ; or until it receives, from some cause, a sudden check, and 
then this appearance is only partial. In the first case, the disease 
has penetrated to the centre of the fruit, the fermentation is complete 
and universal, and is seen in a frothy, white liquid thrown out on the 
surface. Putrefaction follows, and the destruction of the seed and 
immature wool being finished, nothing is left but the rind, or exte- 
rior coating of the boll, which, exhausted of its juices, hardens, 
turns black, and thus terminates the process. In the other case, 
(that of suddenly checked disease,) the interior of the boll in some 
instances remains unhurt ; in others, it is only partially injured ; and, 
in the last case, the pods, remaining unhurt, mature and expand. 
This, however, rarely happens, as the disease is wonderfully capri- 
cious, going and coming unaccountably, attacking at one time with 
more, at another with less violence ; so that the fruit, which escapes 
entire destruction on the first attack, may fall a victim on the second. 
Nor is this capriciousness justly attributable to the changes in the at- 
mosphere, as its origin does not seem to have any connection with the 

It is very difficult to find out the true cause of this disease, as it 
sometimes appears in dry as well as in wet years, although it is gen- 
erally more destructive during rainy seasons. The young bolls arm 
often found rotted, as well as the half-matured and old, so that the 


age of the fruit does not appear to have anything to do with it s 
Many of them may have the interior entirely dried up and destroyed, 
while others will open with only one or two segments rotted, the 
rest being perfectly healthy, and filled with good white cotton. 

As to the theory of a defect in the soil, it has been stated by some 
planters that barnyard manure will often produce it ; but, if this is 
the case, it is somewhat singular that it has often been observed that 
one plant may be very badly affected by the rot, while others on each 
side are perfectly healthy and uninjured, as has often been observed. 
This fact appears to show that a great deal depends upon the consti- 
tution of the plant itself, which may be inherited from its parent, and 
perhaps a choice of good sound seed, from strong and healthy plants 
only, might in time have a great effect in remedying this disease ; 
and, as we know that much depends upon the vigor, health, and pro- 
lific qualities of the parent plant, it might perhaps be well to make 
experiments by planting seed of diseased, and sound, healthy plants, 
in the same situation and soil. 

The fungoid growth, found on the old rotted bolls, when they begin 
to open, may perhaps be regarded more as the result than the cause 
of the disease. Several insects, it is true, have been found in these 
rotten bolls, where most probably they had crept for food and shelter, 
after the boll had become rotten, while others have been caught in 
the very act of piercing the bolls ; but this subject will be found 
treated at greater length under the head of "The Boll," and insects 
found in or upon it, on a preceding page. 

While on the subject of the rot, it may be well to mention that, 
there are three glands on the inside of the outer calyx, at the bottom 
of the boll, and three on the outside between the "ruffle" and stalk, 
which secrete and give out a sweet substance, which ants, bees, wasps, 
and plant-bugs avail themselves of as food. I have seen young bolls, 
apparently healthy, suddenly drop from the plant, and, on being 
carefully cut open, showed a wound which had been pierced by the 
trunk of some insect, in one of these glands, and that a watery rot 
had commenced where the boll had been stung. It was evident that 
this rot had been caused by the piercer of some insect unknown, as 
the puncture could be traced throughout its length to the heart of the 
lower part of the injured boll. 



In the course of my geological excursions through the States of 
North Carolina, South Carolina, and Georgia, I had an opportunity 


of becoming somewhat acquainted with the natural history of the 
cotton-plant, and was much interested in the cultivation of that im- 
portant crop, as well as in the economical uses of the seeds, which are 
thrown out in such enormous quantities from the "gin-houses," 
where the pure fibre is separated from the bolls. These refuse cotton- 
seeds are partly saved for planting, but by far the greater mass of 
them is allowed to rot, and is then used for manure, in preparing the 
soil for the cultivation of Indian corn, as well as for a new cotton- 
crop. It appears, however, from my recent inquiries, that cotton-seed 
may be profitably employed in the production of a rich, fat oil, and 
that the woolly fibre, adhering to the hulls, may be economised in 
the manufacture of paper, while the substance of the seeds, or their 
"meats," after having the oil extracted, maybe employed for feeding 
animals ; and, probably, would also serve as an excellent fertiliser, 
which would operate as a more permanent and efficacious manure 
than the more highly stimulating guano, now so extensively used at 
the South. 

The object of the present paper is to call the attention of Southern 
planters and of Northern manufacturers to these new uses to which 
cotton-seed may be applied, trusting that even this very humble and 
incomplete essay may attract the attention of more able hands. 

Any one who has walked over the rich plantations of the Southern 
States, at the period of the inflorescence of the cotton-plants, must have 
been struck with the great beauty of the extensive fields, all covered 
with rich verdure and beautiful, delicate, blue, pink and white flow- 
ers, appearing like those of the mallows, magnified to the size of 
small hollyhocks, or althres, the flowers not only terminating the 
delicate stems, but also putting forth, in many axils of the lateral leaf- 
stalks ; while, at a more advanced period, the ripened cotton-bolls are 
seen bursting with their snowy flocks on the lower part of the stem, 
and yet the capping flowers still continue to bloom, and to prepare a 
continuous supply of fibre, until the frost finally checks their career, 
and closes in the harvest, constituting one of the most curious and 
interesting of agricultural scenes. The ebony-colored laborers are 
for several months employed in picking the cotton-bolls as fast as they 
ripen, and thus the labor is rendered lighter by being so much di- 
vided. Troops of them, with their baskets of snowy cotton upon their 
heads, are seen tramping homewards in single file, and keeping time 
to their merry song. 

Botanists are uncertain as to the number of distinct species of this 
plant. De Candolle describes thirteen species, in his "Prodromus," 
and mentions six others, but considers them all uncertain. Swartz 
thinks they may all be referred to one original species, of which 
many varieties have been produced by cultivation, and by the effects 
of different climates. "The plants inhabit different parts of tropical 
Asia, Africa, and America, and many of them are cultivated for their 
cotton in climates adapted to their growth." It is believed to be indi- 
genous to Asia, as well as to America, but is cultivated in most warm 
countries, of both continents. It requires a certain duration of warm 
weather, as well as an amount of moisture, to perfect its seeds, and, in 
the United States, cannot be profitably cultivated north of Virginia. 


A short time since, I was called upon by Mr. Daniel W. Messer, 
■who has taken out a patent for a method of separating the hulls from 
cotton-seeds, to make a chemical analysis of those deprived of their 
hulls by his process and machinery. I was pleased to undertake this 
investigation, and have extended my researches much beyond what 
was required of me, for the purpose of being able to contribute some- 
thing towards the agriculture of the Southern States. 

I am aware of the fact, that cotton-seed oil is now made in New 
Orleans, but am informed that the yield of the unprepared and woolly 
seeds is very small, in comparison with that I have been able to ob- 
tain from those which have been hulled. 

I know also that Professor Shephard has given an analysis of the 
ashes of unprepared cotton-seed, but I have not been able to find a 
copy of his report, so as to compare his results with mine. 

The analyses hereafter given were made on hulled seeds, dried at 
212° P. 

My first analysis was made for the purpose of determining the pro- 
portion of fixed oil contained in the seed ; the next was a chemical 
examination of the properties and composition of the "oil-cake," or 
what remains of the seed after the extraction of the oil ; the third 
gives the true elementary constitution of the oil-cake ; and the fourth, 
the nature and proportions of the inorganic principles, or mineral 
salts, contained in the ashes of the incinerated oil-cake, and, also, that 
of the seed before the oil was separated. It will be understood by 
chemists, that a vast deal of labor has been required to work out all 
these results. 

SejMration of the Oil. — In order to separate the fixed oil, pure ether 
was employed, and it was found that 100 grains of the dried pulver- 
ised seeds yielded, in one experiment, 39.7, and in another 40 per 
cent, of pure fatty oil. By pressure, I was able, with a small screw- 
press, to obtain only 33 per cent, of oil, but I have no doubt a more 
powerful one would have given a larger yield. The specific gravity 
of the oil, which I obtained from the etherial solution, was 0.923, wa- 
ter being unity. This, is also, the specific gravity of purified whale- 

Cotton-seed oil is stated, by Dr. Wood, to be a drying oil; but that 
which I have obtained does not appear to possess drying properties, 
serving perfectly well for the lubrication of machinery, and for 
burning in lamps, as well as for making soap. It will also serve as 
a substitute for olive-oil, in many cases, and perhaps may be eaten as 
a salad-oil, for it has no disagreeable odor nor taste. 

Chemical Examination of the Oil-cake. — Linseed oil-cake is well 
known, both in Europe and in this country, as valuable food for cattle, 
and as an excellent fertiliser, worth from $40 to $45 per ton, for the 
latter purpose. On examining my cotton-seed oil-cake, I found it 
possessed a sweet and agreeable flavor, and was much more pure and 
clean than linseed oil-cake. One hundred grains of the seed leave 
60 giains of oil-cake. This cake, examined for sugar, was found to 
contain 1.1 grains, and for gum, 35 grains were obtained. Iodine gave 


no proof of the existence of any starch in cotton-seed, nor in the oil- 
cake. Alcohol dissolves out the sugar, which is like that obtained 
from raisins, and is grape-sugar. Boiling water dissolves the gum, 
and becomes very mucilaginous. The gum is precipitable from the 
water, by means of pure alcohol. 

Ultimate Analysis. — Cotton-seed being quite peculiar in its nature 
and character, I was disposed to investigate the elementary consti- 
tution of the oil-cake, and having, with great care, made the organic 
analysis, and verified it by repetition of the process, I obtained the 
following results in per-centage: — 

Carbon, ....... 37.740 

Oxygen, ...... 39.663 

Nitrogen, ..... 7.753 

Hydrogen, ..... 5.869 

Salts (inorganic), . . . . . 8.960 


These salts were obtained by the combustion of a separate portion 
of the same cake. 

Wishing to determine the nature and chemical composition of the 
salts contained in the seed, I burned 300 grains of them to ashes, in 
a platinum crucible, and obtained 16.5 grains of ashes, which yielded 
alkaline salts, soluble in a small quantity of water, and other mat- 
ters, which I dissolved in acids. Of the 16.5 grains of ashes, I found 
9.13 grains consisted of phosphate of lime. 

On separation of the various salts, and reducing them to their 
ratios, for 100 grains of the oil-cake, I found the results to be as 
follows : — 

Alkaline salts, soluble in water, . . .0.13 

Phosphate of lime, . . . .3.04 

Potash, . . . . . .0.46 

Soda, ....... 0.53 

Phosphoric acid, with traces of sulphuric acid 

and chlorine, . . . . .0.81 

Silica and oxides of iron and manganese, . . 0.18 

Loss, .... 0.35 


The whole amount of phosphoric acid present was 2.456, and of lime, 
1.34 per cent. The excess of phosphoric acid, beyond that required 
for the saturation of the lime, was combined with the alkalies, soda, 
an I potash. The chlorine and sulphuric acid oxisted in unweighable 
traces, in so small a quantity of ashes. 

The foregoing analyses of cotton-seed justify and explain the use 
made of them by the Southern planters, in preparing the soil with the 
rotted seeds, as a special manure for Indian corn, which draws so 


largely on the soil for phosphates. It will also be seen that, since 
the cotton-seed oil-cake contains nearly 8 per cent, of nitrogen, and 
nearly 6 per cent, of hydrogen, the elements of ammonia are pre- 
sent in sufficient quantities to form about 10 per cent, of ammonia, 
a powerful stimulant to vegetation, and a solvent and carrier of hu- 
mus into their circulation. The carbon is more than sufficient to 
take up all the oxygen in the formation of carbonic acid, another ac- 
tive fertiliser ; and the excess of carbonaceous matter will remain and 
form humus, or vegetable mould, which the alkalies, soda, potash, 
and ammonia will, in part, dissolve and carry into the circulation of 
plants, which possess the power of approximating and converting it 
into their tissues. The phosphates go ultimately to the seeds, and, in 
Indian corn, and in wheat, concentrate wholly about the germs, in 
their mucilage, or "chits." Thus it is proved that every ingredient 
of cotton-seed cake acts as a nutriment to vegetation. 


Statement of J. J. Pratt, of Centre, Cherokee county, Alabama. 

Cotton, it is thought, does not succeed so well here as in localities 
southward. Our proximity to the mountains sometimes causes par- 
tial failures in the crops. Notwithstanding, when the seasons are 
good, the product will compare with that of the regions bordering on 
the Atlantic and the Gulf. Thus far, the plant has not suffered with 
us from the depredations of insects, nor from the effects of "rot" nor 
"rust," as in the counties farther south. It is sometimes injured, 
however, by rust in particular soils; but this evil is only partial, be- 
ing principally confined to the alluvial sandy lands near the banks 
of the rivers or creeks. 

The average product of cotton to the acre, I believe, is nearly equal 
to that in the southern part of the State, and far exceeds it in propor- 
tion to the number of hands employed. It is thought that the cost 
of cultivating it, preparing it for market, and transporting it to Rome, 
in Georgia, is 8 cents a pound. The freight, by water, to that place, 
is from 15 to 20 cents per 100 pounds. The average yield to the acre 
may be estimated at from 600 to 800 pounds in the seed, or from 250 
to 400 pounds clean. 

At Rome, the present price is from 7 to 8 cents a pound. 



Next to the culture of Cereals and the rearing of domestic animals, 
the culture of flax and hemp, both as textile plants and as oleaginous 


grains, is the most important branch of Russian husbandry. The 
gross value of these products amounts, at a verv moderate estimate, 
to about 55,500,000 of silver roubles ($43,500*000); and both soil 
and climate are exceedingly favorable to their culture, throughout a 
great part of the empire. As their production greatly exceeds the 
wants of the home manufacture, the extension of their culture essen- 
tially depends on the facility with which they find an outlet in the 
foreign market. Flax and hemp have always formed two of the prin- 
cipal exports ; and, if to these we add oleaginous grains, which con- 
sist principally of the seeds of hemp and flax, we shall find that the 
export of these three articles, taken as a whole, exceeds in value that 
of any other product. In the course of twenty-nine years, from 1822 
to 1850, inclusive, there were but four, namely, 1830, 1831, 1846, and 
1847, in which the value of exported Cereals was greater than that 
of these. 

From the custom-house returns, we find that, during the period in 
question, the total value of exports for European commerce amounted to 
1 1,427, 586, 225, about 12| per cent, of which was in flax, 10i per cent, 
in hemp, and 8f per cent, in oleaginous seeds. These figures forcibly 
show the importance of the culture of these textiles to the foreign 
commerce of Russia, as well as for her domestic manufactures. In 
this branch of agriculture, she has not hitherto met with serious com- 
petition, as the other countries of continental Europe, in which these 
articles are produced, not having much land to spare for that purpose, 
and finding it, from their greater relative population, more profitable 
to cultivate other crops, do not raise enough for any considerable 
exportation ; for, nowhere in Europe can they be cultivated in such 
abundance as in Russia. Of other countries, it is the East Indies and 
the Philippine Islands that furnish England the largest supplies, say, 
from 10,000 to 12,500 tons per annum, and the United States, which, 
export at present not over 5,000 tons. England, moreover, imports 
from Egypt and other parts of Africa, about 200 tons of flax and 
hemp, an amount comparatively insignificant. 

It is well known that the immense increase in the use of cotton 
fabrics was of the utmost prejudice to the linen manufacture in every 
country of Europe ; while the cotton manufacture assumed gigantic 
proportions, the fabrication of linens was arrested in its progress, and 
in many countries fell into a state of decay. England, alone, formed 
an exception, a circumstance which she owed to the invention of flax- 
spinning machinery. With its characteristic enterprise and foresight, 
British industry, seconded by abundance of capital, speedily appro- 
priated and improved the French invention, and, applying it upon a 
large scale, it succeeded in turning the depressed condition of the 
linen manufacture in other countries to its own advantage. English 
linens, which, forty years ago, were an article of secondary importance 
in the markets of the European continent, and in most trans-Atlantic 
countries, have since acquired an importance menacing this branch 
of industry of Germany, as well as of every other country. During 
the triennial period, 1827 to 1829, inclusive, the average annual ex- 
port of linen manufactures from Great Britain amounted to 57,706,125 
yards, representing a value of $10,218,725 ; and, during the period, 


1847 to 1849, inclusive, the mean annual export amounted to 96,530,308 
yards, representing a value of $14,277,010, which exhibits an increase 
of 67 per cent, in quantity, and 40 per cent, in value. In 1850, the 
exportation amounted to the enormous quantity of 122 % 397,457 yards, 
or double the mean exportation of the triennial, 1827-29 ; and this 
immense exportation from England followed the largest exportation 
of flax from Russia that ever took place, namely, that of 1849, which 
amounted to 192,068,597 pounds (tow included); of which 70 per 
cent, were sent to England, without reckoning the exportation thither, 
by way of Elsineur and the Prussian ports ; so that the exportation 
to Great Britain may be taken at upwards of three-fourths of the 
whole. This important branch of Russian commerce, it may be stated, 
has generally followed step by step, the progress of the linen manu- 
facture, in England, and has more than tripled, in extent, since 1822, 
The average of the three years, 1822 to 1824, inclusive, was only 
56,848,803 pounds, while that of 1848-50, inclusive, amounted to 
173,519,400 pounds, being an increase of 205 per cent. 

From the foregoing, it is evident that the linen manufacture of 
England and the flax-culture of Russia are mutually dependent upon 
each other. The former could not maintain, and still less increase, 
its present prosperity, without being sure of receiving from Russia an 
abundant supply of the raw material at a very moderate price ; and 
the Russians, on the other hand, would be at a loss for the disposal 
of their surplus produce, if they were not assured of an outlet in the 
British market. 

Notwithstanding the heavy blows continuously dealt out to it, by 
the increasing use of cotton goods, the linen manufacture still main- 
tains the foremost rank in Russia, in point of extent and importance. 
It is not, like the cotton manufacture in Great Britain, the United 
States, and other countries, concentrated in large establishments, which 
strike the eye by their size, their machinery, and the numbers of 
workmen collected on the premises ; but, conducted within the modest 
walls of the peasants' cottages, it is diffused over the whole length and 
breadth of the land. There is scarcely a village within the wide 
limits of the empire, where the wheel, the distaff, and the loom are not 
to be found. 

"With regard to the extent of this species of industry, it is averred 
that linen forms one of those articles of prime necessity which no in- 
dividual in Russia, rich nor poor, can entirely dispense with. Reckon- 
ing only 10 yards, 28 inches in width, for each inhabitant, per annum, 
it would require for the population of 65,500,000 (including Poland) 
a consumption of 655,000,000 yards. 

The culture of flax for commerce is most extensively carried on in 
the governments of Wologda, Wiatka, Jaroslaw, Wladamir, Now- 
gorod, Pskow, Livonia, Courland, Smolensk, Wilna, and Witebsk, 
and that of hemp in the governments of Tschernigow, Koursk, Orel, 
Toula, and Tambow. This important branch of rural economy has 
attracted the special attention of the Russian government, and I will 
mention a few of the steps that have recently been taken by the Min- 
istry of Domains with a view of promoting its progress: — 

1. After having appointed special commissioners to examine and 


report upon the present state of flax-culture and the linen manufac- 
ture, at home and abroad, the Ministry published the results of its 

2. The commissioners also published 6,000 copies of a treatise on 
the preparation of flax. 

3. The Flemish method of cultivating and preparing flax was in- 
troduced on the farms of Gorigoretsk and Wologda, which serve as 
practical schools. 

4. Models of improved heckling machines have been sent into vari- 
ous districts. 

5. Premiums have been awarded for the best qualities of flax ex- 
hibited at the shows. 

6. In order to give facilities for the home trade, flax fairs have been 
established in Livonia. 

7. Constant efforts are made to facilitate for the western provinces 
the means of procuring good seeds from the government of Pskow. 

8. Persuaded that the introduction of mill-spinning would afford 
the most effective stimulus to the improvement of the culture 
of flax, the government has held out encouragements to the first un- 
dertakers of that branch of industry; and, accordingly, at least three 
establishments of this description have been founded within the, last 
three or four years — two in the government of Wologda, and one in 
that of Moscow. 

In regard to the culture of hemp, a commission was also appointed 
to examine into the subject, and its Report points out the defects of 
the system and the remedies which might be applied. 

Connected with the culture of flax and hemp, oleaginous grains 
also form an important part of Russian products for European com- 
merce, as has been stated on a preceding page. In those foreign. 
Gauntries where rape and other oil-producing plants are extensively 
raised, the great object in the cultivation of lint and hemp, as tex- 
tiles, is to obtain the longest stalks and the finest filaments. For this 
purpose, the seed is sown very thick, so that the plant, finding no room: 
lor lateral development, attains considerable height, and produces finer 
fibres, though, on the other hand, it yields much less seed. But,, in. 
Russia, where these plants are cultivated for the sake of the seed,, as 
well as of the lint, the' opposite mode of sowing is pursued. It is 
obvious that this branch of industry might be rendered at once more 
extensive and more lucrative by improving, first, the culture, and then 
the preparation and assortment of the products. For it is well known 
that the various qualities of flax — its color, elasticity, length, flexi- 
bility, and the strength and uniformity of its filaments, greatly depend 
on seed, soil, and culture, as well as on carefully securing and "ret- 
ting" the crop, and in preparing, the flax for sale. But, in all these 
respects, Russian practice is cartless, and the operations are generally 
performed in a slovenly manner and with very imperfect instruments.. 
Yet it does not seem to be the necessary result either of soil and cli- 
mate or of the general condition of rural economy, but may be attri- 
buted to a combination of circumstances which time, enterprise, and. 
intelligence may remove. D. J. B. 




Statement of Daniel Paterson, of Fayette, Howard county, Missouri' 

The average yield of hemp, in this section, is about 1,000 pounds to 
the acre. 

Price, at St. Louis, $125 per ton. 

Statement of L. E. Duput, of Shelby ville, Shelby county, Kentucky. 

Hemp is a valuable crop with us. When we select a good piece of 
land, of light, rich soil, and plough early in the spring, pulverising 
thoroughly with the harrow, and sow in May, the crop is ready to 
harvest in August. The cost per acre is as follows : — 

Interest on land, .... 

Ploughing and harrowing, 

Seed and sowing, .... 

Cutting, two hands one day, 

Stacking and re-spreading to dew-rot, 

Breaking 800 pounds at $1 per 100 pounds, 

Cost per acre, .... 

Value of 800 pounds of hemp at $5, 

Profit per acre, 20 

This may be considered a fair average, though the product is often 
more or less, and the price also is fluctuating. It is usually sold 
in this county, and made into rope for baling cotton, and then sold 
at Louisville and New Orleans, to the cotton planters. 

Hemp, in its cutting and breaking, requires the stoutest hands on 
the farm. One good able-bodied man can take care of 5 acres. 
The breaking is usually done in February, March, and April, as the 
weather may suit. Each man has 100 pounds per day for his task, 
and is paid for what he breaks above that amount, at the rate of $1 
per 100 pounds. The men break from 100 to 200 pounds a day. 

. ♦ 

•. $4 

, . 

. 2 

9 # 

. 2 

# # 

. 2 

m m 

. 2 

Is, . 

. 8 

. 20 

, , 

. 40 



Dr. Henry Perine, who was for a time Consul at Yucatan, among 
many other exotic plants, introduced into the southern part of this 
State, the Sisal hemp (Agave sisalana.) He also introduced two 


other species of the agave, which, from their hardy, self-propagating 
natures, not only survived the effects of the change of climate, 
but increased rapidly until they were destroyed by the Indians, in 
1846. One of them was the "Pulque plant," from which is manu- 
factured, in Mexico, the celebrated domestic drink of that country ; and 
the other was the "Great American aloes," or "Century plant," 
(Agave americana,) the fibre of which is manufactured into cordage 
and various other articles of use. Of these three kinds of agave, so 
far as I know, the Sisal hemp is the only one which appears to be of 
much importance to us in an economical point of view, although 
further acquaintance and experiments may prove the other two like- 
wise valuable, especially the latter. 

The gigantic plant out of which Sisal hemp is made, delights in 
arid, rocky land, which contains a super-abundance of lime. This is 
precisely the condition of the soil of these Keys, and the extreme 
southerly part of the peninsula of Florida, where, alone, it could be 
cultivated in the abscence of frost. It requires less culture than 
other products, but is much benefitted by keeping down the weeds; 
and although it grows best on lands which have the deepest soil, yet 
it grows well where there is but little soil that appears among the 
rocks, sending its long, penetrating roots into the clefts and crevices 
of the rocks in search of black, rich vegetable mould. In fact, the 
hinds on these Keyfi, and much of it on the southern point of the pe- 
ninsula, are nearly worthless for every other agricultural purpose, so 
far as is known ; yet there are thousands of acres in this region 
where a ton of cleaned Sisal hemp can be made to, the acre yearly 
after the plant has arrived at such an advanced stage as will allow 
the lower leaves to be cut from it, which takes, in this climate, from 
three to five years to grow, according to the goodness of the soil, and 
the attention given to keep the land clean of weeds, grass, &c. 
It is no longer an experiment here, as to the growth of the plant, nor 
of the amount of the product; nor is there any longer a doubt as re- 
gards the value of the fibre, a number of tons of it having already 
been collected and sent to market, where it readily brought within a 
half cent to a cent per pound as much as the best kind of Manilla 
hemp ; that is, in the neighborhood of $250 per ton. About a thou- 
sand plants should be set on an acre, and, from many young ones 
coming up from the long lateral roots, if these be kept at proper dis- 
tances, it will be seen that the same land will require no re-planting, 
if coarse vegetable manure be applied from time to time. After the 
plant is of sufficient growth, the lower leaves are cut off, at proper 
times, leaving enough on the top to keep it healthy. Thefce leaves 
are composed of a soft, watery pulp, and are from 2 to 6 feet long, 
and in the middle, from 4 to 6 inches wide, being frequently 
3 inches thick at the but, having the general shape of the head 
of a lance. They contain a gum, which is the chief cause of their 
being rather troublesome in separating the fibres from the pulp. 
Neither the epidermis nor this pulp is more than a powder, after be- 
coming dry, if the gum be entirely crushed and washed out. This is 
a mast important fact in relation to the manner to be adopted to 
cleanse the fibres from the pulp. As these are continuous and pai • 


allel, and embedded in it, I feel certain that a system of passing the 
leaves through a series of heavy iron rollers, firmly set, something 
after those used in grinding sugar-cane, and throwing water upon the 
crushed leaves, in jets, or otherwise, in sufficient quantities to wash 
out the gum, (which is perfectly soluble in it,) will thoroughly clean 
the fibres without any loss ; so that, after they are dry, and have been 
beaten to get out the dust, they will be fit for market. At any rate, 
the right plan for separating the fibres, has not yet been discovered, 
although there has been enough done at it to show that they can be 
got out at a profit. Here, the people either preserve the primitive 
plan, which is practised in Yucatan, of beating and scraping the leaves, 
or simply crush them in a pair of rollers, afterwards steeping 
the crushed ones in an alkaline solution for a few days, and then 
clean the fibres by a kind of combing process. But either scrap- 
ing or combing destroys too many of the fibres, by breaking them, 
which would not be done by a system of rolling and washing out the 
gum. In Yucatan, they ferment the beaten leaves in water, or mud ; 
but this stains and weakens the fibres, so as to reduce their value, I 
believe, more than half. Even steeping the crushed leaves in an al- 
kaline pickle, although it may not weaken the fibres much, as the 
juice of the leaves is acid, destroys that silky gloss which they pos- 
sess when got out of the fresh leaves, with the aid of pure water alone ; 
besides, it needlessly increases the expense, if it ca» be dispensed with. 
A. good deal of attention is being paid to setting out the plant on 
this Island, and on some others along the Reef. I have some 50 acres, 
and continue to increase the quantity as I have opportunity. 
About 3 acres have a good crop of leaves now, and 15 acres have 
been planted nearly three years ; so that it will be necessary for me soon 
to turn a part of my attention to cleaning this pulp. I have made 
up my mind to try the rolling system, and wash out the gum with 
water. This last article, in a pure state, will be the most difficult to 
get, in carrying out the plan on these Keys. 



By the praiseworthy exertions of Mr. W. R. Smith, of the Public 
Conservatory, in Washington, there is now afforded an opportunity 
of ascertaining how far the China grass (Bcehmeria nivea) can be 
successfully cultivated in the United States. There seems to be no 
difficulty in multiplying the plants, and none in obtaining them in 
the condition in which they yield the fibre of commerce. This being 
the case, it is proper that some notice of the history of the plant, 
and its product, should be furnished for the information of those who 
may feel disposed to attempt its cultivation. 


China grass-cloth has been known as an article of commerce for 
many years, but the plant furnishing the material "was only identified 
about the commencement of this century, by Dr. Roxburgh, whose 
labors in bringing to notice the fibres of the East, are only now be- 
ginning to show their effect upon commerce. Another indefatigable 
laborer in the same field, Dr. J. Forbes Royle, has recently published 
a work containing a complete summary of the history of this and 
other Oriental fibres. 

The Boshmeria nivea, (formerly known as Urtica nivea,) belongs to 
the nettle family, every subdivision of which abounds in fibrous 
plants. Dr. Roxburgh described it under the name of Urtica tena- 
cissima, from specimens obtained in Sumatra, and, subsequently, he 
learned that this was the plant yielding the famous "China grass." 
More recently, the identity of the Chinese and Indian plants has been 
determined beyond dispute. From its wide diffusion throughout the 
East, this plant is known under various names, such as "Cha," or 
"Tchou Ma" in China; "Caloee," inSumatra; "Ramee," in Malay; 
and "Rheea," in Assam. Gradually increasing in commercial im- 
portance, this product only obtained the notice of the public, gener- 
ally, at the London Exhibition of 1851, where it was presented in 
every condition, from the crude article to the woven fabric, showing 
a fibre of such beauty and strength that three prize medals were 
awarded to different persons for specimens in the prepared state. 
Samples of these, now in the collection of the United States Patent 
Office, I have submitted to examination, the results of which will be 
given below. 

Of the value of this fibre I can give no better evidence than the 
statement of Dr. Royle, that, as imported into England, it has "sold 
for £60 to £80, and even for £120 a ton." In some parts of India, 
the plant is only cultivated in small quantities, by the fishermen, for 
the manufacture of their nets, lines, &c. The use of the fibre, for 
cordage, is not likely to make its cultivation an object in this country; 
but the great strength, which especially fits it for this purpose, may be 
noted. Various samples, tried against the best Russian hemp, show 
that it bears a weight, sometimes nearly double, and always much 
more than that borne by the hemp. In China and elsewhere, it is 
mainly employed for making the grass-cloth, the softness and strength 
of which give it a character distinct from that of the fabric of any 
other fibre. 

Generally, three crops are taken a year at intervals of about two 
months. The most rapid growth, in the second cutting, yields the 
finest fibre. 

The treatment of the crop varies very much, but, in general, it 
closely resembles that of hemp, except that the fibres are peeled from 
the stalks by hand. They are next exposed to the dew, at night, and 
to the sun, by day, avoiding rain. In other cases, they are soaked in 
lime-water, or even boiled in a slightly alkaline solution. Sometimes, 
again, the fibre is spun, or even woven before it is bleached. 

In short, the treatment is similar to that of other fibres which 
have to be stripped from a woody stem, the only variations in the pro- 
cess depending upon the relative hardness of the wood, which may 


be brittle or tough, and therefore easily or with more difficulty sepa- 
rated from the fibre. It is not improbable that the process of 
-' breaking," used for hemp or flax, will also be applicable to this 

The most successful treatment of the material, after it has readied 
Europe, consists in steeping it in water at a temperature of 90° F., 
for twenty-four hours, and then boiling it in an alkaline solution, 
after which, it is well washed, in clear water, and nearly dried by 
high-pressure steam. 

It may be noticed that the fibre of the plant, which has grown wild, 
has also been sent to Europe ; but this, as might be expected, is 
much coarser than the cultivated product. 

The specimens of the crude material examined were those above 
named, obtained from the London Exhibition of 1851, and others 
kindly presented by Joseph Balestier, late Commissioner to Cochin- 
GLiina, &c, which were also accompanied by the plant itself, obtained 
by him in Java. 

The chief difference in the specimens is in the color, which, in the 
Java plant, is lighter, with a tendency towards green, and with some- 
what more of a gloss. 

The half-bleached and full-bleached line and tow, as received from 
London, were compared with the best specimens of English, French, 
and Belgian flax, from the same exhibition, which last, as usual, 
were unbleached. A very slight examination at once shows the re- 
markable difference between the two materials. The filamonts of 
the flax line, although very fine, showed the ends of the component 
cells, which, on repeated handling, separated from each other. The 
filaments of the China grass, on the other hand, although they had 
been subjected to the process of bleaching, showed no such loose 
ends ; and, after long continued manipulation, still remained smooth, 
glossy, and, apparently, single celled. To be certain upon this point, 
specimens, after boiling in an alkaline solution, of a strength which 
would insure the separation of the individual cells, were repeatedly 
passed back and forth, between the fingers, and then carefully ex- 
amined, from end to end, under the microscope. Every effort was 
made at all doubtful points, by needles, to obtain a separation, if 
possible. As evidence of the care bestowed upon the examination, it 
may be stated that from one to two hours were more than once ex- 
pended upon the scrutiny of a single fibre. The result of this close 
inspection was the development of the fact that the single cells of the 
line of the China grass are of an extraordinary length, often equal 
to, and sometimes far exceeding, that of the longest of which we have 
any record. Five, 6, and 7 inches seem to be not unusual lengths. 
In one case, a filament of over 10 inches in length was severely 
handled, without showing any signs of being composed of more than 
one cell ; but, in this case, the microscope was not used. Even the 
tow of the bleached fibre furnished, in abundance, single cells, or 
fragments, 3 inches or more in length. 

We are now prepared to understand the great strength of the 
"China-grass" cordage, as, in any given length, it has fewer breaks 
of uninterrupted continuity than any other fibre. The character of 


the single cells is as follows : In diameter, they exceed those of 
fine flax, of which, however, many are required to make a line of 
equal length. In cross section, they are irregular, and the greatest 
diameter is found, sometimes in one direction, and sometimes in 
another, somewhat after the manner of cotton. This gives them an 
advantage in spinning, furnishing a better hold of the fibres upon 
each other than if circular in section. 

It is said that specimens of the Oriental fabric have been examined, 
in which the thread was untwisted, being made up of long filaments, 
joined end to end by some glue or cement. We know that this is 
true of the celebrated "pigna," or "pina," a fabric made from the 
pine-apple fibre, and the facts above named show that it may also be 
true of the China grass. This untwisted thread gives a peculiar 
transparency to the fabric, which cannot be imitated. No attempts 
have ever been made in Europe, nor in this country, to reproduce such 
an article, which, probably, requires too much manual labor to be pro- 
fitable. The full-bleached line above mentioned is remarkably glossy 
and soft, and in some respects is not unlike silk in appearance. The 
whole character of the fibre is so distinct as to prevent any mistake 
as to the recognition of the article. 

Although we have no mention of the employment of the tow, 
there can be no doubt of its applicability to the manufacture of an 
excellent fabric. The fibre, obtained by different cultivators, can be 
transmitted to the Patent Office for examination. In order to have a 
long, fine fibre, the crop should stand pretty close, and, when in small 
patches, it should be surrounded by other plants of similar height, 
in order to have the whole yield of the same quality. Or, the exte- 
rior plants may be used for propagation, leaving only the tallest to be 
tried for their fibre. 


Statement o/W. R. Smith, of the Puhlic Conservatory, Washington, 
District of Columbia. 

From a small paper of the seeds of the " Chinese Grass-linen 
plant," (Beehmeria nivea,) which I obtained from the island of Ja- 
maica, I propagated, under glass, about fifty plants, and subsequently 
rempved them into the open air. From these, I hope to be able to 
continue to propagate others, by cuttings, during the next and suc- 
ceeding summers, in sufficient numbers to meet futnre demands. 

The seeds, which are small and require close attention, I sowed 
in March, in an eight-inch flower-pot, filled with equal parts of leaf- 
mould, common soil, and sand, covering them lightly with a sifted 
portion of the same soil. In order to keep them moist, I spread over 
the surface of the pot a regular layer of sphagnum, or bog-moss, 


■which I removed as the plants came up. By these means, the seeds 
readily vegetated in a temperature of 55° F. 

This product can also be multiplied, in the spring, by cuttings of 
the half-ripened shoots, planted in sand, regularly moistened, and 
shaded from the bright rays of the sun. Beneath the sand, which 
ehould be about 2 inches deep, there should be placed a lay'er of 
sphagnum, say an inch in thickness, to admit the roots freely, and 
afterwards facilitate the transplanting. 

My impression is, that this plant will survive the winter in the 
open air, in any part of the United States, except the mountainous 
districts, south of Pennsylvania ; and it may possibly become natu- 
ralised in the extreme South. It will thrive in any ordinary soil. 




The proper time for cutting Timothy meadows, (herds-grass of 
ISew England,) with reference to securing the best qualities of hay, 
has been a fruitful subject of observation and remark. Little or no 
attention has been paid to the influence of the time and manner of 
cutting, over tho health, permanency, and productiveness of such 
meadows. A vague idea prevails, among farmers, that, if the mowing 
be performed before the seed of this species of grass is ripe, it will 
run out, from a failure to re-seed the ground. Every observing farmer 
has noticed that, in some instances, extensive tracts of Timothy sward 
have suddenly died, soon after the removal of the crop of hay, while, 
in others, the sward continued healthy, and for a series of years pro- 
duced abundantly of this grass. The rationale of such opposite re- 
sults, under apparently similar circumstances, had never been ex- 
plained, so far as my information extends. 

My neighbor, Richard McCrary, an intelligent and practical far- 
mer, has recently presented me with the annexed propositions and 
conclusions, as the result of his experience on this subject. These he 
illustrated by specimens of the grass, in every condition to which he 
alludes. It is hoped they will be thoroughly scanned, by persons 
competent to test their accuracy. If they bear this test, to Mr. Mc- 
Crary the credit of the discovery of the facts solely belongs ; and I 
have no doubt the community will consider him as having conferred 
an important benefit. 

1. Timothy grass (Phleiim pratense) is a perennial plant, which re- 
news itself by an annual formation of "bulbs," or, perhaps, more cor- 
rectly speaking, tubers, in which all the vitality of the plant is con- 
centrated during the winter. (See Figure 1.) These form, in whatever 
locality the plant is selected, without reference to dryness or mois- 



tifTe.* From these, proceed the stalks which support the leaves and 
head, and from the same source spread out the numerous fibres, form- 
ing the true roots. 

2. To insure a perfect development of these tubers, 
a certain amount of nutrition must be assimilated in 
the leaves, and returned to the base of the plant, 
through the stalk. 

3. As soon as this process of nutrition is completed, it 
becomes manifest by the appearance of a state of desic- 
cation, or dryness, always commenc- 
ing at a point directly above either the 
first or second joint of the stem, near 
the crown of the tuber. From this 

point, the desicca- 
tion gradually pro- 
gresses upwards, 
and the last portion 
of the stalk that 
yields up itsr fresh- 
ness is that adjoin- 
ing the head. Co- 
incident with the 
beginning of this 
process is the full 
development of the 
seeds, and with its 
progress they ma- 
ture. Its earliest 
appearance is evi- 
dence that both the 
tubers and seeds 
have received their 
requisite sup plies 
of nutrition, and 
that neither the 
stalk nor the leaves 
are longer necessa- 
ry to aid them in 

Fir. 1. denotes a mature and fully developed tuber, from which the stalk was cut, some distance above 
the point at which deslcation commences, and at a period after the process had begun. (Proposition 3.) 

Fig- 2. shows a partially developed tuber, exhibiting lateral growths of small tubers and shoots, the 
iirTcct of premature cutting. (Proposition 4.) 

Fig. 3. exhibits a dead tuber, caused by cutting below the point of desiccation. (Proposition 5.) 

completing their maturity. A similar process occurs in the onion, 
just above the crown of the bulb, indicating the maturity of that 

* Mr. Laplmm, in his valuable article on "The Grasses of Wisconsin," (Transactions of 
the Wisconsin Agricultural Society, Vol. 3, 1853, page 425,) says : " When growing in very 
dry places, bulbs are frequently formed on the roots of Timothy grass, as a sort of store-house 
of moisture, &c, from which to draw supplies of nutriment, for the future growth of the 
plant." Mr. McCrary supposes it occurs in all localities, and is the nature aud habit of 4ha 
plant. In this, he is probably correct. 


4. If the stalk be cut from the tubers, before this evidence of matu- 
rity lias appeared, the necessary supplies of "nutrition will be ar- 
rested, their proper growth will cease, and an effort will be made ^ to 
repair the injury, by sending out small lateral tubers, from which 
weak and unhealthy stalks will proceed, at the expense of the origi- 
nal tubers. (See Figure 2.) All will ultimately perish, either by the 
droughts of autumn or the cold of winter.* 

5. The tubers, together with one or two of the lower joints of the 
stalk, remain fresh and green, during the winter, if left to take 
their natural course ; but if, by any means, this green portion be se- 
vered, at any season of the year, the result will be the death of the 
plant. (See Figure 3.) 

From the foregoing considerations it is concluded, 

1. That Timothy grass cannot, under any circumstances, be 
adapted for pasture ; as the close nipping of horses and sheep is fatal 
to the tubers, which are also extensively destroyed by swine. 

2. The proper period for mowing Timothy is at any time after the 
process of desiccation has commenced on the stalk, as noted in Pro- 
position 3. It is not very essential whether it is performed a week 
earlier or later, provided it be postponed till that evidence of matu- 
rity has become manifest. 

3. All attempts at close shaving the sward should be avoided, while 
using the scythe, and, in gauging mowing-machines, care should be 
taken to run them so high that they will not cut the Timothy below 
the second joint above the tuber. 


Statement of George W. Hall, of Mormon Creek, California. 

Oats, barley, and wheat are our principal crops, the former being 
chiefly grown for hay. The seed required, per acre, to make good 
hay, is about 3 bushels ; the average yield is 1^ tons. 

Owing to the great drought, crops are lighter this season than 
usual ; but I have over 50 tons of hay, from 45 acres, which sells 
readily for $60 a ton. Notwithstanding the high price of labor, $4 a 
day, my whole "rancho" will net me over $50 an acre. 

* Florists know that if the stalk of the white lily be cut, prematurely, a similar result en- 
sues ; and that, b}' cutting off the stem and leaves of herbaceous peonies, before they are ma- 
ture, the tubers will be so much impaired as to fail to bloom the next season. 


Statement of Stephen N. Lindley, of Monroe, Jasper county, Iowa. 

Timothy seed is raised in great quantities in Lee and Henry coun- 
ties, and has been, for several years, one of our chief articles of export. 
As many as 400 acres have been cut, on one farm, for seed ; and many 
of our farmers cut from 60 to 100 acres annually. Before the seed is 
cut, buyers, or their agents, are actually bidding for the crops. 

The soil of this part of the State is better adapted to Timothy than 
most portions of the prairie country, being more firm, and not so 
light. The most common mode of sowing is with oats or spring 
wheat, though it is sometimes sown in the fall, when the stubble is 
burnt off, and the seed harrowed in, at the rate of a peck to the acre. 
The grass is allowed to become fully ripe before cutting, which is 
done with a reaper, as no progress could be made with a cradle. 
When cut, it is bound in large sheaves, and allowed to stand until the 
seed begins to drop from the outside heads. It is then threshed, and 
the hay immediately stacked. When this is done, and salt has been 
added, at the rate of 15 or 20 pounds to a ton, it makes good second- 
rate hay ; better for any kind of stock than straw. Some farmers 
think the hay will pay the cost of cutting, threshing, and cleaning. 
The average yield of seed is 6 bushels to the acre, which is worth 
from $2 to $2 50 per bushel. As land is cheap, and labor dear and 
scarce, with us, no crop will pay better wdiile the present prices con- 
tinue. Eastern farmers prefer our seed, from the fact that many of 
the noxious weeds that infest their meadows are unknown here, and 
the high price of hay there makes it more profitable to buy their seed. 

The following is a correct estimate of the cost of 10 acres of 
Timothy : — 

Interest at 10 per cent, on the cost of 10 acres of land, at $15, 
Cutting, 50 cents per acre, ..... 

Five hands to bind, including board, 
Threshing and cleaning seed, ..... 
Stacking hay, including salt, and board, . 

To meet this, we have GO bushels of seed, worth, at the aver 
age price, $2 25 per bushel, ...... 

Ten tons of hay, worth $3 per ton, . . . . 

Deduct expenses, 
Net profit, 

, $1 










34 75 











Statement of L. E. Dupey, of Shelby ville, Shelby county, Kentucky. 

One of our most valuable crops is blue-grass, which we get for the 
sowing, without any cultivation. We sow with clover, on wheat or 


rye, 3 "bushels of seed to the acre. The first season will produce a 
good crop of clover, which will be succeeded by the blue-grass. When 
this is well set, our farmers realise from $5 to 10 an acre, in grazing 
stock ; and, at the same time, the land is increasing in fertility so 
fast, that, in a few years' grazing, to make it yield from 60 to 75 bushels 
of corn to the acre. 

One great advantage of blue-grass is, that, if the stock is kept 
from it during the summer, the grass will remain equally as valuable 
for winter grazing. 

Statement of J. B. Gilmer, of Pineville, Bossier parish, Louisiana. 

The "mesquit" is not a native of this vicinity. I introduced it 
from Western Texas some ten years ago, and can speak more highly 
of it than of any other grass with which I am acquainted. It stands 
the cold of winter well, is annual, and reproduces itself from its seed 
with the certainty of "crop-grass." 

The ' ' grama' ' grass is indigenous to this immediate region, grows in 
great abundance, is a strong, hardy, coarse grass, and occupies a low 
position in its native state. Something in the way of rough hay for 
cattle might be made of it, by cultivation, and cutting while young. 
The mesquit-grass will ripen its seed, in this latitude, from the 15th 
of May to the 15th of June, but the grama-grass, not before August; 
consequently, the mesquit will be forwarded several months in ad- 
vance of the grama-seed. 

The proper time for sowing the mesquit is September ; the grama, 
I think, in the spring. For sowing mesquit, let the land be well 
ploughed ; then brush or harrow the seed in lightly. The grama- 
grass will come up and grow well under any mode of culture. 

Statement of John B. C. G-azzo, of La Fourche parish, Louisiana. 

The Bermuda grass, (Gynodon dactylon,) in this State, far excels 
the celebrated Kentucky blue-gra6s, either for summer or winter pas- 
ture. It is propagated by inoculating the turves, or sods, of the roots. 
The ground is put in thorough order, if intended for the meadow, and 
harrowed quite smooth after deep ploughing. The turves, or a few 
joints of stems and roots, planted in squares of 2 or 3 feet in dimen- 
sions, quickly cover the ground. 

For hay-making, this grass will yield more than double the return 
of nutritious fodder than any other grass of this locality. 

Statement of Samuel J. Fletcher, near Winchester, Clark county, 


Timothy hay does well here. It is worth about $10 a ton in the 
stack. I bale and ship mine to St. Louis, where it netted me last 
year $20 a ton. 


Statement of D. R. Stillman, of Alfred Centre, Alleghany county, 

New York. 

The principal grasses cultivated in this section, for hay, are Timo- 
thy (herds-grass) and red clover, which are generally grown together 
in the same field. Two tons of good hay to the acre is the maximum 
yield ; for when it grows sufficiently large to exceed that amount, it 
deteriorates in quality. The average yield will not much exceed a 
ton to the acre ; and half a ton is probably the least that will pay 
the cost of production. 

The cost of raising a ton of hay is about $4, and it will sell here 
for $6. The cost of transportation to New York, by railroad, is $12 
a ton. 

Statement of James Taylor, of Murphy, Cherokee county, North 


The evergreen-grass, a sample of which I have sent to the Patent 
Office, is very good for pasturing, through the fall and winter. I 
have no knowledge of its origin. It will do best when sown on dry 
land, and is well adapted for sheep. It grows well on rocky soil, to 
the height of 4 or 5 feet, when ripe, continuing green, in the spring, 
and affording fine herbage, throughout the winter. It is best to sow 
in the spring with oats. A peck of well-cleaned seed is sufficient to 
put on an acre, or a bushel in the chaff. It ripens by the 1st of June, 
or a little before rye harvest, and is cut with a scythe and cradle, as 
we cut rye. If sown in the spring, this grass will not come to seed 
before the next year. If sown in the fall, it will bring seed the fol- 
lowing spring. I do not know its yield of hay to the acre, but be- 
lieve it to be equal to that of any grass we have. 

Statement of John P. Haller, of Lima, Allen county, Ohio. 

The principal varieties of grass raised in this county are Timothy, 
clover, and red-top, all of which do well. Timothy does best on the 
lower grounds, but clover should be sown on those which are elevated 
and dry. The average yield of hay is about 1| tons to the acre. 

Clover-seed is a considerable product of exportation. 

Statement of James McK. Snodgrass, of Mifflin, Alleghany county, 



Clover and Timothy are our principal grasses. They produce well 
when sown separately, but make the best meadow and pasture when 
about equally mixed, which, on good soil, and under favorable cir- 
cumstances, will yield over 2 tons to the acre, though 1^ tons is an 
average yield. 

The fields are kept in meadow, or pasture, three or four years. We 
then plough deep, during winter or early spring, and plant corn, and 


the next season oats, followed by wheat and grass seeds. By this 
mode, our land is kept in a state of continual improvement. Land 
that has been exhausted by careless or injudicious farming has by this 
renovating process been brought, in a short time, to a good state of 
cultivation and improvement. 

Statement of John F. Bennett, of Pittsburg, Alleghany county, 


About two years since, I obtained from the Patent Office a small 
parcel of "Alfalfa" seed, the lucerne grass of the Andes. I sowed 
it on the highest "knoll" on my farm, which is about 600 feet above 
the river, or about 1 ,250 feet above tide-water. This knoll was chosen 
as being poor ground, with a thin soil of about 9 inches, on the top 
of a marly sand-rock, the latter, however, being shaly and easy of 
disintegration. The alfalfa readily came up, and promised well. 
Through all that long, dry summer, it continued to grow, and almost 
flourish. In July, it gave a few blossoms, and in August ripened a 
part of its seed, which I carefully gathered and preserved. It lived 
through last winter and has flourished during the last season. In 
May last, about six weeks after the seed was sown, I had weeded 
the ground, just about the time the last rains came on. This, of 
course, was injurious, as it turned out ; for, as no more rain fell during 
the summer, the scattered stalks thereby had to bear the whole brunt 
of the scorching sun. 

I was so much pleased with the alfalfa, that I got a merchant to 
procure me, from Chili, about 40 pounds of this seed, which reached 
me in March last. After giving away a part of it for distribution 
among my farming friends, and distributing a few half pounds 
among my neighbors, I sowed 4 acres of good land with it amongst 
spring oats, which, this favorable season, have flourished exceedingly 
well, growing, after the oats were cropped, to a height of 21 to 24 
inches, and yielding nourishing food to the cattle that were turned 
into it. 

For some years back, owing to the irregular weather in the winters, 
sudden freezings and thawings, most of the clover sown in this neigh- 
borhood had perished, each new sowing of clover seeming to faro 
worse than the preceding one. This grass seems to be_ independent 
of the extremes of heat and cold, wet and dry, sending down its 
roots so deep that heat cannot scorch it, nor cold freeze it. 

Statement of Eichard Lechnor, of Stouchburg, Berks county, 

Timothy, with us, is generally sown in the fall, either broadcast 
after the harrow, or by means of a Timothy sower attached t® th« 
drill. Clover is then applied, in the spring, towards the end of March ; 
some, however, sow as late as the middle of April. Early sowing is 
preferable, as that which is young will more readily scorch by the 


parching rays of trie sun in July and August, than it will be destroyed 
by late spring frosts. The quantity sown varies from 5 to 8 quarts 
of clover, and about half the amount of Timothy, to the acre. It is 
considered best to have the grass well mixed with different varieties ; 
they should be sown sufficiently thick to exclude all foul plants or 
weeds. Clover is believed to be one of the best grasses, on account of 
its exuberant growth, and its fertilising properties, being excellent 
for pasturage, and a good renovator of the soil. In wet lands, Timo- 
thy is generally preferred to clover, as it is less subject to winter-kill. 
The yield per acre varies from 1 to 3 tons, according to the richness 
of the soil and the nature of the season. The cost of growing hay 
is about $6 a ton ; the present price, $24 a ton. 

Statement of Nathaniel Green, near Middletoivn, Newport county, 

Rhode Island. 

The hay-crop on this inland is of great value to our farmers. They 
generally mow over less surface than formerly, yet they obtain as 
much or more hay to the acre, by top-dressing their fields with ma- 
nure once every two or three years. 

The principal grasses cultivated are Timothy, clover, red-top, and 
"Borden's grass." All of these are often sown together, in the same 
field, and thrive well. Clover and Timothy, the first year, generally 
gain the ascendancy over the other kinds. The second year, Timo- 
thy and red-top come in together, and Borden's grass comes as the 
other two run out. Clover seldom lasts more than one year ; Timo- 
thy two or three years ; red-top and Borden's grass generally remain 
until the land is re-ploughed.' 

"White weed," otherwise called the "Daisy," comes in when the 
grass seeds are sown and fail to take root. When cut, at the time it 
first begins to shed its blossoms, and properly cured, it makes very 
good fodder ; and, instead of being a pest to the fields, as has been 
the case in other parts of the country, it is here considered an accept- 
able visiter. It seldom appears where the grasses take root and 
grow well, but seems to be a "volunteer" to supply their places. 
Sometimes, a ton or more is obtained to the acre, while the grasses 
yield from 1 to 2 tons. Mowing-machines are now employed heie 
with success. 

The price of hay, delivered at Newport, is from $18 to $20 a ton. 




Statement of John B. C. G-azzo, of La Four die parish, Louisiana. 

The "Water oat," or "Wild rice," (Zizania aquatica,) is an in- 
teresting plant, exceedingly prolific, the roots of which are perennial. 
It grows at the edges of our prairies and bayous. Stock of every 
description are fond of it, when green or cured as hay. The first set- 
tlers of Louisiana called it folic avoine. It is also found wild in all 
the Southern States, grows tall, and will yield two crops a year of 
good hay. 



Statement of John B. Luce, of Fort Smith, Sebastian county, Arkansas. 

The package I now send, contains a part of the produce of a table- 
spoonful of Japan peas, planted on the 22d of June last. They were 
raised without any rain, not enough in a single shower to lay the 
dust, from the time of planting until after the first few pods had 
matured. The yield was half a bushel of choice seed. They were 
raised in a cotton-field, being planted singly, in the missing hills, 
and received the same treatment as the cotton. 

The soil was a rich, sandy loam, in the Arkansas "bottom." I 
raised others in a very poor upland, in a peach orchard. They wexe 
planted in drills, worked but once, and suffered much from the shade, 
as well as from drought ; yet the yield was fair. 

Statement of JonN Danforth, of New London, New London county, 


In April last, I planted thirteen hundred and seventy-six Japan 
peas, from which I raised 4 quarts of seed. Somo of the pea-vines 
I used as green fodder for my cattle. 

Statement of Abram Weaver, of Bloomfidd, Davis county, Ioiva. 

I planted twenty-three of the Japan peas, I received from the 
Patent Office, of which number eighteen grew. They were cultivated 


in my garden, on the 20th of May, and ripened, say from the 15th of 
August to the 15th of September. I planted them 3 feet apart, two 
peas in a hill, and, when fully grown, the branches were touching, 
the main stalk, attaining about 3^ feet in height. The summer was 
unusually dry. They were kept clear of weeds, but were not watered, 
except by rain, while growing. I am fully satisfied that, in an ordi- 
nary season, they would attain a height of 4 or 5 feet. 

I think more bushels of these peas can be raised to the acre than 
of corn. I had some of them cooked, while green, at their largest 
size, and found them delicious. I am of opinion that a few acres, 
grown for the purpose of turning hogs in, to feed on them, before 
commencing to give them corn, would be a valuable crop. The stalk 
will stand as firmly as corn. 

Statement of W. D. Lindsley, of Sandusky city, Erie county, Ohio. 

On the 15th of May last, I planted a parcel of Japan peas in a 
rich, loose, sandy soil ; but they did not all ripen before we were visited 
by frost. I planted others on the 31st of May, and again on the 15th 
of June. It is almost needless to say that none of the latter matured 
their pods. They should be planted in hills or drills, 4 feet by 3 feet 
apart, and one stalk in a place. 

This pea is one of the most productive I have met with, and is well 
adapted for field-culture, as it has but one stalk, which sends forth 
numerous branches, every part of which are covered with pods well 
filled. It is not good for culinary use ; but is excellent for domestic 
fowls and for stock. Poultry are remarkably fond/)f it, and fatten 
much more rapidly than when fed on corn. 



Statement of H. M. Bry, of Monroe, Ouachita parish, Louisiana. 

The celebrated " Oregon pea," said to have been discovered in 
Oregon or the Eocky Mountains, a few years since, has been culti- 
vated by me upwards of twenty-five years, and by my father about 
fifty years. He obtained the seed from the captain of a slaver, from 
the coast of Angola, a year or two after the cession of Louisiana ; and 
it has been known and cultivated here ever since that period as the 
"Angola pea." 

As I had seen miraculous statements concerning the Oregon pea, 
for a year or two past, and as I had a great fondness for agricultural 
experiments, I, of course, was among the first to obtain a few of the 


seeds. As soon as I saw them, I was satisfied of their identity with 
the Angola pea ; but, as I thought that I might possibly be mistaken, 
I cultivated them, and the result confirmed my previous opinion. As 
I have raised this pea for years, I can speak of its qualities : It is well 
adapted for the table, for hay, and for a fertiliser. It is undoubtedly 
a tropical plant, and, for aught I know, it would continue to bear for 
years from the same stalk. I frequently cut it for hay, when it began 
to form its seeds, before the coming of frost, when it is as full branches 
and leaves as at first. 

Statement of George Luther, of Longstreet, Moore county, North 


1 planted the Oregon peas, I received from the Patent Office, on the 
28th of April. They came up and grew well for some time ; but, on 
the 4th of August, when they were from 2\ to 5 feet high, we had a 
heavy squall, which blew them all down, and broke about half of 
them off at the ground. I thought for some time the roots would 
send up sprouts, but they did not. I offered some of those that were 
broken off to my cattle and horses, but none would eat them. I 
observed closely, to see if the branches come out at every joint, but in 
this I was disappointed, and they did not begin to bear until late in 
the fall, and then only bore pods on the extreme ends of the limbs, 
and these so late that a third part were destroyed by the frost, though 
the fall was mild. 

The "Chinese" pea, from its size and color, could not be distin- 
guished from the Oregon pea. I obtained a few plants from these, 
which were perfectly similar to the Oregon pea, until the stalk was 
about a foot high. They then began to blossom, and bore pods, which 
resembled those of the Oregon pea. They then sent out a number of 
vines, each of which bore at every joint. It was late in May when I 
received them. I planted some of the first that ripened, and they 
matured before frost. I think three, if not four crops of them, may 
be made here in one season. 

Statement of William H. Goudy, of Buteville, Marion county, Oregon 


There is no such product here as the "Oregon pea," described by 
a writer in the Keport of 1853. There is an excellent field-pea, which 
was introduced by the Hudson Bay Company. It is a yellowish- 
white, and nearly the size of what is known as the "May" pea in the 
Western States. The stalks, when planted in good rich land, grow 
4 feet high, sending out several lateral shoots, with short joints, which 
have from 2 to 4 pods at a joint, that seldom contain more than six 

What is known here as the "Field" pea will yield on good land 30 
bushels to the acre. The peas are fed to hogs, and the vines make 
good hay. 

Peas are considered superior to wheat to fatten hogs. The cost of 
raising is about the same as that grain. 


Statement of Victor Scriba, of Pittsburg, Alleghany county, 

The " Oregon" pea was cultivated here both in 1854 and 1855. In the 
former, on account of the great drought, it entirely failed. Last spring, 
I. so wed mine about the middle of April , but a late frost killed nearly 
half the plants I had. The other half lingered for several months, 
seemingly not to grow at all, until the last of August, or early in 
September, when they grew more vigorously and commenced to blos- 
som. The early frosts, however, about the middle of October, killed 
the unripe pods, stalks, and leaves in a single night. The stalk at- 
tained a height of only 2£ or 3 feet. 

All the other Oregon peas cultivated in this vicinity, as far as I 
could learn, shared the same fate. 



Statement of Victor Scriba, of Pittsburg, Alleghany comity, 


Last season, I raised a patch of the "Earth Almond," or " Chufa" 
(Cyperus esculentus,) each plant of which produced over one hundred 
tubers. In Europe, they are eaten raw, like chesnuts or almords, and 
are used in cakes or confectionary like the latter ; and, even when 
pounded with sugar, the mixture is equal in every respect to the 
emulsion of almonds. They are also used as the best substitute for 



Statement 0/ John B. C. Gazzo, of La Fourche parish, Louisiana. 

The "Pea-nut," "Pindar," or "Ground-nut," (Arachis hypogaa,) 
when cultivated in this section, requires a good alluvial soil, although 
it will grow well on sandy land. The seeds are dibbled in rows, so as 
to leave the plants a foot apart each way. As soon as the flowers ap- 
pear, the vines are earthed up from time to time, so as to keep them 
chiefly within the ground. 

When cultivated alone, and there is sufficient moisture, the yield 
of nuts is from 60 to 75 bushels to the acre. If allowed to gro^w 
without earthing up, the vines will yield half a ton of hay to the 
acre. They are killed by the first frost, when the nuts are mature and 
ready for use. ' 





Statement of GrERSHOM Wiborn, of Victor, Ontario county, Neiv York. 

Having had some experience in raising carrots for feeding to stock, 
I will give an estimate of the expense of raising and securing an 
acre. The ground should be rich and low, but thoroughly drained, 
and worked at least 15 inches deep, with a subsoil plough. It should 
be harrowed, rolled, and then formed into ridges 2 feet apart. The 
seed should be sown with a hand-drill, as early in the spring as the 
field can be properly worked, as an early sowing is far more likely 
to come up than a late one. Carrot-seed, of all others, requires a 
very damp, fine soil to vegetate. 

An acre of suitable land, well worked, in general, will yield from 
jOO to 1,000 bushels of roots, the nutritive value of which, by mea- 
ure, is equal to one-fourth of that of corn-meal. 

The following is an estimate of the expense of cultivating : — 

Ploughing and preparing, . 
Seed, 3 pounds, 
Drilling in the seed, 
Hoeing first time, six days, 
Hoeing second time, six days, 
Hoeing third time, four days, 
Digging and housing, 







Statement of O. H. Kelly, of Northwood, Benton county, Minnesota. 

The seeds of the mangold-wurzel, which I received from the Pa- 
tent Office, succeeded well and grew to a large size. A few of the 
roots were sliced, and given to my hogs, which they ate in preference 
to corn. I believe it to be a most valuable root to raise for stock- 
feeding, in general. I shall continue to cultivate it. 




Statement of John T. Andrew, of West Cornwall, Litchfield county, 


The several varieties of turnip-seed, sent me from the Patent Office 
in June last, were well cultivated, and the results observed with care. 
They were sown in drills, 18 inches apart, and 8 inches asunder, along 
the drills, allowing only one plant in a place to remain after 
thinning. The ground was kept loose, and free from weeds, by re- 
peated hand-hoeings. 

"Sutton's Improved Green Globe" proved good, germinated well, 
and produced uniform bulbs of middling quality, but not satisfactory 
in quantity, the yield being about 500 bushels to the acre. 

"Ashcroft's Swede" came pure, germinated well, and grew with 
a healthy and rapid development. The quality of the bulbs was 
good and the yield fair, the product being about 800 bushels to the 
acre. The tops were very large, and of a dark green color. 

" Lincolnshire Red Globe" proved excellent ; the bulbs were 
Avhite below the surface, purple above, and very large and unform. 
The quality was superior, being free from rootlets, smooth, solid, and, 
in every respect, perfect of its kind. The tops were very large, ex- 
tending from the opposite extremities of its leaves 4 feet. The 
weight of the largest bulb, with its top, when pulled, was 15 pounds. 
The small parcel of seed was sown in a row 20 rods long, and pro- 
duced 22 bushels. 

This experiment justifies the hope that the Lincolnshire Red Globe 
will prove one of the best turnips known to us, and a great acquisi- 

Statement of B. F. Wibur, of Monson, Piscataquis county, Maine. 

The "White globe," or "Norfolk" turnip, an English variety, I 
planted on the 1st of May, in drills 2 feet apart, on ground prepared 
as we usually prepare for our common field crop of ruta-bagas, and 
the yield was nearly double that of the ruta-baga by the side of it. 
Some few of the largest weighed from 10 to 15 pounds each. I shall 
continue to cultivate this variety, as it is decidedly better than the 
common English turnip, grown in this vicinity. 

"Skirving's Improved Swede" was planted on the same plat, side 
by side with the above, and other field-crops, and does not appear to 
be any better than the common ruta-baga. The crown of the root is 
inclined to grow much longer, and the yield is no better. 




Report of cm experiment of twenty-six varieties of Turnip-seed, by 
BaMUEL D. Martin, of Pine Grove, Kentucky, in 1855. 


Skirving's Swede 

Rivers' Stubble Swede 

Laing's Swede 

Green-topped Swede 

Dale's Hybrid 

Green-topped Six-weeks 

Snow Ball 


Small Yellow Malta 

White Globe or Norfolk White... 
Green Round or Norfolk Green.... 

Green Globe or Green Norfolk 

Golden Ball 

Red Globe or Norfolk Red 

White Tankard or Decanter 

Green Tankard or Decanter 

Yellow Tankard or Decanter. . . . 

Red Tankard or Decanter 

Green-topped Scotch 

Purple- topped Scotch. 

Skirving's Purple-topped Scotch. 
Early Stone or Stubble Stone. . . . 

Yellow Stone 

Red-topped Stone 

White Dutch 

Yellow Dutch 


%- to 

o a 



i- <2 

g o 

p, O 


p o 




July 19 









Aug. 8 






Aug. 1 






























Aug. 8 















Aug. 9 









c t 






Injured by freshet. 
Destroyed by freshet- 

Ground not filled. 

Ground not filled. 

Eaten by grasshoppers 

The seeds were presented to the Patent Office, for experiment, by- 
Messrs. Charlwood and Cummins, seedsmen, of London. 

They were mostly sown upon sod-land, ploughed four times, har- 
rowed twelve times, and rolled twice. Stable manure was spread 
broadcast at the rate of 160 bushels to the acre, finely pulverised ; 
except to the Swedes, to which it was applied in drills. 

The first sowing was almost destroyed by the turnip-fly, and the 
second by grasshoppers. Those which stood, were so much injured, 
that they grew very little before the weather became cool. 

The Swedes were transplanted in drills August 4th. 

The crop was harvested November 12th. 


Report of an experiment of twenty-six varieties of Turnip-seed, by 
A. G-. Comings, of Freetown, Bristol county, 31assachusetts, in 1855. 


Skirving's Swede 

Rivers' Stubble Swede 

Laing's Swede 

Green- topped Swede 

Dale' s Hybrid 

Green-topped Six-weeks 

Snow Ball 


Small Yellow Malta 

White Globe or Norfolk White- 
Green Round or Norfolk Green. 
Green Globe or Green Norfolk. . 

Golden Ball 

Red Globe or Norfolk Red., 

White Tankard or Decanter... . 
Green Tankard or Decanter. . . . 
Yellow Tankard or Decanter. . . 

Red Tankard or Decanter 

Green-topped Scotch 

Purple-topped Scotch 

Skirving's Purple-topped Scotch 
Early Stone or Stubble Stone 

Yellow Stone 

Red-topped Stone 

White Dutch 

Yellow Dutch 

July 11 

July 24 

Nov. 5 

Nov. 19 

u £ 





< 2 





lent, [• 
early. J 




The seeds were presented to the Patent Office, for experiment, by 
Messrs. Charlwood and Cummins, seedsmen, of London. 

The soil was a sandy loam, from which a hay-crop was mown on 
the 25th of June, when it was ploughed for the turnips. 

Eight cords of stable manure and 300 pounds of phosphate of 
lime, were used to the acre. 

The crop was severely injured by drought from the 1st of August. 



Report of an experiment ivith ticenty-six varieties of Turnip-seed, by 
Charles A. Nason, of Hampton Falls, Neiu Hampshire, in 1855. 



U m 

§3 m 

d o 



<=> a 

P. ° 

w o 


1-1 o 


,a a, 

o *■ . 

es »J o 
■K O O 

.2 *" p 

a ° 

S3 ° 

& o -^ 

9<=> S3 


S a> 

o ^ 

P ° 

^ o 

<j o 

June 27 


















July 15 

































































( 1 








































Skirving's Swede 

Rivers' Stubble Swede 

Laing's Swede 

Green-topped Swede 

Dale's Hybrid 

Green- topped Six-weeks 

Snow Ball 


Small Yellow Malta 

White Globe or Norfolk White... 
Green Round or NorfolkGreen. . . 
Green Globe or Green Norfolk... 

Golden Ball 

Red Globe or Norfolk Red 

White Tankard or Decanter 

Green Tankard or Decanter 

Yellow Tankard or Decanter.... 

Red Tankard or Decanter 

Green-topped Scotch , 

Purple-topped Scotch 

Skirving's Purple- topped Scotch 
Early Stone or Stubble Stone... 


Red-topped Stone 

White Dutch 

Yellow Dutch 


The seeds were presented to the Patent Office, for experiment, by 
Messrs. Charlwood and Cummins, seedsmen, of London. 

The soil was generally gravelly loam, made light and fine, but 
sometimes inclined to clay. The high, dry gravelly land did not 
answer so well as moister soils. The seed was drilled in about 18 
inches apart. The plants were weeded once or twice and thinned 
out from 5 to 8 inches asunder. 

The fertiliser used was a compost consisting of 20 parts of barn- 
yard manure, 8 parts of salt-marsh mud, 8 parts of hog-manure, 3 
parts of wood ashes, and 1 part of lime — the whole well pulverised and 
worked together, and applied at the rate of 25 cords to the acre, well 
harrowed and intermixed with the soil. 

The roots were more or less affected by drought, according to the 
situation of the soil. 

The crop was but little injured by insects. 

Time of harvesting, October 15th. 



Report of an experiment with twenty-six varieties of Turnip-seed, by 
Joseph J. Cooke, of Providence, Rhode Island, in 1855. 


Skirving's Swede 

Rivers' Stubble Swede 

Laing's Swede 

Green-topped Swede 

Dale's Hybrid 

Green- topped Six- weeks 

Snow Ball , 

Strap leaved 

Small Yellow Malta 

White Globe or Norfolk White. 

Green Round or Norfolk Green. 

Green Globe or Green Norfolk... 

Golden Ball 

Red Globe or Norfolk Red 

White Tankard or Decanter 

Green Tankard or Decanter 

IT I Yellow Tankard or Decanter 

l8|Red Tankard or Decanter 

1 9 1 Green-topped Scotch 

20|Purple-topped Scotch 

21|Skirving's Purple-topped Scotch 
22 1 Early Stone or Stubble Stone.... 

23 Yellow Stone 

24 Red- topped Stone 

White Dutch. 
Yellow Dutch. 

July 21 

July 23 

Oh cS 

m . 

0-( oj 


















~ QJ 

si a> 





very inferior. 




The seeds were presented to the Patent Office, for experiment, by 
Messrs. Charlwood and Cummins, seedsmen, of London. 

The soil was a sandy loam, which had been highly manured in the 
spring for spinach, and subsoiled to the depth of 18 inches. 

There were applied 560 pounds per acre of Lloyd's super-phosphate 
of lime. 

All the varieties were more or less injured by worms. 

The crop was harvested November 2 2d. 

The plants were carefully thinned and weeded, and promised an 
abundant yield until the drought was far advanced, before the expi- 
ration of which their recovery, in case of rain, seemed doubtful. 
They did revive, however, and continued to grow up to about the 
time of harvesting. 




Statement of Jareb Case, of Troy, Bradford county, Pennsylvania. 

On the 19th of April last, I received a small can of " March" or 
spring colza, or rape-seed. The same day, I sowed a part of it on a plat 
of sandy loam 30 feet square, well enriched with hen-dung and barn- 
yard manure. On the 1st of September, I harvested 3 pecks of 
seed of excellent quality. 

On a rich mellow soil, free from grass and weeds, where labor is 
cheap, I think this crop will pay. 




The culture of tobacco has attained some degree of importance in 
Russia, principally in the governments of Tschernigow, Saratow, and 
Poltawa. It has also of late begun to extend itself into several 
provinces of New Russia, in the government of Stavropol, in Podolia, 
in some of the central governments, and even into some parts of 

In the Report of the Department of Economy to the Ministry of 
Domains, published in 1849, the total production of tobacco in 
Russia, including the trans-Caucasian provinces, is estimated at 
upwards of 108,240,000 pounds. In the last-named provinces, not- 
withstanding the favorable nature of the climate, the tobacco planta- 
tions are but inconsiderable, the quantity grown annually not 
exceeding 1,000,000 pounds. 

The greater part of the tobacco raised in Russia is of a very ordi- 
nary quality, selling at from 40 to 80 kopecks per pood (from 1 cent 
and 1 mill to 2 cents and 2 mills a pound) ; but this cheapness has 
diffused a taste for it throughout the lower classes of the population , 
including even the Nomadic tribes of Atrakhan and Siberia, as well 
as the natives of the Aleoutic islands. Down to the year 1842, 
the culture of an article of a better quality was confined to a few 
isolated experiments, which, however, served to afford an indication 
of classes most suitable for the different districts. By way of encour- 
aging and promoting these attempts, the Department of Rural 
Economy periodically imports tobacco-seed from Persia, Turkey, 
Cuba, and the United States, which it distributes gratuitously in 
every part of the empire where the inhabitants manifest a desire to 


introduce plantations, and especially among the best known planters 
and colonists of New Russia. In the space of five years, there have 
been distributed upwards of 600 pounds, a quantity ^sufficient to 
plant 32,000 acres. Treatises with suggestions on tobacco-culture 
have likewise been published and distributed in considerable numbers, 
with a view to instruct the cultivators. In order to facilitate sales, 
the Department of Rural Economy, has by its own intervention, put 
the producers in communication with the principal manufacturers; 
it also quite recently despatched a distinguished agriculturist with 
a commission to visit Turkey, Egypt, the south of Europe, the island 
of Cuba, and the United States, to study the culture of tobacco in 
those countries, and, on his return, to visit Holland, the countries of 
the Rhine, and the central parts of Germany, in order to examine 
the various modes of manufacturing tobacco and snuff. This agent 
was charged at the same time to engage in Germany an experienced 
cultivator to assist in introducing the best modes of culture, both into 
the agricultural schools, and amongst private planters. In the mean- 
time, experimental plantations were introduced into all the model 
farms and horticultural establishments of the crown. The good 
effect of these measures has already been felt, especially during the 
last six or seven years, in New Russia, Bessarabia, and the govern- 
ments of Poclolia, Kiew, and Pultawa. In Podolia, it is stated that 
some proprietors have obtained seed from America, of an excellent 
variety, suitable for the manufacture of cigars ; and, in Bessarabia, 
the crown peasants of the district of Khotin have begun to cultivate 
the better sorts. 

As for the superior qualities of the tobacco of the Russians, there 
seems little chance, however, that they will be able entirely to super- 
sede the kinds they now receive from Turkey and America; but the 
experiments already made have shown that the culture of these sorts 
may succeed up to a certain point in several districts of Little Russia 
and the Southern Provinces, if the culture be rationally pursued and 
care taken to renew the seed. d. j. b. 


Statement of D. Barnes, of 31iddletoion } Middlesex county, 


A considerable quantity of tobacco is raised in Cromwell and in 
this town ; the yield is good and pays well. It is also considered of 
superior quality both at home and abroad. 

Statement of Daniel Paterson, of Fayette, Howard county, Missouri. 

Tobacco, in this region, yields about 1,000 pounds to an acre. Pries 
from $4 to $5 per 100 pounds; cost of conveying to market, 15 to 26 
cents per 100 pounds. 




The culture of sugar-cane in Louisiana, it is well known, lias been 
subject from the period of its introduction in 1751* up to the present 
time, to certain unfavorable vicissitudes to which it is not liable in 
more southern climes. The past has been more marked, perhaps, 
than any preceding season, both in respect to the amount produced 
and to the diseases and condition or degeneracy of the cane. The 
spring of 1854 is represented to have been so extraordinarily dry that 
most of the cuttings put into the ground perished, even after they 
had vegetated. Indeed, some few sections only of the sugar-growing 
parishes were favored even with occasional vernal showers, and the 
crops in these sections gave better promise than those in other parts 
of the State. But yet in these, the yield was not abundant, as the 
summer and fall proved otherwise unfavorable to the growth and 
maturity of the cane ; and many planters, who had crops of fair 
appearance, found, upon grinding and boiling, that the actual yield 
of sugar to the acre was unusually small. The plant-cane, upon 
which the cultivators mainly depend, seems to have been a general 
failure throughout the State ; and the small crop made was mostly 
saved from the stubbles, or rattoons. The securing of the crop was 
also very unfavorable to the planter. At the commencement of the 
grinding, there appeared to be little or no crystalisable sugar in the 
juice. The cane was not ripe, and the cold and unusually wet winter, 
which consequently required a large amount of fuel for boiling, was a 
great drawback ; so much so, that many of the planters lost a good 
portion of their crops by not being prepared for these exigencies, 
while others, rather than grind their immature cane, preferred to let 
it stand in the fields, even at the risk of losing a part, and did not 
commence boiling before the 20th of December. 

On the night of the 23d of October, there occurred a frost, and 
although not very severe, it did a vast deal of injury to the cane in 
the parishes of St. John Baptist, St. James, Ascension, Iberville, 
East and West Baton Rouge, West Feliciana, Point Coupee, Avoyelles, 
and Rapides. The season in these parishes was snorter by two 
months than in the others, where the cane was perfectly sound up to 
the night of the 25th of December, when thick ice was formed, the 

* We have no record of the cultivation of sugar-cane as a staple crop, in any part of the 
territory of the United States, before the year 1751, when it was introduced, with several 
negroes, by the Jesuits, from St. Domingo. They commenced a small plantation on the 
banks of the Mississippi, just above the old city of New Orleans. The year following, others cul- 
tivated the plant, and made some rude attempts at the manufacture of sugar. In 1758, Mr. 
Dubreul established a sugar estate on a large scale, and erected the first sugar-mill in Lou- 
isiana, in what is now the lower part of New Orleans. His success induced other plantations, 
and, in the year 1765, there was sugar enough manufactured for home consumption; and in 
1770, it had become one of the staple products of the colony. Soon after the revolution, a 
large number of enterprising adventurers emigrated from the United States to Lower Louisi- 
ana, where, among other objects of industry, they engaged in the cultivation of cane, and, by 
the year 1803, there were no less than eighty-one sugar estates on the delta alone. 


ground frozen, and a longer term of cold weather followed than had 
ever before been experienced in that section, and continued, Avith 
variations of temperature and frequent rains, up to the middle of 
February. In several years previous, as in 1835 and 1852, for 
instance, the temperature, for a day or so, had fallen to as low, or a 
lower point ; but, probably, so great an aggregate of cold had never 
been known in Louisiana in any previous winter. The greatest cold 
was on the morning of the 4th of February, when the mercury 
fell to 20° F., although it stood as low as 24° or 25° on several days 
in January. Many planters had not finished sugar-making when 
the severe weather set in, and all such, from these untoward circum- 
stances, suffered much from short crops. 

While the cane of the first-named parishes was nearly paralysed 
with cold on the 24th of October, it was not quite .frozen to the 
ground; but, in cases where it had not been ""windrowed," it con- 
tinued to sprout, and was thus prevented from ripening, while that 
which was windrowed was susceptible of being made into nothing 
but molasses. To this frost, may be attributed, in a great degree, the 
large deficiency of the sugar-crop in the State, the past season. But 
this evidently was not the only cause of the general deterioration of 
the cane which had manifested itself for several years preceding. 
There had not only been a less yield of sugar to the acre than form- 
erly, but the cane itself had become feeble or diseased on many plan- 
tations, and the stalks attacked by borers, or worms ; and the juice, 
in many cases, was not susceptible of conversion into sugar. These 
defects, it is conceived, are not attributable alone to untimely frosts, 
nor to seasons otherwise unfavorable, but mainly to injudicious culti- 
vation, such as the neglect of proper drainage, and, more than all, 
the exhaustion of the requisite elements in the soil necessary for the 
perfect development of the cane, by continued cropping, without a due 
regard, to rotation. This point, however, will be discussed more at 
length hereafter. 

This deterioration, or falling off of the crop, has also been at- 
tributed to other presumed causes, one of which is that based upon 
the theory of Mr. Knight, of Herefordshire, in England, in the latter 
part of the last century, namely, that plants propagated by cuttings, 
or slips, deteriorate and become extinct, unless regenerated from time 
to time by the production of fresh stocks directly from the seeds. 
Mr. Knight, it would seem, based his hypothesis upon the fact that 
certain varieties of the apple, in his neighborhood, were believed to 
be running through their natural course, and named as instances the 
11 Golden Pippin" and the "Nonpareil." But the particular cases 
thus cited failed to sustain his assumption ; for the Golden Pippin is 
believed still to thrive well at Madeira, on many parts of the Conti- 
nent of Europe, and in England, as well as the Nonpareil, just as 
they did in the days of Queen Anne. 

The earliest records we have of the sugar-cane (if we except a 
slight allusion by the prophet Job) are found in the writings of 
authors who lived three centuries before the Christian era. From 
them, we simply learn that the history of this plant, like that of 
many other necessaries of life, was involved in obscurity. The plant 


itself indeed appears to have been imperfectly known, even to the 
Greeks and Romans, as Theophrastns, 320 years before Christ, 
described it as a "sort of honey extracted from canes or reeds;" 
and Strabo, on the authority of Nearchus, the commander of the 
fleet in the expedition of Alexander the Great, says that "reeds 
in India yield honey without bees;" but, although India and Cochin- 
China are the countries usually cited as the native homes of the 
sugar-cane, it is stated by Dr. Roxburgh, who resided many years 
in India, that its indigenous habitat in that country is unknown, 
and that he never there beheld its seeds. Although it has been 
stated also to grow wild upon portions of the American Continent, no 
proof of the fact is believed to exist. It is true that a species of cane, 
of spontaneous growth, has been found in Central America, which is 
rich in saccharine juice, and easily crushed by rollers ; but it is not 
known with certainty when it was discovered, nor whether or not it 
is the result of self-sown seeds of some variety of the Eastern cane. 
On several of the South-sea Islands, however, and especially Otaheite, 
it occurs in an apparently wild state. 

The cultivated sugar-cane very rarely produces seeds, although this 
is said sometimes to occur even in the Southern States of this Union ; 
but it has not been shown that the seeds have vegetated when sown ; 
yet there is, no doubt, some country in which the course of nature is 
followed in this respect. Moreover, it has been averred that there is 
no region in which the cultivators attempt to resort to this mode of 
propagation, their dependence being always and entirely upon the 
cuttings. The theory, therefore, of the insufficiency of this means of 
propagating the sugar-cane, is without the least foundation, unless it 
can be shown that a general tendency to decay and extinction is mani- 
fested in it throughout the globe — a fact that has not been assumed, 
and that certainly does not exist. 

That the propagation of plants, by their seeds, is the natural 
method, seems like an infallible proposition ; and to the inquiry it 
naturally suggests respecting their design, if not for this use, it may 
be difficult to find a conclusive reply. But the vegetable kingdom 
presents to the mind of the observer so many apparent anomalies, 
that the student who refuses to progress further until each in succes- 
sion is made plain to his understanding, is not likely to proceed far 
in this most interesting and profitable pursuit. 

The red currant, it is well known, contains seeds ; but, although 
its history can be traced for at least a thousand years, there is no rea- 
son to believe that, in all this period, it has ever been generally pro- 
pagated otherwise than from cuttings. 

The grape, also, contains seeds ; but vines are never propagated 
from them, except when new varieties are intended to be produced. 
The extraordinarily healthy and prolific vines of California were in- 
troduced there from Malaga, in the form of cuttings, more than one 
hundred and fifty years ago. How long they had been so cultivated 
in Malaga, prior to that time, it is impossible to tell ; but, it is pre- 
sumed, that a very long period had elapsed since they had been de- 
rived from the seeds. It may also be presumed that these vines of 
California are not more youthful, in this respect, than those now grow- 


ing at Malaga, notwithstanding that feebleness or disease is evinced 
in the latter, which must proceed from some cause not common to the 
vines of both countries. 

The Jerusalem artichoke has been cultivated from time immemo- 
rial, in Europe, by the tuber alone, as has also the tiger lily, for a 
great number of years. The yellow sweet-potato, which has always 
been healthful, abundant, and of excellent quality, with us, has never 
been known to bear seeds, nor even to flower, in this country, at least ; 
and, although the other varieties of the sweet-potato, purple and 
white, do bear seeds, they are very rarely, or perhaps never, resorted 
to for the purpose of general propagation. The same remark is true 
of the common potato of the North ; and, when, a few years ago, 
this esculent became diseased, the idea of exhaustion was forcibly im- 
pressed upon the public mind, and, in compliance with the general 
desire, the London Horticultural Society obtained from the mountains 
of Peru the seeds of the wild plant, similar to those from which the 
European varieties had originally been produced ; but, while all en- 
deavors to derive a new race from this source proved wholly futile, the 
old varieties, that had long been propagated by cuttings, or tubers, 
and were regarded as exhausted, regained their former healthfulness, 
and became as fresh and vigorous, in all their characteristics, as they 
had ever been, for three centuries before. 

The instances here cited may not be sufficient to prove that plants 
propagated by cuttings, or slips, are inexhaustible and perpetual in 
their succession, and certainly do not prove that they are not liable 
to disease, or, at least, as liable as they would have been had they 
been produced from seeds, but they go far towards dissipating the 
conjecture they are presented to oppose. 

It is an unfortunate, though very prevalent error, to attribute the 
diseases of plants to other than the real causes, since, by doing so, 
we deprive ourselves of the ability to apply the remedy appropriate 
to each case. A deficiency or excess of rain, heat or cold, the electric 
state of the atmosphere, and, what is still more likely, an unfavorable 
condition of the soil, doubtless more or less induce the diseases or 
debility of plants ; and these may be either local or general. In the 
case of the sugar-cane of Louisiana, for instance, although it is 
highly desirable to introduce cuttings of new, and, if possible, better 
varieties, than are now cultivated in that State, there is a probable 
cause of deterioration to which the attention of planters has not been 
effectually directed. 

It is known that the continued production of a single species of 
plant, upon almost any soil, will eventually exhaust that soil of 
those elements especially required as the pabulum of that plant, if 
those elements be not carefully ascertained and systematically re- 
turned. Is not this probably the case with respect to the sugar-fields 
of Louisiana ? Chemical analyses have shown that nearly one-half 
of the inorganic matter contained in the cane itself is phosphate of 
lime, and nearly a fourth silica. The bare statement of this fact 
must assuredly suggest to every mind a prominent cause of the evil. 
In the continued culture of sugar upon the same lands, as of every- 
thing else, a judicious system of rotation, with a liberal supply of 



guano, or other animal and phosphated manure, in connection with a 
due supply of well decomposed vegetable matter, is essential ; and, 
as has been intimated, the latter must be of the kinds specifically in- 

That there has been a degeneracy in the cane, caused by exhaus- 
tion of the soil, and injudicious rotation, is obvious, from the fact 
that the same lands which have been under cultivation for a long 
period have yielded more than three times the amount of sugar to the 
acre in some years, than in others, the productiveness having been in 
those cases in which the soil was in its primitive fertility, or when 
enriched by guano, or other appropriate manures. For instance, the 
British and French West India Islands, some sixty or seventy years 
ago, yielded from 3,000 to 6,000 pounds of sugar to the acre. At 
present, they do not yield a third of this amount, without manure. 
The product in Louisiana, formerly, often reached as high as 3,000 or 
4,000 pounds ; and, in some cases, even to 6,000 pounds ; but, for the 
last few years, it has often ranged as low as from 500 to 1,000 pounds 
to the acre. According to Commodore Perry, in his "Expedition to 
Japan," before the introduction of guano into Mauritius, the product 
of sugar on that island was from 2,000 to 2,500 pounds to the aGre ; 
but the increase, since the application of this fertiliser, has been so 
extraordinary as to be scarcely credible. In ordinary seasons, the 
product has been from 6,000 to 7,000 pounds, and, under peculiarly 
favorable circumstances, it has even reached 8,000 pounds to the acre. 

The amount of raw sugar, as a gross produce, to the acre, in seve- 
ral countries of the globe, from good authorities, is as follows: — 



Brazil, . 


Isle of Bourbon, 


Vera Cruz, 


Bengal, . 

St. Domingo, 



(n order to show the fluctuations of the sugar-crop in Louisiana, 
fo* the last twenty-eight years, the following table is taken from Mr. 
Champomier's Report, in which a hogshead is estimated to contain 
1,100 pounds : — 

Crop of 


Crop of 


































'Crop of 


Crop of 



















In seeking a remedy for the evil here complained of, in Louisiana, 
the minds of many have very naturally been turned to the project of 
replenishing the cane-fields of that State, by the importation of a fresh 
supply of cuttings, of such varieties as may be found best suited to 
the soil and climate. Resort to this means of restoration should be 
promptly made, on a liberal and extensive scale, so that the experi- 
ment may be thorough, and, if possible, effectual, in its results. An 
intelligent agent should be selected for the purpose, well acquainted 
with the character of the cane, and the nature of the soils and cli- 
mates in which it grows, as well as with the best modes of packing 
and transporting it to distant parts, either by land or sea ; and, 
what would add much to his qualifications, one who is also acquainted 
practically with the culture of the plant and the manufacture of su^ar. 

Among the points on this Continent, from which the cuttings could 
be obtained, I would instance the valley of Aragua, in Venezuela. 
British Guiana, or some favorable locality on the coast of Brazil. On 
or near the Eastern Continent, perhaps British India or the islands of 
Maritius and Java might prove suitable positions for the procure- 
ment of the varieties desired. The agent, thus employed, should be 
accurately informed or instructed with reference to the soil, climate 
and elevation above the sea, of the sugar districts of these countries 
as well as to the age and healthiness of the canes from which the. 
cuttings are to be taken, the parts of the plants from which they, 
are to be obtained, and the proper seasons of procuring them and de-- 
livering them at some accessible point in the United States near where. 
they are intended to grow. 

The varieties of cane which have hitherto been most cultivated, in 
Louisiana are the " Striped-blue Ribbon;" the "Green Ribbon;" the 
"Yellow Ribbon," or "Java;" the "Red Ribbon," or "Violet;" 
the "Reddish-violet;" the "Red-striped;" the "Creole/' "Crys- 
taline," or "Malabar;" the "Otaheite;" the "Purple;" the " Yel- 
low ;" the "Purple-banded ;" the "Grey;" the "Greyish-white." 

The Bed-striped cane, which was originally brought, from the 
Dutch colony of Java, and the Violet or Reddish-violet , which is only 
a variation from the former, are believed to be the only two varieties 
that will generally prosper under the climate of the sugar districts 
of the Southern States. All the other descriptions are too sensitive 
to cold, except in the warmer parts of the delta of the Mississippi, 
Florida, and Texas. When planted in new ground,, it gives a cer- 
tain amount of white canes, or those the outside of which is of a 
greyish-white. When cultivated in old soil, however, it furnishes a 
good yield of violet-red cane. Again, on new ground, a part, say, 
from one-tenth to one-fifteenth, of the striped cane becomes white, or 
a dirty greyish-white. There are also to be found more or less red 


stripes on Rome portions of the stalk, or on the joints ; lout all the 
rest of tli e stalk is entirely grey. On old ground, on the contrary 3 
the red-striped gives red or violet-red canes in about the same pro 1 - 
portion as above. The tendency of this cane to degenerate rapidly is 
remarkable, in every part of America. The other varieties are not so 
liable to deteriorate. After once degenerating, these canes never re- 
cover their original color. 

The Red or Violet-red cane, which is a good sub-variety of the 
Red-striped, resists the cold well, and will often bear exposure from 
5° to 8° F. below the freezing point. 

The lied, and the Red-striped, present some anomalies, in their 
economy which it is difficult to explain: Sometimes, and according 
as the season is more or less favorable, the Red-striped (the mother) 
fields more sugar than the Red variety ; sometimes, on the other 
hand, the Red yields most abundantly, and that under similar condi- 
tions. In general, the Red cane is said to yield less juice than the 
Red-striped, the former, when mature, containing 11 per cent, of 
woody matter, and 89 per cent, of juice, which, in both varieties, haa 
generally the same density under the same conditions. When the 
cane is yellow, there is less woody fibre.* 

The "Otaheite" cane originated in the Society Islands. It is the 
variety most cultivated in the West Indies and South America, the 
introduction into which is accredited to the voyagers Messrs. Bou- 
gainville, Cook, and Blight. The former brought it to Mauritius, 
whence it spread to Martinique, and soon after into the rest of the 
West India Islands, Cayenne, and the other parts of the Continent of 
America. It was introduced into Louisiana about the year 1797, but 
is no longer regarded as suitable for general cultivation in that State, 
as it suffers from the slightest frost. 

* Cane-juice, on the authority of Dr. Evans, when recently expressed, is opaque, frothy, and 
of a yellowish-green, or sometimes greyish color. It has an aromatic and sweet taste, a bal- 
samic odor, and produces a slightly acid reaction on litmus paper. In the latter respect, it 
offers considerable variations. Its specific gravity is said to vary from 1.046 to 1.110, from 
7° to 15° Beaurue. These must, however, be considered as its extreme limits, which are very 
rarely observed. I have never seen it in any country of a density below 85°, nor higher than 
13°, the temperature being 80° F. Its specific gravity usually fluctuates between 1.070 and 
1.090, 10° and 13° Beaume. The difference in density depends upon many causes, as the age 
of the cane, the climate, the soil, the season, the temperature of the atmosphere, &c. 

Cane-juice consists of two parts, easily separated from each other by filtration, the one 
being a perfectly transparent fluid, of a pale-yellow color, the other a dark-green fecula, 
which remains upon the filter. The latter, upon examination under the microscope, is seen 
to be formed of a green globular matter, (chlorophille,) portions of woody fibre, cellulose in 
the state of the broken-up parietes of the cells, and a few shreds of coagulated fibrine. By 
the application of heat, and the addition of a small quantity of lime, these substances separate 
readily from the pure juice, and then constitute the scum of the clarifiers. This scum has been 
analysed by Avequin, who states that it consists of cerosie, or wax, 7.5, green matter, 1.3, al- 
bumen and wood 3.4, bi-phosphate of lime 0.5, silica 2.1, and water. 

The transparent liquid, which remains when the above matters have been separated by fil- 
tration, consists of water, sugar, a small quantity of dextrine, varying, probably, from 1 to 4 
parts in 1,000, in ripe and healthy canes, soluble compounds of proteine, saline matters, and a 
coloring principle, distinct from the green matter mentioned above, being soluble in water. 

The constituents, as determined by analysis, from an average taken from numerous experi- 
ments made by different persons, are as follows: — 

Water, . 81.00 

Sugar, 18.20 

Organic matter, precipitated by bi-acetate of lead, . . . 0.45 

Saline matter, . ... 0.35 



The cane called "Creole" originated in Malabar or Bengal. It is 
believed to have passed through Arabia, Egypt, Sicily, Spain, the 
Canary Islands, and the West Indies, before it reached this country, 
in 1751. Like the Otaheite, it is not adapted to general culture in 
Louisiana, in consequence of its susceptibility to cold. Both varieties, 
however, produce a great abundance of sugar in the hot seasons, when 
not injured by the autumnal frosts. 

The next steps to be taken for the restoration and continued cul- 
ture of sugar-cane in Louisiana are, a due regard to its management, 
and a judicious rotation of crops. It is of the utmost importance, in 
the first instance, that proper judgment be exercised in the selection 
of the plants from which the cuttings are to be taken. Those with 
healthy succulent tops should be preferred, and not the dry, hard, or 
woody ones, perforated by borers, which are often employed, and have 
occasioned much disappointment and loss in establishing plantations. 
Much benefit can also be derived in changing the cuttings^ whatever 
may be the varieties, from one plantation to another, provided they 
are transported to analogous climates and soils. 

The perfection of the culture of the sugar-cane, like that of Indian 
corn, consists in returning to the soil on which it grows, through the 
medium of fertilisers, the whole of the essential substances extracted 
from it by the preceding crops ; the eradication of noxious weeds ; and 
the prevention of the accumulation of stagnant water. Although 
there are some parts of Louisiana in which the natural condition of 
the soil is sufficiently fertile to allow of repeated cropping, with no 
other assistance than the ploughing under of the trash of the cane- 
fields at certain periods, yet, generally speaking, the lands of that 
State have become so much exhausted by injudicious cultivation that 
nothing but high manuring can possibly secure an abundant yield ; 
and, as there are but few estates which keep the requisite number of 
domestic animals to make the amount of manure required for profita- 
ble culture, it becomes necessary that the application of extraneous 
or foreign fertilisers, of easy transportation, readily dissolved by the 
rains, and economical in their cost, must be resorted to, in order to 
render this branch of industry profitable. And I know of no more 
feasible means of accomplishing this object than by the application, 
in a liquid or soluble state, of Mexican, Columbian or other guanos, 
highly charged with phosphoric acid, which is well known to enter 
largely into the composition of all healthy canes. It must also be 
observed that an excess of Peruvian guano, or of stable or barnyard 
manure, applied to the cane-fields, would prove highly injurious to 
the crop, in consequence of the large amount of ammonia they con- 
tain, the formation of too much of which is not desirable, a?? it ap- 
pears, on the authority of the most enlightened agricultural chemists, 
that nitrogen, the great basis of ammonia, however favorable it may 
otherwise be to the development of plants, is inimical to the forma- 
tion of sugar, in their juices. This is corroborated by the experience 
of planters, who affirm that the sugar from canes grown in rich val- 
lies or ravines is always dark and the cane-juice poor, taking nearly 
double the quantity to the hogshead that it does when the canes are 
of a less rank growth. Thus it will be perceived by a little reflection 


that the experience of the necessity for such manuring is founded on 
correct chemical principles ; for it will point out that ammonia, or 
nitrogen, should only be contained in such quantity in the manure 
as will nourish and develop the vegetable structure in the young 
plant, and by such accumulations of carbonaceous matter as will af- 
ford it the means, after such development, of forming the greatest 
quantity of sugar in the cells of the cane. 

The lower-priced guanos and bone-dust are best adapted to supply 
the phosphates; but these, to some extent, are contained in the barnyard 
and many other manures in use. In the alluvial soils of the Missis- 
sippi valley, silica is probably even more meagerly furnished by na- 
ture, and its return is therefore more frequently called for. A partial 
supply of it may be obtained from the cane itself by boiling the bagasse, 
or refuse trash, in a strong potash ley, and then distributing the liquid 
or the residuum, which would contain a considerable quantity of the 
slicate of potash, upon the soil. But how far this will prove economi- 
cal in the end can only be determined by the planters themselves. 

From the absence, with few exceptions, of everything like an at- 
tempt at a rotation of crops, and from an injudicious perseverance, 
year after year, in the culture of cane, on the same fields, much of 
the land in Louisiana has either become wholly unfit for its produc- 
tion, or only capable of yielding diminished crops at a continually 
increasing expenditure of labor and money ; and a perseverance in 
the same system, for some years longer, will end in the total aban- 
donment of cane cultivation ; for, as the cost of the production of 
sugar must progressively increase, it will be impossible for the plant- 
ers to compete successfully with those of the tropics, where the cane ' 
is a perennial, the soil more enduring in its fertility, and labor is 
equally cheap. From this dilemma, perhaps, the introduction of a 
suitable variety of wheat, and the adoption of a judicious system of 
rotation would extricate them, and be the means of restoring to pro- 
fitable cultivation thousands of acres in that State, which, if further 
impoverished, will finally relapse into their primitive wildness. 
Should wheat be found an injudicious crop to alternate directly with 
the cane, which belongs to the same extensive family of grasses, the 
interposition of the common and Chinese yams, the tanyah, or some 
other tuberous-rooted plants, probably could be cultivated with ad- 
vantage. Should these not succeed, perhaps the bitter and sweet 
oassada, (Janipha manihot et Icejlingii,) and other fusiform-rooted 
plants, as well as the pea-nut, or pindar, the palma-christa, the bene, 
or other leguminous plants, adapted to the climate, and valuable for 
their productions, might enable the culture both of wheat and sugar- 
cane to be carried on in alternate fields, in endless succession with 
advantage to the cultivator. 

From the admonition which has been received with respect to the 
decadence of the sugar-culture of Louisiana, superior benefits cannot 
fail to result. The experience of every age has well attested the 
folly of exclusive attention and dependence upon a single product, 
however profitable it may prove, and it were well for us to recognise 
this general law, and to resort to the only known means of exemption 
from its penalties. If this shall be done wisely, and in time, the 



skill and industry of the planters of Louisiana will doubtless "be 
rewarded with an increased recompense. That there are manifold 
advantages proceeding from diversified products, cultivated upon 
every farm and plantation, has often been most earnestly affirmed by 
those who iiave practically learned this truth by an exclusive system ; 
and if the suggestions herein cited, as resulting from the experience 
of many in the premises, shall be well considered by the sugar- 
planters of the United States, it is hoped that neither the product of 
that crop nor the interest of the planters will suffer impairment from 
the evils with which they have been menaced. d. j. b. 


Statement of the amount of sugar produced in Louisiana, in 1855, from 
P. A. Champomier, of New Orleans. 

Names or Parishes. 


























West Feliciana 

Pointe Coupee 

East Feliciana 

West Baton Rouge. 
East Baton Rouge.. 



St. James 

St. John the Baptist 

St. Charles 


Orleans and St. Bernard 


Assumption — Bayou Lafourche,..., 

Lafourche Interior do , 

Terrebonne do , 

St. Mary — Attakapas 

St. Martin do 

Vermilion — Lafayette 


St. Landry — Opelousas 

Cistern bottoms of 192,391 hogs 
heads, at an estimate say, of 3 per 

o <u 

V o 










Estimated at 254,569,000 pounds. 





































Brown sugar made by the old process, 192,391 hogsheads. 

Refined, clarified, &c, including cistern, 39,036 " 


Sugar Crop in Texas, 1855. 


Number of hogsheads. 





Fort Bend 

Total 8,989 

Thus Texas has produced this year a much better crop than the 
preceding one, say 9,887,900 pounds against 7,513,000 pounds the 
previous season. 



Statement from P. A. Champomier, of Neio Orleans, Louisiana. 

Some of our planters have not, perhaps, made so much molasses of 
late years, while others have made a greater quantity than they did 
last season, more particularly those who rolled a good portion of their 
crop into syrup or molasses, which, I am satisfied, must give them a 
larger quantity of cistern bottoms. I therefore think that my former 
estimate of 60 gallons per 1,000 pounds of sugar was a fair one, or 
15,274,140 gallons against 23,113,620 gallons the year previous. 



For a description and account of the culture of this plant, see the 
Agricultural Report of the Patent Office for 1854, under the head ol 
"Sorgho sucre," pp. xxii and 219. 


Statement of Joseph C. Orth, of McGleary' s Bluff, Illinois, condensed 
from his report to the Wabash county Agricultural Society. 

The first seeds which this Society received from the Patent Office, 
for distribution among its members, were obtained in the winter of 
1855, and comprised a list of twenty-one varieties, with the cultiva- 
tion of some of which most farmers were familiar, while there were 
others the culture and care of which nothing was known, and, in con- 
sequence, all attempts to cultivate them were necessarily experimental. 

Among the latter class was the "Sorgho sucre," a gramineous 
plant imported into France from the north of China, some five years 
since. Mr. D. J. Browne, the agent of the Patent Office, in hia 
Report upon this plant, says "he was led to infer that from the pecu- 
liarities of the climate, and its resemblance in appearance and habits 
to Indian corn, it would flourish in any region wherever that plant 
would thrive." My experience fully proves Mr. Browne's judgment 
correct. When the seed was obtained, nothing was known of it, and 
no one seemed willing to plant it on trial; bearing the name of 
"millet," it was supposed to be quite a different plant from that 
which it turned out to be. About the middle of May, I planted all 
the seed received, except one paper, which amounted to about a gill, 
on new upland, between Indian corn and broom-corn, and soon found 
the seed to come up in excellent order. The seed in size and shape 
resembled that., of broom-corn, but its color was black, while the 
plants bore a similar resemblance, except that they came up and con- 
tinued to grow more thrifty, and from the first continued to retain a 
deeper green color than Indian corn, tinged with a whitish fuzz over 
both stalk and leaf, which could be wip^d off with the finger, indi- 
cating in corn generally a more luxuriant and hardy growth. At 
first, I concluded it was most probably a species of broom-corn, and 
found no cause to change that opinion, until the blossom had dried 
6*ff from the seeds, and they began to harden, the resemblance to 
broom-corn still continuing to be so complete, even to the formation 
of head and seeds. But profiting by the remark printed upon the 
paper which contained the seeds, "Good for fodder, green or dry, 
and for making sugar," I cut off a few stalks and offered them to my 
horses and cattle, which ate them with apparently a good relish, and 
seemed to ask for more. 

I then concluded that as a part of its recommendations was true, I 
should also try the other, and manufacture sugar from the juice. Its 
stalk being very long and heavy, and exceedingly rich in juice, and 


to the taste, in its natural state, almost as sweet as molasses, do 
doubt remained upon my mind that it was what it was said to be. 1 
cut six stalks, placed them successively upon a flat board, took a 
rolling-pin, and as well as this simple machine enabled it to be done, 
expressed and saved the juice. The result was, I obtained two tum- 
blerfuls, but half was not saved. This was then boiled down, and 
produced one of the same tumblers half full of good pleasant-tasted 
molasses, about as thick as the common molasses obtained in the shops. 
But, as my object was simply to ascertain the quantity rather than 
the quality of saccharine matter contained, this juice was neither 
strained nor clarified, and therefore, its taste was not equal to what it 
would be under more careful treatment. From all that I could observe 
concerning this plant, I am fully convinced that 15 per cent, of good 
clarified sugar could be obtained from the juice. My experiment 
produced about 25 per cent, of molasses. 

Mr. Browne says, "the great object sought in France in the culti- 
vation of this plant is the juice contained in its stalk, which furnishes 
three important products, namely, sugar, which is identical with 
tli at of cane-sugar, alcohol, and a fermented drink analogous to 
cider." He also adds, "the juice, when obtained with care, by 
depriving the stalk of its outer coating or woody fibre and bark, is 
nearly colorless, and contains merely sugar and water, producing 
from 10 to 16 percent, of the former." This, it would seem, is 
evidence strong enough to warrant a more extended trial of its 
merits, and if it will in any way supply the place of cane-sugar, it 
must of necessity become a very important and valuable acquisition 
to the agricultural products of the Middle and Northern States. I 
nm fully satisfied that it will ripen in north latitude 42°, which is 
about the northern limit of Illinois. 

Statement of 0. H. Kelly, of Northioood, Benton county, Minnesota. 

Last Spring, I received from the Patent Office a small parcel of 
Chinese sugar cane (Sorgho sucre.) It was sown with a seed-drill, 
came up, and grew rapidly to the height of 11 feet; but did not blos- 
som in season for the seed to mature. If cut just as it is in blossom, 
it will make excellent fodder for stock. 

Statement of Frederick Munch, of MarthasviUe, Warren county, 


The Chinese sugar-cane, (Sorgho sucre,) I fully succeeded in culti- 
vating last season, by sowing it in drills 3 feet apart, in a rich sandy 
soil. In my opinion, the stalks contain the most saccharine matter 
about the time the seed is half ripe. 

I have not tried to make sugar from this plant, but have succeeded 
in making a superior syrup. I found a difficulty in crushing the 
stalks sufficiently to express the juice. Could not a simply-constructed 
machine be invented for this purpose, so that the farmers could make 
sugar or syrup for their own domestic use ? 


Statement of Samuel Clapham, of Cold Spring Harbor, Suffolk county, 

New York. 

Early in May last, I received a small parcel of the seeds of the 
Chinese sugar-cane, (Sorghum saccharatum,) which I cultivated some- 
what after the method of Indian corn. The proper time for planting, 
however, I should say would be the same as that of early corn, as I 
find it quite hardy, and stalks of it cut down the end of October made 
fresh shoots after two rather heavy frosts, and still were good for feed. 
From twenty-five plants I obtained half a bushel of ripe seed. 

The mode of cultivating I would recommend, would be, to sow, after 
the ground is well manured and deeply ploughed, in drills 4 feet apart, 
the plants, 2 feet asunder in the drills, with not more than one plant 
in a place, as each sends up from four to six shoots. When the plants 
are well started, say a foot in height, turn over the earth on each 
side with a plough, after which, keep them clear of weeds with the 

When well cultivated and in good soil, the plant attains from 10 
to 14 feet in height, and produces excellent fodder from the root to the 
top. I believe a heavier weight of nutritious feed for all kinds of 
cattle can be procured from it, in a given space of ground, than from 
any other plant ; and I think it will prove of great benefit to every 
section of the country where it is introduced, not only as a green feed, 
during the hot months, but after being cut up and cured like the 
corn-plant, its stalks may be steamed during the winter, and given 
to horses, oxen, or cows, which will commence eating at one end and 
never leave them till entirely consumed. The seeds, also, I have no 
doubt, will prove valuable as a feed for poultry, as I find they eat 
them with avidity. 

Although in this part of the country, I look upon this plant as of 
great value as a forage crop, yet possibly, it may be profitably culti- 
vated for sugar, as the juice contains nearly 10 per cent, of saccharine 
matter as clear as crystal, and on a very small scale, beautiful clari- 
fied sugar was produced by my friend Dr. Eay. This matter, how- 
ever, will be carefully tested here the coming season, as several of us 
are preparing to go into it rather extensively. 

I have distributed seeds to nearly two hundred persons, from Mas- 
sachusetts to Tennessee. 

Statement ofD. Minis, of Beaver Plain, Beaver county, Pennsylvania. 

Last spring, I received from the Patent Office, a small parcel of the 
seeds of the Chinese sugar-cane, described in the Agricultural Report 
of 1854, under the name of "Sorgho sucre." I planted it about the 
20th of May, although it might have been sown 10 or 15 days 
earlier ; but, fearing that it might be injured by a late frost, I pre- 
ferred to plant it thus late. I planted it in the centre of a twenty- 
acre field in two rows, with the hills about 34 feet apart, with from 
two to six seeds in each hill. Where the plants were three or foui 
to a hill, they grew the most -vigorously, and seemed to produce the 


most perfect seed. I gave them no extra culture either in labor or 
manure ; the plants had no protection from sunshine nor storm, before 
I secured the seed, which I did by cutting off the tops of the plants 2 
or 3 feet below the seed spikelets, bound them into bundles or sheaves, 
and placed them in an open shed, there to remain until the time of 
planting next spring. They are yet quite fragrant, and taste strong 
of the saccharine juice. 

The account given of this plant, at page 219 of the Agricultural 
Report of 1854, accords precisely with all my experience in its cul- 
ture. The given weight of the crop on a given space, growing, as it 
did with me the past season, I think would be nearly or quite equal 
to that of Indian corn. 

Statement of J. H. Hammond, of Silverton, Barnwell district, South 
Carolina, as reported to the Beach Island Farmers' Club. 

A rule of this Club, requiring every member to make and report, 
each year, an agricultural experiment, I will take this opportunity 
to acquit myself of that duty. One of our members, Mr. Redmond, 
of the " Southern Cultivator," distributed among us, last winter, 
some seeds of what is commonly called ' ' Sugar Millet. ' ' He very 
kindly gave me enough to plant half an acre — about a pint. I pre- 
pared a plat of ground on a northern slope, of old, stiff and worn-out 
land, in such a manner and with as much manure as would probably 
have made it yield, with average seasons, about 20 bushels of corn 
per acre. On the 22d of March, I planted the seed in three-foot drill's, 
dropping every 18 or 20 inches some six or eight seeds. It was 
ploughed and hoed often enough to keep the grass down, and about 
the 1st of July began to head. The heat had then been unusually 
intense for two weeks, and has continued so up to the present time ; 
and latterly, the drought has been very destructive. I do not think 
this half acre would have yielded 5 bushels had it been planted in 
corn. Having intended, however, to ascertain whether the millet 
would make syrup, I had a rude mill put up with two beech-wood 

Finding that by the 22d of July the most advanced heads had 
passed the milky stage, I had 1,750 canes cut, which I supposed were 
a fair sample of the patch. The first 300 or 400 were passed through 
the mill twice, the remainder four times, and the yield was 194 
quarts of juice. But 10 canes, which I selected and passed sevea 
times through the mill, yielded 3 quarts. The juice was received in 
common tubs and tested by a thermometer, and a saccharometer with 
a scale of 40°. The thermometer stood in every instance at 78° F. 
The saccharometer varied from 21£° to 23£°. At the latter point, the 
juice would float a fresh-laid egg. I boiled it in a deep, old-fashioned 
"cow-pot," and, after six to seven hours' boiling, obtained 32 quarts 
of tolerable syrup. 

The next day, I selected 10 canes, the heads of which were fully 
matured, 10 more in full milk, 10 more the heads of which were just 
fully developed and the top seed beginning to turn black, and again 


10 comprising all these stages, but from which I did not strip the 
leaves. They were all passed through the mill seven times, and 
yielded nearly the same quantity of juice — about 3 quarts for every 
10 canes. The juice, tested by the saccharometer, showed that the 
youngest, cane had rather the most, and the oldest rather the least 
saccharine matter. The whole, together with that of a few other 
good canes, exhibited at 80° of the thermometer 24^° of the sacchar- 
ometer. From 42 pints of the juice, I obtained, after four hours' 
boiling, 9 pints of rather better syrup than that made the day be- 
fore. In these boilings, I mixed with the cold juice about a tea- 
spoonful of lime-water of the consistency of cream for every 5 gallons. 

These selected canes grew on the best spots of the patch, and 
where probably corn might have been produced, the present season, 
at the rate of 20 bushels to the acre. They were an inch in diame- 
ter, at the largest end, and 7^ feet long after cutting off the head and 
a foot of the stem. After this, I cut down all the inferior cane and 
cured it for forage. 

On the 28th of July, two of the members of the Club (Dr. Brad- 
ford and Mr. H. Lamar) being at my house, remained to see the re- 
sult of pressing and boiling 400 canes I had cut and stripped. Each 
of us selected 10 canes, and put them through the press eight times ; 
the result being as before, about 3 quarts for every 10 canes. But 
even after the pressure, juice could be wrung from the canes by the 
hands, and we agreed that at least one-fourth of it, and that the best, 
remained in the cane — so inefficient was my mill. The rest of the 
cane, I ordered to be pressed six times, but we did not ourselves re- 
main to see it done, nor did we count the 400 canes. The yield of 
the whole, however, was 37| quarts. With the thermometer at 85° 
in the juice, the saccharometer stood at 24^°; we boiled the juice 
until it run together on the rim of the ladle and hung in a transpa- 
rent sheet half an inch below it before falling. And this in two and 
a half hours. The result was 6 quarts of choice syrup. The next 
day, I repeated the experiment on a larger scale, with equal success, 
and I have brought to the Club enough of the syrup to enable every 
member to try it and judge of its quality. All who have tasted it, 
agree that it is equal to the best that we get from New Orleans. In 
these last boilings, I put a table-spoonful of lime-water, prepared as 
before, to every 10 gallons. The whole process of clarifying and 
boiling was carried through in the same pot, and that very unsuita- 
ble from its depth. 

I measured the grain from a number of heads, and the result was 
an average of a gill from each. I weighed a half peck of matured 
seed, after several days' exposure to the sun. It weighed 4f pounds, 
•squal to 38 pounds to the bushel. I weighed 20 of the best canes cut 
for forage, after it was cured sufficiently to house. They weighed 24 
pounds, equal to 30,000 pounds for 25,000 canes, [per acre?] which 
1 think might be grown on land that would make 25 bushels of corn 
with average seasons. I have tried horses, cattle, and hogs, and find 
they eat the cane, its leaves and seed, greedily, and fowls and pigeons 
the last. I think, however, when allowed to mature, the cane should 
be cut up fine for animals, as the outer coat is hard. 


I did not attempt to make sugar, not having prepared for that. 
There can, however, be no doubt that it can be made from such syrup 
as this. And, as they make more syrup in the West Indies per acre 
than they do in Louisiana, only because the cane matures better, it i-s 
not unreasonable to infer that the millet, which matures here per- 
fectly, and will even make two crops in a year, will yield more and 
better sugar than the Louisiana cane. 

Beginning to cut the cane as soon as the head is fully developed, it 
may be secured for a month before it will all ripen — how long after 
that I do not know. A succession of crops might be easily arranged 
so as to insure cutting and boiling from the 1st of July — probably 
earlier — until frost. I have housed some stalks directly from the 
field, to ascertain hereafter, whether, thus treated, it will yield juice 
and make syrup next winter. 

A good sugar-mill, with three wooden rollers, may be erected for 
less than $25, and a sugar-boiler that will make 30 gallons of syrup 
a day, may be purchased in Augusta for less than $60. 
• This millet will, of course, mix with any other variety of the fam- 
ily, if planted near it. Unfortunately, I planted broom-corn about 
100 yards from mine, and shall therefore have to procure seed else- 
where for the 10 acres I intend to plant next year. 

I have now stated the chief particulars of my experiment. Every 
member of this Club is competent to draw his own conclusions. A 
single experiment — especially one in agriculture — is rarely conclu- 
sive. I may err myself, and might cause others to err, were I to ex- 
press, with any emphasis, the opinion I at present entertain of the 
value of this recently introduced plant. 

Statement of Commodore Ap Catesby Jones, of Prospect HiU, Fairfax 

county, Virginia. 

Among the field and garden seeds, I received from the Patent Office 
last season, (1855,) was a package marked "Sugar Millet," which 
from its strong resemblance to a species of millet known as "Choco- 
late Corn," in Lower Virginia, received but little attention from me ; 
nevertheless, after everything else of the sort was planted, the sugar 
millet seed were strewn in a furrow by the side of a lane, and not 
much cared for afterwards, until the frost took it, when a few heads 
only, not more than three in a hundred, had matured. 

The perfect heads being collected, all the stalks were cut down to 
the ground, and a few armfuls thrown over into the lane, where cattle 
and swine had free access. It was amazing to see with what avidity 
both devoured every part and particle, blade and stalk, making a 
clean sweep of the whole. The frosted millet was fed to the same 
animals several days in succession, and without the least abatement 
of their appetite for it. I had not a sufficient quantity to test its fat- 
tening value, but from the avidity with which the animals devoured 
it, and the large amount of saccharine matter it is now known to con- 
tain, it must be greatly superior to Indian corn as fodder, and it is 
quite as easily cultivated. 


The proper time for planting, I think, is when the earliest plar-^d 
Indian corn first appears above ground, the soil and mode of cult? <*- 
tion being similar as for broom-corn. 


The common caper (Capparis spinosa) is a deciduous-leaved shrub 
indigenous to Southern and Eastern Europe, usually found amongst 
rubbish and upon old walls. In the Grecian islands, it occurs by 
the sea-side on rocks. 

This plant is cultivated on a large scale between Marseilles and 
Toulon, in many parts of Italy, as well as on Malta, Sicily, and the 
islands of the Levant. It is propagated from cuttings, or suckers, 
which are planted about 10 feet apart, in a lean soil, without manure. 
It may also be raised, by sowing the seeds upon old wallg, where they 
will take root between the bricks, and endure for many years. The 
plants require to be sheltered from severe winds, and to be favorably 
exposed to the sun, and scarcely ever suffer from drought or heat. 
In spring, they need only one dressing ; in autumn, they are cut 
down to within 6 inches of the ground, and covered with the sur- 
rounding earth, which is raised about them on all sides. The suc- 
ceeding spring, they are laid bare to the crown of the stump, soon 
after which they throw out fresh shoots. In the early part of the sum- 
mer, they begin to flower, and thus continue in succession, until they 
are destroyed by frost or cold. In the vicinity of Toulon, this plant is 
cultivated in orchards, in the intervals, between the fig and olive trees ; 
and in the neighborhood of Paris, it is trained on low walls, and the 
shoots during the winter are laid down and covered with earth, to 
protect them from the frost. 

In the islands of the Mediterranean, and near Toulon, the flower-buds 
of the caper are gathered while very young ; for, as they enlarge, they 
decrease in value ; the collecting of these buds forms a daily occupa- 
tion for six months in the year, while the plants are in a flowering 
state. As the buds are gathered, they are thrown into a cask among 
as much salt and vinegar as is sufficient to cover them, and as the 
quantity of capers is increased, more vinegar is added. When the 
caper season closes, the buds are then sorted according to their color 
and size. The smallest and greenest being best, they are separated 
from the larger ones, and put into small casks of fresh vinegar, when 
they are ready for shipment or use. In this state, they will keep well 
for many years. In Italy, the fruit is prepared in the same way as 
the flower-buds ; both are bitterish, acrid, and aromatic. It is said 
to be a common, though pernicious practice, to put filings of copper 
in the first pickle, to give the buds a green color. 

The chief supply of the capers used in this country as an ingredient 
in sauces to be eaten with boiled fish and meats, especially mutton, 
are from Sicily and the south of France. d. J. Bi 



Statement of Robert Chisolm, of Beaufort, Beaufort district, South 


Two years ago, I imported from Paris a few caper plants, {Cap- 
paris spinosa,) at a cost of 75 cents each, when delivered here, two 
of which I planted in my garden, and they have succeeded very satis- 
factorily. The summer of 1854, I allowed all the buds to blossom, 
with the hope of getting some seed, but only one pod seemed to ripen, 
and the seeds of that, when sown, never came up. The past summer, 
I concluded to pickle the buds. This was done merely by dropping 
them into ajar of vinegar as soon as they were grown. Some of the 
first gathered were rather large, but those of a later growth were of 
a proper size. When pickled, they resemble, both in taste and ap- 
pearance, imported capers. This plant could be cultivated very readily 
in a garden, to an extent more than sufficient to supply the wants 
of a family. 

The caper here, dies, down to the root, every winter, and sprouts up 
again in the spring. No care nor protection was bestowed upon it 
during the winter, although planted in a clayey soil, which experience 
would warrant me in saying is preferable to one that is sandy. The 
blossom, also, is sufficiently conspicuous to render this plant an object 
of culture for ornament; but, in this case, the pickles must be given. 
up, as the small flower-buds are the parts used for that purpose. 



Statement of John B. Gazzo, of La Fourche parish, Louisiana. 

The cassada plant, (Janipha manihot,) on account of its nutritious 
qualities, and ready convertibility into bread, is a most valuable pro- 
duct. It was extensively cultivated by the first inhabitants of Louis- 
iana, where it grows so abundantly that a quantity of ground planted 
with it will feed more than six times as many persons as if sown with 
any of the Cereals. It sends forth numerous crooked branches, 
to a height of 4 or 5 feet, full of knots, which are easily broken. 

The cassada is propagated by planting the joints, or slips, after the 
manner of sugar-cane. The roots attain maturity in about nine 
months, although they possess the extraordinary advantage of re- 
maining uncorrupted in the ground for many years. 




Statement of H. M. Bry, of Monroe, Ouachita parish, Louisiana. 

Last spring, I planted my bene seeds (Sesamum orientate) about a 
month later than I should have done, on the 1st of May, instead 
of the 1st of "April. The consequence was, I did not get more than 
half a crop, as the pods did not mature before the 24th of October, 
when there was an unusually early "freeze," the temperature being 
as low as 30° F. 

This plant, to succeed well, should have the whole of the warm 
season, in order to mature in such a year, as the present ; and, as a 
general rule, it will always prove a certain crop, if planted early. 
Still, it will sometimes mature its pods, if planted as late as the end 
of May. 



Statement of John Spines, of Blachwater, Kemper county, Mississippi. 

I have tried the ' c Turtle-soup Bean ' ' you sent me, and find it very 
productive, bearing early in the summer, and continuing to bear until 
frost comes. The season was unfavorable for a fair trial, as we had 
no rain from the 1st of July to the 1st of September. It bore a 
little all the time; but, when the rain began, it yielded until Novem- 
ber 5th. I have saved seed enough to supply this county. 



Statement of Julius Meeker, of Westport, Fairfield county, Connecticut. 

There are devoted to the culture of onions, in this town, more than 
GO acres of land, yielding on an average 500 bushels to the acre, and 


they are a most profitable crop. We can raise theni on the same 
ground for years in succession. 

Our mode of preparing the ground is, as early as practicable in the 
spring, to cart on about 20 tons of manure to the acre, having pre- 
viously had it thrown into a heap, that it may be well heated, and 
thus kill all noxious weeds. After spreading, we plough it in, turn- 
ing it- under so deep that the harrow will not draw it to the surface. 
If it will not turn under readily, a man, following the plough, pushes 
it into the furrow. We next cover it thoroughly with a wooden- 
toothed harrow, then use the brush, leaving the ground in good order 
for raking, which is done with a common wooden hay-rake. We 
then sow from 3i to 4 pounds of seed to the acre. When the onions 
are up, we commence hoeing, and the weeding follows, which is con- 
tinued at regular intervals, as long as required. In September, the 
tops become dry and fall, when onions should be pulled and spread 
on the ground, separating the green ones from the dry. The latter 
should be raked into heaps, after a few days ; for, if allowed to remain 
too long exposed to the sun, they will assume a dull-red color, and be 
liable to injury. When well cured, remove them to a building for 
the winter, where they should be spread upon a platform, about a 
foot from the floor, giving them air, when the weather will permit. 
In topping them, cut about an inch from their bulbs. Hog-manure 
and wood-ashes are the best fertilisers for this crop. 
Onions sell here for 50 cents a bushel. 



Statement of William D. Brackenridge, of Govanstoion, Baltimore, 

county, Maryland. 

The few seeds and roots, received from you last year, turned out 
well, particularly the English "Red Cabbage." The heads raised 
from it were admitted to be the finest ever brought to the Baltimore 



Statement of John H. Rogers, San Antonio, Bexar county, Texas. 

The "Chili," or "Bird-pepper" grows in great abundance 2a 
South-western Texas, and will doubtless, in time, form a considerable 


article of commerce. When cultivated, it improves in size and quality, 
and is very pungent. As it is a perennial, when once planted with, 
care, it will spread and increase for many years ; and is an ornament 
to any garden. It commences ripening in July, and continues until 
its foliage is destroyed by frost. 



Statement of George P. Norris, of Newcastle, Newcastle county, 


Until of late, very little attention has been paid, in this county, to 
the cultivation of vegetables ; indeed, many persons, at the present 
time, are dependent for them on the "Neck," near Philadelphia. 
About eighteen months ago, I commenced market gardening, by pro- 
curing the services of an experienced "trucker," of Philadelphia 
county, and find that my garden has produced me a very handsome 
return. I gave the two acres intended for the purpose, which wer& 
very high and stony, a dressing of manure, at the rate of 30 two-horse 
cart loads to the acre, ploughing it in deep, and planted it with po- 
tatoes. I then picked off the small stones, and blasted out the large 
ones. As soon as the potatoes were dug, in the fall, I applied to 
the ground another coat of manure, turned it under, and left it until 
the spring of 1854, when I ploughed in another coat of manure, and 
sowed the vegetables, which produced a good crop. 

Last winter, instead of applying stable manure, as formerly, I 
commenced using night-soil, and am perfectly satisfied that my 
success has resulted in a great measure from its use. For the pro- 
duction of early vegetables, which should be the aim of the market 
gardener, it cannot be too highly recommended. I apply it in the 
crude state, in December, when the ground is sufficiently frozen to 
bear up the cart, spread it on the surface, and let it remain until 
spring. As soon as the weather is open enough to commence the 
operations of gardening, I work the ground with the plough and 
harrow, plant out my cabbages, and sow my radishes and beets. By 
this method, I produce fine vegetables ten days in advance of those 
who do not employ this kind of manure. I should have stated, that 
the cost of night-soil, delivered at the garden, which is about a mil& 
from the main street of Wilmington, is 20 cents a hogshead, or load. 

The most profitable crop to the marketman is cabbages, the seeds 

of which are sown in a southern border, about the 15th of September. 

In a month or six Aveeks after, the young plants are transferred to a 

frame, and covered with boards, which are removed on fine davs 



through the winter, but always replaced at evening. The plants are 
taken out as early in the spring as the ground will permit, and set 
in rows. Many of the plants are destroyed by an insect which much 
resembles the corn-worm. It eats the stalk just at the surface ofthe 
ground, but is generally discovered about an inch below, near the 

Next, in point of profit, to cabbages, are beets. They are sown very 
early in the spring, on ground prepared as described, above. We sow 
at the first indications of mild weather, but are sometimes deceived, 
and the seeds are lost. "We find it far more profitable, however, to 
run this risk, than to wait until the weather is established. 




Statement of Maston S. Gregg, of Fayetteville, Washington county, 


Increased attention is now paid to the culture of fruit in this section 
of the country. I have an orchard of 300 grafted apple-trees, which 
bear every year. Apples have not failed in this district for eighteen 
years past. From the elevation of our county, (Ozark mountain 
ridge,) they keep well until June. 

The "Russet," "Limbertwig," "Newtown Pippin," and "Ken 
tucky Milam," are our best keepers. The "Tennessee Milam," and 
"Kentucky Red," are our best early winter apples. The "Ranibo" 
is the best fall variety. 

The price of apples here is 50 cents a bushel. 

Statement %f James W. Faulkner, of Stamford, Fairfield county, 


This section of the country is well adapted to the raising of fine 
apples. The farmers are introducing all the new varieties, and one 
of them exhibited at our last county fair thirty-six sorts. 

Not much attention is given to summer apples, the "Red Astra- 
chan" being one of the best. For fall and winter varieties, the 
"Fall Pippin, ""Seek-no-further," "Canfield," "Russet," "Lady," 
and the "Siberian crab," are the most profitable. 

Within a few years,, the trees have been attacked by the borer, and 


no effectual remedy lias "been discovered, except cutting out and de- 
stroying the grub. 

Apples readily sell here from $1 50 to $2 a barrel, and cider from 
$4 to $5 a barrel. 

Statement of Adolphus Engelmann, near Belleville, St. Clair county, 


Apples are extensively cultivated in this vicinity. They are a sure 
crop, and pay well. Most orchards, however, would pay better, if 
they contained fewer summer and more winter apples, as the latter 
may be safely shipped to distant markets ; they make far better 
cider and dried fruit, and are more valuable for family use. The 
great quantity of summer apples overstocks the market, so that they 
will not pay for transportation. They rarely make good cider, and 
will not even make good vinegar ; and they drop from the trees at a 
time when they will scarcely pay for picking, as food for hogs. 

The only kind of summer apple I have grown, for several years 
past, to advantage, is called the "Queen Pippin," which, from its 
early maturity, great size, and generally fine appearance, always 
commands a fair price, and is bought by fruit merchants for shipping 
to the North. The ' ' Belle-fleur' ' also pays well, while the ' ' Red' ' and 
"Yellow June Harvest," and other kinds of summer apples, are 
drugs in the market. 

Persons engaged in drying fruit should provide themselves with 
dry-houses, as that prepared in them is better, and less liable 
to the attacks of insects, than that which has been dried in the 
sun. With such a house, fruit may be dried during any kind of 
weather, without trouble or injury to it. Last season, large quanti- 
ties of fruit, already peeled and prepared to be dried in the sun, were 
destroyed by the continued rains. 

The Avinter apples I prize most are the " Jenetting," "Newtown" 
and "Winter" Pippins, and "Flushing Spitzenberg." 

Statement of 0. W. Babbitt, of Metamora, Woodford county, Illinois. 

Sufficient time has not elapsed since the settlement of this part of 
the country, to determine what varieties of apples can be cultivated 
with the best success. There are some native seedlings wtih us, which 
are productive and promise fair. 

Of summer apples I will notice the 

Early Harvest, Sugar-loaf Pippin, 

Sine-qua-non, Red Astrachan, 

Sweet Bough, Golden Sweet, 

Caroline, American Summer Pearmain, 

Red June, 

Of autumn apples, there are the 

Rambo, ■ Red Ingestrie. 

Holland Pippin, 


Of winter apples, the 

Limbertwig, Wine Sap, 

Milam, Yellow Belle-fleur, 

Rawles' Jennetting, Ortley, or White Belle-fleur, 

Eoman Stem, Baldwin. 

Small Komanite, 

My mode of planting apple-trees is, to set them in the ground no 
deeper than they stood in the nursery, as the roots need all the 
warmth of the sun which nature provides. I cultivate the ground in 
the orchard with potatoes, corn, or beans, for four or five years, not 
allowing the earth to accumulate over the roots any deeper than at 

I remove no thrifty limbs from the trees for the first five years, 
except those which grow within 2 feet from the ground ; for healthy 
limbs promote the quickness of growth. I thin out the tops 
thoroughly every winter, after the fourth year, leaving the branches 
low, and supply the trees liberally with manure as soon as they begin 
to bear. 

Statement of B. F. Wilbur, of Monson, Piscataquis county, Maine. 

Little attention is paid to the culture of fruit in this region. 
Apples are grown to a limited extent in the older portions of the 
county, but they are generally inferior in quality. In many cases, 
where farmers have undertaken to plant orchards, they have expert 
enced much trouble in securing the trees against winter-killing. 
This might probably be avoided, in a great measure, if the system of 
mulching, and providing other protection from extreme heat and cold, 
were better understood. 

Our soil is well adapted to the growth of the apple-tree, and also 
of the pear ; and, if our cultivators would engage in the business with 
perseverance, and a proper understanding of the subject, there is no 
doubt they would, sooner or later, be successful. Fruits of various 
kinds, no doubt, might be abundantly raised in this county, and of the 
best qualities for preservation. 

Statement of C. F. Mallort, of Romeo, Macomb county, 3Iichigan. 

Apples are the principal fruit cultivated with us, as they will best 
bear transportation. The choice varieties for fall use are, the "Ram- 
bo," "Fall Pippin," and "Gravenstein ;" for winter, "Baldwin," 
"Hubbardston Nonsuch," "Northern Spy," "Newtown Pippin," 
"Rhode Island Greening," "Roxbury Russet," "Swaar," and 
"Esopus Spitzenberg." 

Good winter apples usually sell here from $1 to $1 50 a barrel. 
Cost of transportation to New York, $1 a barrel. 


Statement of George Wheaton, of Detroit, Wayne county, Michigan. 

Apples are the principal fruit cultivated in this county ; not that 
many other kinds of fruit will not succeed well, but because apples 
usually bear a crop without any other cultivation than setting out the 
trees, and leaving them to take their chance. They are probably of 
more importance than any other fruit in this State, and it is generally 
conceded that an orchard of apple-trees will pay more per acre than 
any other crop. They are rarely injured by cold, and the fruit is 
seldom affected by spring frosts. 

Apples of all the leading varieties do well here. It was admitted 
by good judges, at our last State Fair, that ours were larger and finer 
than the same varieties grown in Western New York. The chief dis- 
advantage in culture is the apple-worm, which lays its egg in the 
blossom-end of the young fruit, causing it to fall before it is ripe. 
In some orchards, in this vicinity, much damage is done by this in- 
sect, and occasionally nearly half of the crop is destroyed. The only 
remedy for this evil that I know of, however imperfect, is to gathei 
up the fruit thus affected, as fast as it falls, and feed it to the hogs. 

The larger kinds of apples usually sell, in the fall, for 50 cents a 
bushel, and the ordinary ones for 25 cents. 

Statement of John Hebron, of La Grange, Warren county, Mississi%)pi< 

The best apples for this region are the "Early Harvest," "Vir- 
ginia May," "Virginia Red," "June Red," "Astrachan," "Early 
Red," and "Margaret," all ripening in June, and free from the 
diseases incident to most apples. 

The summer varieties are the "Holland Pippin," "Gravenstein," 
"Hebron's Surprise," "Gloria Mundi," "Webster Pippin," "Spice 
Pippin," "Yellow Belle-fleur," "Horse Apple," "Wine Apple," 
"Summer Pearmain," and "Leatherberry's Favorite," all hardy 
kinds, and well adapted to any latitude south of Nashville. 

The hardiest winter kinds are' the "Spark's Late," "Terrie Late," 
"Wine Sap," "Mississippi Winter Sweet," "Esopus Spitzenberg," 
and "Marshall county." . Some of the varieties are purely of South- 
ern origin. 

Statement of Samuel J. Fletcher, near Winchester, Clarke county, 


Apples are our principal fruit, and grow well. They bring, in 
market, from 50 cents to $1 a bushel. 

Statement of D . R. Stillman, of Alfred Centre, Alleghany county, 

New York. 

Apples are the principal fruit cultivated here, and can be profita- 
bly raised, either for market or for feeding stock. 


The varieties most esteemed are the following: — 

Early Harvest, Newtown Pippin, 

Sweet Bough, Esopus Spitzenberg, 

Fall Pippin, Baldwin, 

Golden Pippin, Northern Spy, 

Golden Sweet, Swaar, 

Porter, Rhode Island Greening, 

Hawley, Roxbury Russet. 

Good apples usually sell here from 25 cents to 50 cents a bushel, 
and can be transported to New York for 79 cents per 100 pounds. 

Statement of Joseph Haines, Jotham S. Holmes, Joiin A. Howe, 
Oliver Green, Jr., and A. F. Dickinson, being that portion of their 
report on apples, to the Katouah Farmers' Club, West Chester 
county, New York. 

The apple is the principal fruit raised in our vicinity for market. 
The "Summer Bough," for summer use, "Fall Pippin," for autumn, 
and the "Rhode Island Greening" and "Russet," for winter, are 
most largely produced, though many other kinds are cultivated. 

The prices of apples, the present season, are $1 50 per barrel for 
"Summer Boughs," $1 75 for "Fall Pippins," and $1 25 for "Rhode 
Island Greenings." Cost of transportation to New York, 17 cents a 

Statement of Amos Harry, of Farm Valley, Polk county, Oregon 


I have determined to send you a few observations on the apples of 
the Willamette valley. When I arrived here in the fall of 1845, 
there was an orchard at Fort Vancouver, and a few small ones among 
the French settlers in this valley ; but they were composed entirely 
of seedling fruit. They were said to be from Canada. The trees 
bore early, and were very full, but the apples were small, and much 
inferior in appearance and flavor to those raised in Western Pennsyl- 
vania and Virginia, forty-five or fifty years ago. From the diminu- 
tive size of the crab-apple, which is not larger than a common black 
haw, the opinion generally prevailed that the Willamette valley, 
although so admirably adapted to the raising of small grain and 
grass, would never be a good fruit-growing country. 

It was not until the fall of 1847, so far as I have been able to 
learn, that any of the cultivated fruits of the United States were in- 
troduced into this county. Then Messrs. Llewellen and Meek came 
to the valley from Iowa, bringing with them, planted in a wagon, in 
a bed, prepared for the purpose, fifty varieties of the choicest apples 
cultivated in the Western States, a good variety of cherries, pears, 
plums, and peaches, and quite a stock of apple, pear, and plum seeds. 
They set the trees, and planted the seeds, on the east bank of the 
Willamette river, near Milwaukie. They purchased, that winter, 
some seedling nurseries, and, by budding, for the first two years, 


making every bud count, they were able, in 1849-50, not only to set 
out a large orchard themselves, but to sell many thousand trees to 
settlers in various parts of the valley. Most of the trees that have 
been well cared for have borne fruit for three seasons, which, in size, 
beauty, and flavor, will compare favorably with the finest specimens 
of the same varieties grown in the Eastern States, thus demonstra- 
ting the admirable adaptation of our county to the growth of choice 

Statement of D . Minis, of Beaver Plain, Beaver county, Pennsylvania. 

Within a few years, considerable exertion has been made, in this 
part of the State, to procure the best varieties of apples, as well as of 
other kinds of fruits, suited for the various purposes and seasons. 
The apple and peach are the most esteemed, on account of their hardi 
ness and certainty of production. 

Of apples, we have the "June," the "Early York," the "Maid- 
en's Blush," the "Queen," and the "Harvest Sweeting" for summer 
use; the "Gate," the Golden Pippin," the "Cooper," the "Roman 
Beauty," and the "Pawpaw Sweeting," for fall and early winter ; the 
"Striped Seek-no-further," the "Newtown Pippin," the "Green 
Rambo," the "Rhode Island Greening," the "Belle-fleur," the 
"English Rambo," and the "Rock Remains," for winter and spring 

The price of apples, the past season, has been from 15 to 40 centf 
a bushel. 

Statement of J. A. Carpenter, of Waukesha, Waukesha county, 


For several years past, the scale insect has been on the increase in 
this vicinity, in our orchards, and some of the trees are completely 
covered with it. The best known remedy is a mixture of equal parts 
of tar and linseed oil, applied moderately warm, with a brush, to the 
trunk and larger limbs. 

If apple-trees are planted on a suitable soil, and taken proper care 
of, they will not become infested with these insects. 

Statement of Robert W. Baylor, of Wood End, near Charlestoion, Jef- 
ferson county, Virginia. 

Apples are the principal fruit produced in this county. They grow 
to great perfection, with little or no cultivation. The trees generally 
bear full on alternate years. 

Our summer varieties are the "Yellow June," "Vestal," "Grub," 
"Golden Sweet," "Doctor Red," and "Summer Pearmain." 

The autumn varieties are the "Gravenstein," "Rambo," "Blen- 
heim Orange," "Belle-fleur," "Fall Pippin," "Cat Head," and 

The winter varieties are the "Newtown Pippin," "Green Pippin," 


" Lady Finder," "Sheep Nose," "Eusset," "Black Coal," "Prior's 
Red," " Limbertwig," "Phoenix," " Abram," " Jennetting," 
"Vandervere," and "Smoke House." 



Statement of C. W. Babbitt, of Metamora, Woodford county, Illinois. 

The pear has not generally succeeded very well in this section, 
being somewhat subject to blight. There are trees, however, some 
20 miles south of this, that have been planted more than twenty 
years, and have borne well. I have a small orchard of fifty trees, most 
of which have been planted five years. Several of them, -growing 
where the ground was highly manured with stable compost, have 
been badly blighted, while those only grown in the turf, and plenti- 
fully dressed every year with coal ashes, are all thrifty. Some 
twelve of them have flowered for two years, but have borne but little 

The varieties referred to are the 

Marie Louise, Bergamot, 

Pound, Vicar of Wakefield, 

Virgouleuse, Bell, 

Surprise, Early Summer, 

Gratiolet, Butter, 

Golden Drop, Seckel, 

Bartlett, Prettiman. 

Statement of George Wheaton, of Detroit, Wayne county, Michigan. 

Pears usually succeed well in this county, especially in the vicinity 
of Detroit. We have many fine old specimens, planted by the early 
French settlers, from 1£ to 2 feet in diameter, which generally yield 
a heavy crop, and sell in the market for about $2 a bushel. Pears, 
on quince stocks commonly .do well. I have trees which have been 
transplanted four years, that were two years old when removed, and 
which, last season, produced half a bushel to each tree. 

The last winter was very severe upon pears in this vicinity ; yet, 
my trees were not injured, though the fruit-buds were half destroyed 
by the cold, the glass showing the temperature at 22° F. below zero, 
and remaining so for two weeks. 


Statement of John Hebron, of La Grange, Warren county, Mississippi, 

The "Madeline," " Jargonelle," and "Skinless" pears are the best 
early varieties. The Madeline ripens early in June, and, though 
small, is a delicious fruit. The Jargonelle ripens from the middle to 
the last of June, and is a fine pear, except that it is liable to rot at 
the core, when it ripens on the tree. The Skinless is a superior early 
variety, ripening late in June. It is worth $6 a bushel, at Vicksburg. 

The "Bartlett," and "Beurre Diel" are the best summer and au- 
tumn varieties, and will ripen in the house. They can be gathered 
as soon as they attain a full size, or even sooner, and ripen so as to 
retain a delicious flavor. They bring from $6 to $8 a bushel, and 
can be safely shipped to any market within 2,000 miles, by steam 
transportation. I have 100 acres of these two varieties, and have 
shipped enough, this season, to bring $5,000. 

The "Eastern Beurre," "Winter Nelis," and "Mammoth" pears 
are my best winter varieties, which keep until late in the winter. 



Statement of Adolphus Engelmann, near Belleville, St. Clair county, 


Many persons, in this section, are turning their attention to the cul 
tivation of peaches, but they are apparently not aware of the disad- 
vantage of planting seedling trees, without knowing what kind of 
fruit they will bear. Though it may be desirable that some persons 
should be at the trouble of doing this, in order to obtain new varie- 
ties, yet they will find it to be more profitable to procure budded trees, 
of choice varieties, as they require no more space, nor culture than 
the most ind